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The Connoisseur 

An Illustrated Magazine 
For Collectors 

Edited by J. T. Herbert Baily 

Vol. XXV. 


Published by OTTO LIMITED, Carmelite House, Carmeliti Streki I < 
rial anl. Advertisemen r Ofkices : 95, Tempi e ( i- vmbers, Tempi e Avenue, London, K ' : 






Articles and Notes. p- ; 

Armourers of Italy, The. Parts I. and II. By 

Charles ffoulkes 28, 

Black Basaltes Ware, The Evolution of. By 

E. N. Scott 

Cambridge College Bookplates. By F. W. Burgess 

Carfrae Alston Collection at the Royal Glasgow 

Institute of Fine Arts. By Percy Bate . . 

Caricaturist of the Thirties—" IB." The. By 

Egan Mew 
China Village. A Little. By Gertrude Crowe 
Dolls, Old. By Mrs. F. Nevill Jackson 
Door-knockers, Some Artistic. By H. B. Wester- 
Earrings, A Collection of. By Mrs. Herbert Ben- 

French Illustrated Books. By J. H. Slater 

Pastelhsts. Some. By L. Lewis Hind .. 
German Emperor's Collection of Pictures. By 

J. Kirby Grant 
Knitting Implements of Cumberland and West- 
moreland. By J. C. Varty-Smith 
Lacquer. Old. Part I. Applied to Eighteenth 
Century French Furniture. By Egan Mew 
" Lesser George." By Guy Francis Laking 
Mahogany, The Years of. Part VIII. By Hal- 

dane Macfall 

Mediaeval Ivories in the Liverpool Museum. By 

P. Nelson, M.D 

Miniatures, Some Recently Discovered, by Robert- 
son. Plimer. Cosway, Engleheart. and 

Smart. By Dudley Heath 

Montgolfiers, The. By Mrs. F. Nevill Jackson . . 
Portsmouth, The Town of. By Leonard Wil- 

Pratt Ware. By G. Woolliscroft Rhead 
Silhouettes, Mr. Francis Wellesley's Collection. 

By Wevmer Jay Mills 

Snuff-boxes, Some Royal. By W. B. Boulton . . 

Stoner George. Collection of Figures and Groups 

by the Ralph Woods of Staffordshire : 

Part I. By Frank Falkner 

Surrey Manor House. A. Part I. By Leonard 
' Willoughby 

Walton, Henry, Artist. By Edmu 

Wantage's. Lady, Collection of Pi< 
Lady Victoria Manners 

Avebury Font 

Balloon Plate, A. By A. II. 

Bow China 

Chair, Van Riebeck's 

Chimu Pottery, A Collection of 

Colour Plates, Notes on 

Diamond Earrings. By E. A. Jones 




Articles and Notes — Notes — continued. page 

"Duchessof Milan," by Holbein 248 

Gosshawk, Portrait of a. By W. H. Patterson . . 24S 

Goya Portrait, A I2 5 

Hamilton, Lady, by Romney. By Katharine 


Hatchards' Bookshop 

Jewellery, Old Italian. By E. N.J 

Lace, A Remarkable Piece of. By Mrs. F. N. 

Lambeth Delft Plate, " Charles II." By A. H. 
Lectern in the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. 

By J. Tavenor-Perry I2 4 

Lowestoft Mug I22 

Majolica Relief '9 1 

Napoleon at St. Helena ' 86 

Napoleonic Snuff-box . . • • • • • • 47 

National Gallery, A New Purchase. " April 

Love" 46 

Notes and Queries 55> Ito - l8 °' 2 4 6 

Reliquary. A French. By J. Tavenor-Perry .. 124 
Russell. John, R.A. Loan Collection at the Graves 

Galleries 2 5 2 

Russian Dinner Service, A Remarkable Historic 


Shepherd Bros.' Exhibition 255 

Wedgwood Exhibition. The. By A. H 254 

Jug. A Rare. By A. H 251 

Wine Glasses, Old English. By Herbert W. L. 

Way l8 7 


Bate, Percv. The Carfrae Alston Collection . . 87 
Bennett, Mrs. Herbert. A Collection of Earrings 20 
Boulton, W. B. Some Royal Snuff-boxes .. 93 
Burgess Fred. W. Cambridge College Book- 
plates J 7- 

Churcher, Walter. Pewter Marks and Old Pewter 

Ware (A Review) 4 s 

Crowe, Gertrude. A Little China Village. . .. 235 

Esdaile, Katharine. Portrait of Lady Hamilton, 

by Romney .. .. .. •• ..183 

Falkner, Frank. The George Stoner Collection of 
Figures and Groups by the Ralph Woods of 
Staffordshire. Part I. . . . . 1 59 

Farrer, Edmund, F.S.A. Henry Walton, Artist.. 130 
ffoulkes, Charles. The Armourers of Italy. 

Parts I. and IT. .. .. •• 28, 167 

Grant J. Kirby. The Collection of Pictures of 

1 lis Imperial Majesty the German Emperor 3 
H., A. 

Balloon Plate, A l 2 3 

Lambeth Delft Plate, A 46 

Wedgwood Exhibition, The 254 

Jug, A Rare 251 


Authors — continued. page 

Heath, Dudley. Some Recently Discovered Minia- 
tures .. .. .. .. •• •■ 2 5 

Hind, L. Lewis. Some French Pastellists .. 242 

Jackson, Mrs. F. Nevill. 

I 1 . \ ] .' . . ; ! ' ■ I ' 1 . . ■ • ■ ■ 1 - I 

Mi. iii •■ ill" 11 -. The . . . . . . • • • • '5 

Old Dolls 23> 

Old Italian Jewellery 185 

[ona 1 Vlfri 1 Dial 1 Earrings . , 122 

Laking, Guy Francis. 1 ■ "•• • • 237 

H ildane. 

Decoration and Furniture of English 
ons during the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centui ie \ Ri 1 iew I .. 96 

The Years of Mahogany. Part VIII 149 

\ , tori -. Lad) Wantage's Collec- 
tion " '95 

Mew 1 
Old Lacquei applied to Eighteenth Century 

Furniture . . . . ■ ■ 

The Caricaturist of the Thirties— "JHB'' •• 101 

Mills Weymei |ay. Mr. Francis Wellesley's Col- 
lection <it Silhouettes . . • . • ■ - ' 5 
Nelson, Philip M.I). Tin- Mediaeval Ivories in the 

1 iverpi mi Museum . . . . • • • • 106 

Patterson, W. H. Portrait of a Gosshawk .. 248 

Rhead, G. Woolliscroft. Pratt Ware .. .. 35 

■VI il Paper Marks .. 49 

: 1 \\. 1 he P11 tin" Sales of 1909 .. .. 113 

1 S. How to Appreciate Prints. (A Review) 49 

.,,,, 1 \. l!i- 1 volution of Black Basaltes 

Ware ■• 79 

Slater, J. Herbert. 

Honk Sales of 1909 119 

Frem h [llu trated Books . . . . . . 175 

1 "\ ' Perry, J 

1 1 1 . 1,1 n ol ss. i Giovanni e Paolo, Venn e . . 1 J,) 

French Reliquary, A .. .. .. ..124 

ie Knitting Implements 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland . . . . 42 

i 1 lid I ngli h Wine Classes .. 1S7 
: am, II. B. Some Artistic Door-knot ki 1 

Ho . . . . . . 67 

The Town nt Porl mouth . . .. . . . . 131 


1 1 odenl 64, 1 -•■- 

(Hi ral Iii 1 XVIII. Sept- 
■ i, tobei \W 1. November 
XXXVI. December 

Parts I. and II. 28, 167 

1 ollege [72 

- ■ 


■ ■■■ 11 on. By I )r. 1 iiieme . . . . 250 

? 2 

Eden 253 

• ■ 253 

.. 19' 

■ 1 

during the . nth 


Books — Articles and Reviews continued. 1 

French Pastellists of the Eighteenth Century. 

By Ilaldane Macfall.. 
How to Appreciate Prints. By Frank Weitcn- 


"I.acis." By Carita 

Les Primitifs Flamands : Vol. II. By Fierens 

Gevaert 1 val Paper Marks. By Harold Bayley 

Memorial Rings. By F. A. Crisp 

" National Gallery, The." By P. G. Konody, 

M. W. Brockwell, and F. W. Lippmann 
Pewter Marks and Old Pewter Ware. Bv 

Christopher A. Markham 
Romance ol Fra Filippo Lippi, The. By A. J. 

St. France in Italian Legend and Art. By Arnold 


School of Madrid, The. Bv A. de Beruete y 


Stuart Book of Psalms, A . . 
World's Great Pictures, The 




China (see nude) heading — Pottery, Porcelain, an 

Collect ions. 

Carfrae Alston Collection, The 

German Emperor's Collection of Pictures 

Portsmouth, The Town of 

Russell, John, R.A. Loan Collection at the 
Graves Galleries 

Silhouettes, Mr. Francis Wellesley's Collection of . . 

Surrey Manor House. A 

Wantage's, Lady, Collection of Pictures 

Dolls, Old 

Some Artistic. 


Engravings and Prints. 

Caricaturist of the Thirties—" HB " 

Enchanted Island, The. By G. H. Phillips, after 

F. Danby 

How to Appreciate Prints. (A Review) 
Mezzotint 111 Colour. A New. By A. J. Skrimshire, 

after Gainsborough 
Napoleon at St. Helena 


D ration and Furniture of English Mansions 

liming the Seventeenth ami Eighteenth 
Centuries." By Francis Lenygon. (A 
French Reliquary, A . . 
I ai quel 1 ild applied to Eighteenth Century 

French Furniture 
Mahogany 1 Veai oi Part \ III. The Rise 
it the 1 hippendales, 1730-40 

Wllle (.Iii 01 

iwl A 

K . 11 1« Miili.i \ .1! in the Liverpool Mi 

1 arring \ 1 ollei tion oi Diamond.. 
Italian [1 ivellei 5 . ( >M 

M I"- Carter 

Memorial Ring B) F.A.Crisp. \ Review) 


I. aii: and Embroidery. 

"Lacis." ByCarita. (A Review) 

Remarkable Piece of Lace, A 

Lei tern m Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice., 


Some Recently Discovered Miniatures by Robert- 
son. Plimer, Cosway, Engleheart, and 
Smart . . 

Montgolfiers. The 

Paper Marks. Mediaeval. (A Review) 
Pewter Marks and Old Pewter Ware. 

" April Love." At National Caller; 
Carfrae Alston Collection at Glasgow 
French Pastellists, Some 
German Emperor's Collection 
Goya Portrait, A 
Hamilton, Lady, by Romney, A 

Portrait of 
Holbein's " Duchess of Milan " 
School of Madrid , The. (A Review) 
Shepherd Bros.' Exhibition.. 

Note on tli 

Pictures — continued. 

Walton, Henry, Artist 139 

Wantage's. Lady. Collection of Pictures . . . . 195 

Plated Ware (see under heading Gold, Silver, 
and Plated Ware). 

Pottery, Porcelain, and China. 
Black Basaltes Ware, The Evolution of .. 

Bow^ China 186 

Bristol Delft Plate 123 

Chimu Pottery, A Collection of .. .. .. 125 

China Village, A Little 235 

Lambeth Delft Plate, A Charles II i< 

Lowestoft Mug . . . . . . . . .122 

Majolica Relief .. .. .. .. ..191 

Pratt Wan 35 

Russian Dinner Service, A Remarkable Historic 1S9, 190 

Wedgwood Exhibition, The 254 

Jug. A Rare 251 

\\ Is, Ralph. The George Stoner Collection of 

Figures and Groups. Parti. .. .. 159 


Snuff-box, Napoleonic . . . . . . . . 47 

Snuff-boxes, Some Royal . . . . . . . . 93 


Avebury Font . . . . . . . . . . 52 

Silhouettes, Mr. Francis Wellesley's Collection of . . 215 


Armour and Arms. 

Armourers of Italy, The. 

Sword, An 


Artists and Engravers. 

Blommers, B. J. The Milkmaid : Morning Call . 

Bosboom, Johannes. Church Interior 

Both. Jan. Italian Landscape 

Boucher, Francois. Study of a Head 

Cameron, D. Y. Fairy Lilian 

Conti, B. de. Fra Sisto Delia Rovere 

Coques, G. Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, afti 

Van Dyck .. .. ' 

Cosway, R. Mrs. Fllhott 
Cranach, Lucas. 

The Baptism of Christ 

The Judgment of Paris 
Danby, F. The Enchanted Island. By G. F 


Demarteau. Le Faucon. Alter Huet (?) 
Engleheart, G. 

Col. Elliott 

Portrait of a Gentleman 

I aber. Charles 11., after Lely 

Francken, Franz. Adoration of the Shepherds . 
Goya. Duchess Alvarez de Toledo and Daughter 
Harris. Race for the Great St. Leger Stakes 

1836. After Pollard 
Hobbema, M. The Waterfall 

Artists and Engravers — continued. 

Holbein. Henry VIII. Panel Portrait .. .. 74 

Hondecoeter, M. de. Peacock, Peahen, and Birds 200 

Hoogh, P. de. Courtyard of an Inn . . . . 195 

Hoppner, John. Lady Langham. By C. Wilkin 

Frontispiece — / V, cml'ci 

Huet (?), Le Faucon. By Demarteau .. .. 213 

Hughes, Arthur. " April Love " .. .. .. 46 

Keyser, T. de. Man on Horseback . . . . 17 

Lancret, N. Blind-Man's Buff 6 

Largillierc. " Cardinal York."' By A. J. Skrim- 

shire . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 

Le Brun, Madame \ igee. 

Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon, Duchesse 

•in. leans a 

Marie Antoinette 

■lv. Sir P. 

Barbara. Counter ( astlem.n 

Pl('v llttlil.'ll /'/,(.', - I 1 

Frontispiece — November 

Charles 11. 
Maris, James. 
Matsys, Quen 

I'.v Fabei 


A Quiet Berth : Mor: 
1. Head of Christ 

Presentation Plate 
Mauve, Anton. The Herdwife 
Murillo, B. E. Virgin and Child .. 
Menageot, A. A Prospect oi Portsmouth. 

G. Scotin 

Nattier J. M. 
Marie Leczinska, Queen of France 
1 ' 1 almont 

. . So 


Artists and Engravers— continnra. 

Nocret. Jean. Louise Francoise de la Batime le 
Blanc, Duchesse de la Valhere 

Presentation Plate— November 

, J. Charles. Marquess Cornwallis, K.G. 

\tt, i ii. Walton ■• ■• •• •■ '43 

,.,,1. \ ran. Still Life : BackCourtofa House 198 

J. van. A Country Inn 2 °5 

1 b. lit. < hampetre •• •• ■• 7 

Pember R Landscape .. •■ .... "2 

\. Frederick the Great and his Sister 
Wilhelmine .. •• •• •• •■ 9 

PhilUps G. H. The I n an1 I I land. Alter 

Danby .. ■■ * 49 

Plimer, A. Edward Woodville Rickctts . . ■• 26 

Pollard. J as. 

Newmarkel Races Prescntati 

r , E01 tl 1 Greal St. 1 egei 51 I ,: 

D Ii, ii JohnTait. By Vndrev, Roberl 

Ramsay, Allan. Mrs. Ramsay 

Rembi ndt Port i am Ud Lady 

Sir J. 
Hoare and Child Presentation Plat, Sept, 

: COUnt Mtlinrpf . . 

Rizi, Juan. 

t, d to.] Portrait ot a Bo 

n Plate — December 



,„.,!, Ri hi . . . ■ • • • • 5 1 

Andrew. John Tait. Aftei Sir H. 

R burn .. •• 2 S 

i , an , 1 ,i..ii.l R01 1 ■ 1 mdscap 
\ p r0 p , 1 , ,,i Portsmoi 

\ |. 1 ardinal York. 


Smart. J. Portrait "I a Lady 2 7 

Smith, |. R. I 1 "- I ruit Barrow. Utei H. Walton i 59 

.1 I n l-.M'Htl. Night '97 

, .,,, | m 1 in the Uert I ad Cubs .. 91 

,i , ngl LaFemmeJ douse.. 204 

I ■ ; 1 i Frederii ka Sophie 

Imina 8 3 

[Toy, J. 1 ' D ! , """ olLove -- ■ ■ 8 

Van de Vel ' ' " kin - 2( ' 2 

1 ,,,i! ii. urn m 1 Mari 1 By G. O ques 1 m 

1 I 

.. 143 
Edward ] 

I ■ I, on . . 


. . 






.. 157 



Bookplates, Cambridge College .. •■ 172-3 

Books, French Illustrated. (Five illustrations) . . 

Frontispiece to " The Triumphs of Temper " and 

•' Serena in the Boat of Apathy " . . 183. 184 

Dolls, Old. (Ten specimens) .. 
Door-knockers. Some Artistic. (T\ 


Engravings, Etchings and Prints. 

" Cardinal York." By Alfred J. Skrimshire 

After LargiHiere 
Caricaturist of the Thirties—" H6." The. Ilivi 

sketches) ' 

Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. By G. Coques 

After Van Dyck 

II. By Faber. After Lely .. •• 133 

Marquess Cornwallis, K.G. By J. 1 Igborne. 

After H. Walton M3 

Enchanted Islam], The. By G. H. Phillips. After 

I Danbv J 4 tJ 

Fruit Barrow The. Bv J. R. Smith. After II. 

Walton .." '39 

I ady Langham. Bv C. Wilkin. After Hoppner 

Frontispiece — December 
Bv Demarteau. After Huet (?) .. 213 


Le Faucon. 

Napoleon at St. Helena • '< So 

Newmarket Races. By James Pollard 

Presentation Plate — December 

Portsmouth, A Prospect of. By G. Scotin. After 

A. Menageot . . . . . ■ • • . . 132 

Race E01 the Great St. Leger Stake,, 1 s s 6. By 

Harris. After Pollard 53 

Silver Age, The. By J. R. Smith. After II. Wal- 
ton .. '4' 

Young Maid. The, and the Old Sailor. I'.s J. 

'Walker and Bartolozzi. After 11. Walton [46 

Fans IMontgolners) .. .. .. ■■ •• '9 

Cabinet, Black and Gold Lacquer, at Sutton Placi 

Chair, Van Riebeck's (Dutch) 19" 

CI, .ins Various (1720-1735). (Mahogany anil 

Walnut) 151-156 

M 1 Panelled Room, Early Georgian, at 

HattonGarden 148 

Girandole, Carved Wood, with Gesso Enrichment 97 
1 ,,.|iiei. Old: applied to Eighteenth Centuiv 

French Furniture. (Seven examples) 206-212 
Press, Carved < >ak al Sutton Pla< e .. ..77 

Settee Walnut (1720) . . . . . . ..150 

Mahogany Chippendale (1735) .. ■• '54 

1 m. m, 1 arved Wood. Gilt, and Marble Too en- 
closed in ( hased Brass Frame . . 96 
with Gesso Enrichment . . • • • • "-»' 

\\ ilnm (1720) 149 




187, 188 
.. 248 

I •.1,1. 1.. I 

M.-lia-val, in 

the Liver] 1 Mi 




Earrings. (Various Specimens) . . . . 20-24 

Diamond .. .. .. .. .. 123 

Italian Jewellery, Old. (Six examples) .. .. 185 

" Lesser George " of the Order of the Garter 237-240 

Knitting Implements. (Various specimens) 


Lace and Embroidery. 

A Remarkable Piece . . . . . . . . ..12 

Creation, The . . .. .. .. .. ..12 

Lectern in Church ol SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice 1 - 

Marriage Certificate (Copy) of Charles II 15 


Elliott, Colonel. By G. Engleheart .. .. : 

,, Mrs. By R. Cosway : 

Henry VIII. After Holbein ; 

Portrait of a Gentleman. By G. Engleheart 

,, Lady. By J. Smart.. .. .. : 

Queen Elizabeth. After Zucchero. . ., ; 

Ricketts, Edward W. By A. Plimer . . . . : 

Tait, John. By Andrew Robertson. After Sir 

Henry Raeburn . . . . . . . • '■ 

Pewter Spoon Rack, Eighteenth Century . . . . < 
Pictures and Drawings. 

Barn Girl, The. By H. Walton 1. 

Bridgman, Edward, Senior and Junior. By H. 

Walton 1 . 

Calm, A : Soldiers Embarking. By W. Van de 


Church Interior. By Johannes Bosboom . . 
Country Inn, A. By Isaak van Ostade .. 
Courtyard of an Inn. By Pieter de Hoogh 

Dance, The. By Ant. Watteau 

Declaration of Love, The. By J. F. de Troy 
Don Tiburcio de Redin. ByJuanRizi .. 
Duchess Alvarez de Toledo and Daughter. Bv 


Fairy Lilian. By D. Y. Cameron 

Fete Champetre. By J. B. Pater 

Fra Sisto Delia Rovere. By Benardino de Conti 
Frederick the Great and his Sister Wilhelmine. 

By Ant. Pesne 
Gibbon, Edward. By H. Walton 
Grand Rocky Landscape. By Jacob van Ruysdael 
Head of Christ. By Quentin Matsys 

Presentation Plate — Dect 

Herd wife. The. By Anton Mauve 

Italian Landscape. By Jan Both 

Judgment of Paris, The. By L. Cranach 
La Femme Jalouse. By D. Temers. jun. 

Landscape. By R. Pembery 

Milkmaid. The : Morning Call. By B. J. Blom- 

On the Alert: Lioness and Cubs. By J. M. Swan 
Peacock, Peahen, and Birds. By Melchior de Hon- 

Petty, Lord Henry, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne. 

By H. Walton 

Portrait of a Boy. Attributed to Juan Kizi 

an Old Lady. By Rembrandt 
Princesse Talmont. By J. M. Nattier 
River Waveney, near Beccles. By H. Walton .. 

11. 1 1 1 


Pictures and Drawings — continued. 

Still Life : Back Court of a House. By A. Van 

Ostade 2 °5 

Study of a Head. By Boucher ?4 3 

Twelfth Night. By Jan Steen 197 

Tyrell, Rev. Chas. By H. Walton 145 

Virgin and Child. By Bartolome Esteban Murillo 201 
Watermill, The. By Meindert Hobbema . . 199 

Pi win, including Colour-Prints and Engravings. 
Al thorp. Viscount. By Sir J. Reynolds .. .. 99 

"Cardinal York" (Henry Benedict Blomens 

Stuart). By Alfred' J. Skrimshire. After 

Largilliere . . . • • • • ■ . . 22; 

Castlemaine. Barbara, Countess of. By Sn Peter 

I.ely .. .. Frontispiece — November 

Cornwallis, Marquess. By J. Ogborne. After 

H. Walton 
Head of Christ. By Quentin Matsys 


Ion re, Mrs., and CI Fami 

Presentation Plati -December 
Bv Sir J. Reynolds 

Presentation I'hit, September 
The. Bv Van Dvck 

Frontispiece — Septembei 

"Hudibras." By Ralph Wood 157 

Langham, Lady. By C. Wilkin. After J. Hopp- 

ner. R.A. .. .. Frontispiece — December 

LeFaucon. By Demarteau. After Huet (?) .. 213 
Louise Francoise de la Baume le Blanc, Duchesse 
de la Valliere. By Jean Nocret 

Presentation Plate November 
Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon, Duchesse 

d 'Orleans. By Vigee le Brun ... .. H 

Man on Horseback. By T. de Keyser . . . . 17 

Marie Antoinette. By Vigee le Brun 

Presentation Plate -Octobei 
Marie Leczinska, Queen of France. By J. M. 

Nattier lSl 

Princess Fredericka Sophie Wilhelmina. By 

J. F. A. Tischbein 83 

Newmarket Races. By James Pollard 

Presentation Plate — Decembei 
Race for the Great St. Leger Stakes, 1836. By 

Harris. After Pollard .. .. .. 53 

Ramsay, Mrs. Allan. By Allan Ramsay . . . . 117 

Study of a Head. By Boucher 
Sutton Place, near Guildford From 

Portsmouth Corporation Regalia. iVc. 
Pottery, Porcelain and China. 

Black Basaltes Ware. (Various pieces) 
Bow China. Figures and Groups . . 
Bristol Delft Plate, 1784 .. .. 

China Village, A Little. (Twenty mode 

Faience Plates and Dish 

Lambeth Delft Plate, Charles II 

Lowestoft Mug 
Majolica Polychrome Relief . . 
Pratt Ware. (Various specimens) . . 
Russian Dinner Service. (Medallion, Catharine It. 
and 1 Piece) 

Sevres Teacups and Saucers, &c 

Staffordshire Figures and Groups, by the Ralpl 
Woods. The George Stoner Collection 
(Various specimens) . . . . . . 1 

Wedgwood Teapot 2:4 

Jug. A Rare 251 

Reliquary, A French 124 

• 243 



- 3 5 ■ 



50 [66 



Font in S. James' Church, Avebury 
S. Mary's Bourne 
Silhouette- (Profile Portraits— twenty 
Snuff-box, Napoleonic . . 

• • 253 
.. 47 

Snuff-boxes, Some Royal. Fourteen specimens 
Stuart Book of Psalms with Needlework Cover 
Sutton Place : Halls, Dining Room, Panels, Fir 
places, Stained Glass, Tapestry 





Annals of Sporting and F; , Gazette, The .. 63 


I ,ife 'it .i Sportsman . . . • • • ■ • 62 

John Mytton 62 

Audubon's Birds of America .. •• •• 63 
Bibli I 1 lie Breeches' 1 60 and [599 61, 63 

Biblia Sai ra Gracia, 1518 .. ■ • • ■ •■ 62 

., Polyglotta, 1514 62 

Book "i 1 ommon I 'rayer, 1786 . . . . . • 62 

,, Sales of 1909 "9 

I;,,a mi nun ad I urn 1 i iten iensis Ordinis. . ..61 

Burns, Robert. Ay Waukin 'O. Original MS. . . 62 

Carey's Life in Paris . . . . .. • • ■ • 62 

Catlin's North American Indian Portfolio.. .. 62 

Chapman's Architectura Navali Mercatoria, 1768 61 

Cokaj ne' 1 omplete Peerage . . .. • • 62 

Columna's H ia, 1554 . . .. 62 

Danci of] ife, The 62 

1 • oi 1 »eath, The . . . . . . 62 

Works . . . . . . . . • . 61 

Doral I • Baisers, 1770 . . . . • 62 

Dugdale. Monasl Vnglicanum .. ■. 61 

1 D dof 1 ibrarj . . .. 61 

Grov Hi men .. 62 

Glanville's De Proprietatibu Rerum, 1535 .. 61 
Patricl Historii oi Pi ini e Robei 1 

[615 02 

r-Gcneral ii M W 1 Disj oi 

1 \ . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Gould's Bird lin 63 

Haden Seymour. Etudes a 1'Eau-Forte.. .. 62 

1 G and Wild Animals oi 

hern Africa . . .. .. . . 62 

Henry VI 1 1 P 1545 . . . . 63 


I nth the 

Indian .. .. 63 

1 . . . 62 
• tine. 

• Kouvellcs in Vers . . . . 62 



Lord. 63 



. . 62 

1 .. 6l 


Books — continued. 
Marlowe's All Ovid's Elegies, 1596 .. 
Meredith, George. 


Works. 32 vols 

Milton's Poems, 1645 
Piranesi's Vedute di Roma 
Plays and Pamphlets 

and Poems, Early English .. 
Reichenbach's Icones Flor.e Germanicae et Helve 

Rowlandson. Poetical Sketches of Scarborough . 
Scott. Sir Walter. Waverley Novels 
Shakespeare's Fourth Folio 
Smeeton's General Biography, 18 1 8 
Sporting Magazine, The, 1792-1870 
Tanner's Mirror for Mathematiques, 1587 .. ■• 61 

Transactions of the Institute of Naval Architects, 

1S60-1908 61 

Walton's Compleat Angler, 1664 .. .. ■• 61 

Watson, Dr. Richard. Dispersal of Library .. 62 

Watts, Isaac. Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1707 63 

Williamson's Oriental Field Sports 62 

Wood's New England's Prospect, 1635 .. •• 62 

Wycherley's Miscellany Poems, 1704 .. . . 60 

. 62 

. 61 
. 62 
. 62 
. 62 

• 63 

. 62 
. 62 

• 63 


Cross for Peninsular War . . 
Distinguished Service ( )rder 

Mi .Lil I ii I VniiiMil.ii \\ .ir . . 

\,,l: WIM IS. 

Dubuffe. La Surprise, after Lawrenci 
Smith, J. R. 

Delia in I own and Delia in the Co 


Ru in \1n11 emenl and Rustic E 

after Morland 

Turner, C. Le Baiser Envoye, aftei 1 . 

nil, .in Jheraton 
1 haii Hum Gadshill) 

1 loi k, \,i " \i t ni 1 '.11 liament 

■ a 1 

c ,<,, d, Silver vnd Plated \\ 

1 ■ 


Pictures and Drawings. 

Artz, D. A. C. The Fisherman's Children . . 
Beechey, Sir \V. Mrs. Archer 
Bell. nn. Barrel. A Gentleman and His Wife 
Bisschop, C. The Crown Jewels 
Blommers, B. J. Boys Bathing 
Bonington, K. P. 

Grand Canal, Venice 

View "ii the l'i ench ( !i >ast 
Bosch, H. The Adoration of the Magi 
Brekelenkam, O. A Cavalier and I.. id 5 seated 


Brown, F. Madox. Jacobo Foscari 
Burne-Jones, Sir E. Green Summer 
Chandler, J. \Y. Mrs. Franklin 
Clays, P. J. A Calm on the Scheldt 
Constable, J. 

Brighton Beach 

West End Fields, Hampstead 
Cooper, T. S. Cattle by a Stream 
Corot, J. B. C. Souvenir de la Villa Pamphili 
Cox, D. Outskirts of a Wood 
Crome, J. A Squall off Yarmouth 
Cruz, J. Pantoja de la. Countess Pallavicino 

uyp, A. 
A Town or 
Portrait of 

1 River 

Daubigny, C. F. 

Les Laveuses, a View on the River Oise . . . . 58 

Moonrise . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 

Davis, H. W. B. Loch Maree 58 

De Bruyn. 

Portrait of a Gentleman . . . . . . . . 60 

,, Lady .. ., .. .. 60 

DeWmt, P. On the River Arun 58 

DeWitte, E. Interior of Amsterdam Cathedral . . 57 

Diaz, X. 

L'Heureuse Famille .. .. .. .. 60 

Venus and Adonis in a Landscape accompanied 

by Cupids . . . . . . . . . . 58 

f'antin-Latour, H. 

Asters and Gladiolas in a Glass Bottle . . . . 60 

Azaleas in a Jar . . . . . . . . . . 60 

Peonies in a Glass Vase . . . . . . . . 60 

Fielding, C. Scotch Mountain Firs, Glen Maree . . 58 

French School. Portrait of a Lady . . . . 60 

Frere, E. The Young Student 58 

Gainsborough, T. The Artist's Daughter as a Gleaner 60 

Gardner, D. 

Mrs. E. A. Hall, afterwards Mrs. Morse . . . . 60 
Three Pastels. Children of David Lewis, of 
Malvern Hall : Elizabeth, Maria, and 

David G. Lewis .. .. .. .. 57 

Goyen, J. van. River Scene .. .. .. 57 

Clow, A. C. The Requisitiomsts ;8 

Graham, Peter. 

Evening: Highland Cattle crossing a Stream .. 60 

From Beetling Sea-Crags, &c . . . . 60 

Greuze, J. B. Jacques Meeker 57 

Guardi, F. 

An Island near Venice .. .. .. .. 57 

Santa Maria della Salute, Venice . . .. .. 57 

View of " La Zuecca " .. .. .. ... 55 

'ictures ant> Drawings — continue, I '. 
Haanen, C. van. Trying on the Ball Dress 
ll.ilswelle, Keeley. Shooter's Hill, Pangbourne .. 
Harlow, G. H. Portrait Group of Mrs. Hopwood 

and Children Poplar Trees at Herisson . . 
Heist, B. van der. Portrait of a Lady 
Herkomer. Sir II. von. The Last Muster : Sundav 

at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea 
Holland, J. The Church of the Gesuati, Venice . . 
Hoppner, J. 

Portrait of a Lady 

Robertson, William 
Hunt, W. Holman. The Scapegoat 
Huysum. J. van. Flowers and Birds' Nests 
Isabey, E. The Favourite, or My Lady's Parrot . . 
Israels. J. 

Children <•! 1 he s,-,i 

Cottage Door, The 

Pig-sty. The 

Portrait of a Girl 

Saying Grace 

Shrimper, A 

Signal, The 

Watching the Cradle 

Kneller, Sir G. John, Duke of Marlborough 
Landseer, Sir Edwin. Scene from the " Mid- 
summer Night's Dream" .. 
Lawson, Cecil G. The Doone Valley, North Devon 
Leader, B. W. 

Conway Bay 

Green Pasture 

Parting Day 
Le Brun. Vigee. 
Leighton, Lord. 
Leighton, E. Bk 

■ ind Mill Waters 

Portrait of a Lady 
Cymon and Iphigenia 

Lay Thy Sweet Hand in Mine 

and Trust in Me 
Lely, Sir P. Duchess of Cleveland 
Lenbach, Franz van. Signora Eleonora Duse 
Le Sire, P. Regnier Strik Johanszoon and d'Alida 

van Scharlaken 
Leys, Baron H. Martin Luther reading tin- Bible 

to his Companions 
Linnell, J., sen. On Summer Eve by Haunted Stream 
Millais, Sir John E. 

Joan of Arc . . . . . . ... 

Murthly Moss, Perthshire 

Rt. Hon. John Bright 

Maes. N. Portraits of a Gentleman and His Wife 
Maris. J. 

A Young Child Seated in a Chair with a Bowl of 

Low Tide 

The Bridge 
Maris. W. 

Cattle in a Pasture . . 


Dutch Dyke, A 

Feeding Calves 

Milking Time 
Mauve, A. 

Cows and Calves in a Pasture 

Landscape with Peasant and Sleep 

Peasant Girl and Cows 

Shepherd and His Flock, A 


Pictures and Drawings — continued. 

Millet, J. F. Jeune Fille attrapee par des 

Amours . . ■ ■ • ■ • • ■ • 5 s 
Monnover. J. B. Flower in a Terra-cotta Vase, 

Fruit, Parrots, and Rabbits 6° 

Morland, G. 

Comforts of Industry, The ■■ •• •• 57 

Miseries of [dleness, the 57 

Morri P. R. Piping Home 59 

Munkacsy, M. von. 

reti i fete ■■ " ° 

Hi.- 1 wo I amities 5 8 

Murillo. B. E. die Immaculate Conception .. 59 

Nasmyth, A. Mr. and Mrs. J. Cockbum Ross .. 60 

Nattier, J. M. Mile, do Langeis 6o 

Neer, Vandei B. Rivei Scene 59 

Neuhuys, \. rhe Peasant Famil) •■ "" 

I Mrs. Collingwood 57 J. The Music Lesson .. ■• 59 

Orchardson, Sir W. Q. The Challenge .. •• 59 

Pettie, |. Sweel Seventeen 59 

is, lln-iu. inn. A Musical Reverie .. •■ 5 8 

Phillips. J. Selling Relics, Cathedral Porch, Seville 59 

Picture Sales of 1909 "3 

Pinwell.G.J. Out of Tune: the Old Cross .. 59 

Pourbti I- Mary, Queen 01 Scots .. •• S7 

Poynter, Sir K. J. Under the Sea Wall .. ■• 59 

Prout, S. Milan 5 8 

Quilter, Sir W. Cuthbert. Dispersal of Collection 58 
Raeburn, Sir II. 

Blisland, Master Thomas ;S 

Sinclair. Sir John 6o 

Rembrandt. Descent from the Cross •■ •■ 57 
Reynold-., Sir J. 

Portrait of a Gentleman .. ■• •• •• 57 
I h( . Grai es decorating a Terminal Figure of 

Hymen 59 

Venus and Piping Boy 59 

Riviere, Briton. The Magician's Doorway .. 59 
Romney, G. 

Admiral Sir John Orde 57 

m 59 


Pictures and Drawings — continued. 
Romney, G. — continued. 

Miss Watson, afterwards Mrs. Edward Wake- 

Wakefield, Edward, of Gilford 
Rossetti, D. G. La Bella Mano 
Russell, J. Girl with a Spaniel 
Ruysdael. J. Woody Landscape 
Sandys, F. Portrait of a Lady 
Shee, Mr M. A. 
Mrs. Anna Shawe Leeke . . 
Mrs. Stephen Kemble as " Co 
Stannard, J. A Coast Scene 
Steen, J. Backgammon Players .. 
Tol, D. Van. Girl at a Spinning-Wheel 
Turner, J. M. W. 

East Cowes Castle, the Seat of J. Nash, Esq., and 

Regatta Beating to Windward 
\ enus and Adonis 
Van Alphen, Dowager the Hon. Louise. Dispersal 

of Collection 
Velasquez. Mariana, Wife of Philip IV. of Spain 
Veronese, P. St. Gregory the Great and St. Jerome 

Vincent, G. Greenwich Hospital 

Vos, P. de. A Peacock and Cock Fighting 

Walker, J. The Bathers 

Waller, S. E. One-and-Twenty 

Waterhouse, J. W. Marianne, Wife of Herod . . 
Williams, W. Courtship and Matrimony . . 

Wilson, R. Solitude 

Zoffany, J. James Quin, the Actor 
Pottery, Porcelain and China. 
Chinese Beakers 
Urbino Dishes 

K El 1 ■ 

Fraser, Mr. James Leslie. Disposal of Jacobite 

Rehcs and Highland Curios '9° 

Statuette Portrait of Shakespeare 
fapestry, Brussels Panels 





The Collection of Pictures of 
German Emperor By J 

The Royal Gallery of paintings by the old 
masters in Berlin, which is now to be seen in the 
splendidly arranged Kaiser Friedrich Museum, was 
founded in the early half of the nineteenth century. 
In rS3o King Frederick William of Prussia nominated 
a Commission of the greatest experts on the art of 
the past then living in Berlin, and entrusted them 
with the task of selecting from the treasures stored 
up in his palaces of Berlin and Potsdam a large 
number of works by the old masters, which were 
to be added to the 
then recently created 
public collection. 
This Commission 
removed from the 
royal palaces whole 
waggon-loads of im- 
portant pictures, and 
devoted their atten- 
tion particularly to the 
paintings of the early 
Italian and German 
Schools, and to the 
Dutch masters of the 
seventeenth century. 
These pictures, to- 
gether with the 
magnificent Solly 
collection, formed 
the nucleus of the pre- 
sent gallery, and their 
places on the empty 
walls of the royal 
palaces were forth- 
with filled with copies 
and works of minor 

Under these cir- 
cumstances it was PRINCESSE Tti 

His Imperial Majesty the 
Kirby Grant 

only quite natural that the general public imagined 
all the important works of art — or at least all the 
pictures of real significance— to have been taken 
from the royal collections, especially as the King 
himself had in no way interfered with the work of 
the Commission. But if we consider that the Com- 
mission worked in 1S30, at a period when cold 
classicism ruled supreme in art, and when Genelli's 
uninspired large cartoons were considered to rank 
among the world's masterpieces, we can well imagine 
that the Commission 
set little store by the 
delightful examples 
of the French eight- 
eenth-century school, 
of w hi ch Frederick 
the ( Ireat was led by 
his admirable taste to 
form so unique a 
gathering. With the 
exception of two 
comparatively unim- 
portant little paint- 
ings by Watteau, 
which are now at 
the Kaiser Fried- 
rich Museum, the 
hundreds of fine 
eighteenth -century 
pictures were left 
untouched. Nor is 
it very surprising to 
find that the King 
was left in the undis- 
tm lied enjoyment ol 
the numero 
pies of the art of 
Lucas I ranai h and 
other early German 

The Connoisseur 

masters, which had been brought together by his 

I 01 the discarding ol these historically interesting 
works an explanation is easily found in the fact that 
the early German Schools have only in comparatively 
recent years received the serious attention of art 
historians and students. It is far more difficult to 
i for the exemption from the wholesale re- 
nt quite a multitude of strikingly fine canvases 
by Rub -ns and other interesting examples of various 
schools of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth 
centuries — a mistake which has since been rectified, 
thanks to the generosity ot the present German 
Emperor and the King of Prussia, which has enabled 
the gallery to acquire at least some of his finest 
, notably the early Rembrandt and a fine 

The circumstances here briefly stated, and the 
knowledge of the fact that Charlottenburg was looted 
by the Austrians and Saxons in 1760, when many 
French pictures were carried off or ruthlessly de- 
stroyed, account for the impression prevalent down 
to the last years of the nineteenth century, that 
few, if any, important French masterpieces of the 
nth century were left in the royal palaces. 
>i"i. ovi 1. thi ii hool was held in such slight esteem, 
that the German art historians of the 'sixties and 
practically unanimous, after some brief 
lildly patronising remarks on Watteau, to dis- 
miss the rest — Lancret, Rater, Fragonard, Boucher, 
and even Chardin — in a few contemptuous lines, 
which is scarcely surprising when we consider that 
tlie art of Velazquez was then considered of small 
accounl 1 iared with thai ol Murillo ! Rut 

the inevitable traction set in when a number of 
the wonderful fetes galantcs pictures collected by 
Frederii i own to the Berlin public 

on the occasion ol the Crown run'- i silvei wedding 
j : and quite a sensation was caused at the 
turn of the Century, when a small selection of these 
pictures were lent by the German Emperor to the 
e,rcat Paris Exhibition of [900. The true extent and 
.' ence of the tl iii torial art which 

are still distributed over the royal palai 

i and 1 

folio publii 1 Seidel, with the 



The carefully selected pictures comprise seventy-two 
large excellent photogravure plates, and 12S half- 
tones that leave nothing to be desired for clearness. 
The historical study of the gradual growth of the 
collection from its inception under Joachim I. to 
the death of Frederick II., whose successor did not 
inherit the great King's passion for art, is from the 
pen of Raul Seidel, whose collaborators have divided 
the task of describing the pictures in the light of 
modern research, Dr. Friedlander dealing with the 
early German and Netherlands Schools, and Dr. Bode 
with the Italian, later Dutch, and French pictures. 

The history of art at the Court of Brandenburg 
can only be compared with the art in the neighbour- 
ing provinces. The poor soil of Brandenburg was 
not favourable for any kind of important artistic 
development. The inhabitants had to work hard for 
their living, and it was only centuries after the 
Hohenzollerns had become the rulers that the poor 
country was able to produce an art of its own. All 
we know about the early efforts of the Electors of 
Brandenburg to foster art is their desire to decorate 
the churches which they built and supported. The 
oldest of the altarpieces is a triptych now preserved 
in the Hohenzollern Museum. This highly interest- 
ing work, in which Dr. Friedlander has recognised the 
hand of " Meister Berthold " (or Berthold Landauer), 
who may be called the founder of the Nuremberg 
School, and the ancestor of Albrecht Diirer, was 
painted for Frederick I., the first Elector of Branden- 
burg, and was preserved in the chapel of Kadol/.- 
burg. It came to Brandenburg as a present from 
the parishioners of Kadolzburg to the then Crown 
Prince, Frederick William. The first Elector him- 
self, and his beautiful wife Elsa, figure upon it as 
donors. Apart from this picture, all knowledge of 
the early developments of art in Brandenburg is 
confined to such information as may be gathered 
from references in contemporary chronicles and 
records of occasional orders given to some eminent 
painter lor a portrait of some member of the reigning 

I I Renaissam e in German ait in the first half of 
the' sixteenth centur) naturally also bore fruit in 
Brandenburg, especially under the protection of 
Joachim I. and his son, Joachim II., whose brother, 
\|' I bi imp Albrecht ofMayence, was one of the most 

art patrons and collectors of his time. His 
feature-, ai n a little panel representing 5/. 

1, m the manner ol Lucas < ranaeh, which is 

panion i.SV. Ursula) in the royal 

palace at Berlin. 01 the vast commissions entrusted 

[oai him I. and Joachim 11., we 

shall have to speak latei on. 1 urthei east, Joachim's 

The Connoisseur 

cousin, Duke Albrecht of Prussia, founded an art 
centre at Konigsberg, but the main- wars that were 
fought in these unfortunate eastern provinces caused 
nearly all the pictures to be destroyed, or to be 
dispersed over all the world. The successors of 
Joachim II. do not appear to have fostered the fine 
arts in their lands. A new impetus was given to the 
growth of the collection under the Great Elector, who, 
at the early age of eight, whilst slow at everything else, 

instructed his London agent to make a purchase at 
the sale of Sir Peter Lely's collection, which was held 
a year or so after the court painter's death. The only 
German artist who appears to have worked for the 
Great Elector was Michael Willman (born at Konigs- 
berg, 1630), of whose activity a proof remains in a 
floridly overcrowded allegorical composition. But, 
on the whole, Frederick William preferred to employ 
Dutchmen, especially for the purpose of having his 

showed a marked talent for painting. At thi 

fourteen he was ■ nttol ydenl tinu hisstudies. 

mnt for his very 
marked predilection foi 1 »uti h art, whii h induced him 

later not only to pun hase many works by the Dutch 
masters, but to em] iloy n 

ition h ith tin- \ 
de Renialme and ( lerrii 1 
itter a on 1 

purporting to b 
by the great Italian ma 1 covery not only 

law action, bul 

that he 

own features portrayed for presentation to other rulers 
and friends. The best of these portraits is one by 
Govaert Flinck, preserved in the Berlin Palace. 

Frederi< k I. took no a< tive interest in art, and the 
growth 11I the collection (hiring his reign was entirely 
a legacj left to him by Louise Henrietta of 
N01 did his sui 1 1 >sor, the stem "soldier- 
king," William I., inherit the Great Elector's taste for 
the art ol painting, or encourage any leaning towards 
it in his son, I d rick II., the Great, during whose 
reign th were filled with the treasures 

which now constitute the importance of this wonderful 
11. Brought up under a rigidly severe military 
discipline which amount' d to positive cruelty, this 
prince, perhaps in a spirit ol reaction or revolt, 

The German Emperors Collection of Pictures 

became a passionate admirer of French esprit, French 

literature, and the elegant, light-hearted art of the 
painters of the/£tes galantes, whose work so admirably 
reflects the artificial, pseudo-arcadian life of pleasure 
led by the French court and society of the eighteenth 

Frederick the Great's friendly relations with Voltaire 
have passed into history. His passion for French art 
is testified to this day by the vast number of master- 
pieces by Watteau and his followers which decorate 
the walls of the royal palaces. And just as his inability 

brush entirely to love, and not to history, allegory, and 
scripture. It was only later in life, when he had 
become satiated with the paintings ol the/etes ga/antes, 
that he turned his attention to the masters of the late 
Renaissance in Italy and Flanders, and confessed, 
again in his favourite tongue, that 

" fcitne, j'aimais Ovide, 
Vietix, i'eslime Virgile." 

Frederick II. began his purchases of French paint- 
ings before he ascended the throne, when he filled 


to attract to his court the leaders of French thought 
caused him to bestow his royal patronage upon men 
like La Mettrie and the Marquis d'Argens, whose 
scurrilous writings and systematised immorality had 
led to their expulsion from their native country, he 
had to be satisfied, in the sphere of art, with 
the services of Antoine Pesne, who can scarcely be 
placed in the first rank of contemporary French 
painters, although some of the many pictures from his 
brush in the palaces of Berlin and Potsdam prove 
him to have been an artist of considerable talent. 
Frederick's ad miration for his court painter is expressed 
in a French poem — the Great King always showed 
marked preference for the language he had so assidu- 
ously studied — in which he exhorts him to devote his 

the walls of his castle of Rheinberg with works by 
Watteau, Lancret, Pater, De Troy, Cazes, Coypel, 
Van Loo, Boulogne, Chardin, Boucher, and Rigaud. 
For a long time Count Rothenburg made purchases 
of works of art for him in Paris, and secured for 
him, among other things, Pater's two masterpieces, 
Moulinet and Dance at the Garden Pavilion, and 
some Watteaus, together with a few forgeries of 
pictures purported to be by the great Italian masters. 
Throughout his life, Frederick II.'s correspondence 
with his agents proves that the forger's craft flourished 
then as it does now. There are constant recrimina- 
tions about doubtful pictures, overcharges, and so 
forth. Watteaus were manufactured for him by the 
score, when it became known that his agents were 

The Connoisseur 

searching tor them. On one occasion Mettra made 

him pay 60,000 livres for two Madonnas by Raphael 

rble {sic), which arrived, 

1, broken to pieces. In r.76] Gotzkowski, 

another dealer, sent him a whole consignment of 
worthless copies after the Italian masters, about 
which the Marquis d'Argens, who appears to have 
been wholly ignorant in matters of art, had reported 

Lancret type," and requires pictures by Rubens, Van 
Dvck, etc. In the following year Darget negotiated 
for him the purchase of Correggio's Leda, which is 
now one of the treasures of the Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum. The only pictures mentioned in a letter 
to his sister in 1755, in which he states that he 
has already one hundred pictures in his gallery at 
Sanssouci, and expects fifty more from Italy and 

■ [ON 01 I 0\ I BY J. F. 

to the King in ' ■ Fredi nek 

himself, irobably lacked the expert know- 

imitation, had excellent taste and very decided views. 
ol his agents, hi 
paintings by Lemoine and Po 
quite nice truth, they 

O ild and 
unpleasant, and I do not like tl 

1 ] k's tasie. which made him 

witli the same enei 
occurred about 1751, 111 which year h 

Flanders to complete this gallery, are the Leda and 
other woiks by Italian masters. 

In times ot peace and ol war, from the day of his 
youth to his old age, Frederick the Great pursued 
his collecting hobby, although towards the close of 
his lite the state of the exchequer and lack of space 
on the walls of his palaces embed to .1 certain extent 
Ins eagerness to add still further to a collection that 
had already assumed enormous proportions. With 
In d< .nil the history ol the growth ol the royal 
■ olli • tion 1 -in S to an abrupt close. 

Although the last in ordi 1 ol dab . the pictures of 

German Emperor's 1 ollection 

must be given honoui 1 place, owing nol onlj to 

The German Emperor s Collection of Pictures 



their numerical preponderance, but even more to 
their artistic importance. The list begins with Pierre 
Mignard, the painter par excellence of the pompous 
aye of " King Sun, " who himself is here depicted 
on a prancing steed, a figure of Victory or an angel 
hovering above his head with a laurel wreath. A 
very similar portrait of Louis XIV., showing the 
same strange combination of rococo wig and Roman 
armour, is at the Palace of Versailles. In its most 
accomplished form, the chilling classicism of that 
age, which drew its inspiration not from nature but 
from Ovid and from Roman sculpture, is represented 

by two canvases by Louis de Boulogne, of whose less 
gifted son's art the palaces hold seven examples, 
including a' Mars and Venus with sporting amorini, 
in! which ^we lm ' 1 l glorious Botticellian motif 
enfeebled bj constant repetition through the ages. 
The Bath of Bathskeba is undoubtedly the finest of 
the live pictures by .ban Raoux, who, whilst still 
following the despotically imposed Italian tradition, 
began in some ol his paintings to devote himself 

to scenes from daily life. 

To the period of transition from the centurj ol 
allegory and pompous posing to thai ol th 

The Connoisseur 

galantes belong also Francois de Troy and his son 
Jean Francois de Troy. Both of them were still 
devoted to mythological composition, but the father 
excelled in portraiture, as is testified bj his excellent 
painting of an actress in the pan of Sophonisbe, 
dated 1723; whilst his son displayed his gifts best 
in his scenes ol elegant life. To this category 
belongs, despite it-- somewhat harsh colour, the 
important Declaration of Love, painted in 1 731, a 
well disposed and carefull) wrought piece, which is 
particularly remarkable for the exquisite rendering of 
1 ostum ories. It is by far the most 

important of this artist's seven pictures in the Imperial 

We now conru to the group ol pictures by Watteau 
and his followers, the like ol which is not to he found 
in any of the world's collections. Frederick II. was 
particularly anxious to adorn his palaces with the best 
produi tions of Watteau's brush, and his agents were 
lucky in obtaining from M. de Julienne the famous 
sign painted for C.ersaint in eight mornings after the 
: - return from England, in 1721, the year of 
his death ; and other works of unrivalled importance. 
tndei d, even leaving aside that epitome of Watteau's 
genius, known .1- UEmbarqnement pour Cythire, all 
the thin in thi Emperor's palace dati 

from the master's best years, when perhaps the con 
sumptive's presentiment of the shortness of the span 
allotted to him spurred him to restless and feverish 
mil made him pour out the wealth of his 
visions ol inimitable beauty— visions oi 

Ol JO) and love and aloofness from sordid 

cares that are yet tinged with a strange sadness. 

This haunting sadness seems to have 1 scaped the 

■is in their otherwise admirable summing up 

of Watteau's art : — ■ 

"The goat poet of the eighteenth century is 
1 li work is filled with the 1 legam ol a 
world beyond human ken — the dream creation ol a 
pout's mind. From the Staff of his brain, sinm from 
his artist's fancy, woven with the web ol his young 
eid fairy flights wing their way. He 
drew from his imagination em hauled visions, and an 

- omprehension ol his age ; 
arian. Oh 
theatre tble a life ! Oh ! pro- 


s make a 

lawns? What deep and tender and translucent 
greenery has strayed hither from Veronese's palette? 
Garden shrubberies of rose and thorn, landscapes of 
France set with Italian pines ! Villages gay with 
weddings and coaches, decked out for feast and 
holiday, noisy with the sound of flutes and violins as 
they lead the procession to where, in a Jesuit temple, 
Opera weds with Nature I Rural stage where the 
curtain is green and the footlights flowers, where 
French comedy steps on to the boards and Italian 
comedy capers I Enchanted isles, cut off from land 
by a crvstal ribband, isles that know not care or 
sorrow, where Repose consorts with Shadow ! Who 
are these who come slowly sauntering along paths 
that lead to nowhere? And these, resting on their 
elbows to gaze at clouds and streams ? . . ." 

In the Embarquement, which is the elaborated and 
far more complete version ol his " diploma " picture 
now at the Louvre, Watteau has given the supreme 
expression of all the vague yearning of his soul. It 
is in an absolutely perfect state of preservation. The 
pendant to it — the Arrival at the Island — is a clumsy 
imitation of Watteau's style by an inferior hand. 
Almost as tine as the Embarquement, and especially 
remarkable for the perfect rendering of the atmospheric 
landscape setting with its vanishing distances, is 
E Amour Paisible. The Netherlandish derivation of 
Watteau's art, which is so apparent in his technique, 
is particularly noticeable in the Shepherds, a some- 
what earlier picture in which the protagonists do not 
belong to the master's world of imagination, but are 
as real in their rusticity as the dancing and carousing 
peasants of Teniers and Ostade. In the very beauti- 
ful The Dance and The French Comedy an unusually 
large scale is adopted for the figures. The dainty 
and winsome little maid in the former picture has 
inspired a contemporary poet to the lines which 
appear under an old engraving of this picture : 
" Iriv e'est de bonne heme avoir l'heure de la danse, 
1 les tendres mouvements, 
Lui nous font tous les , nu -, ■ -imnaiiie a la Cadence, 
Le gout <|iie vein- sexe a pout les instruments." 

Not all the Watteaus in ih Emperor's collection 

are as w the i ns S o far enumerated. 

In The LoVi I tson the pigment has suffered to such 

an extent that the whol urfaci ippears furrowed 

ampitre has been so lib rail] 

■ ornpl tely lost its charm ; the 

, tie- landscape lacking in atmosphere. 

The Bridal Procession, an unusuallj crowded but 

less splendidly arranged composition, has 

pi in the charmingly 

in heads : and althou racks have 

bi in skilfully filled by Prof, Hauser, the pi« ture in 



The Connoisseur 

\ ts pr , s el ■. more of the i storer's work 

than of Watteau's original paint. Another important 
the Dance in : 

i ,.,, h Gallery. Gersaints Sign, 

ru t into without the balance of the two 

parts hi the composition being materially affected, is 


mi rue position amor ! his lati i works 

of both painters' finest performances. It is question- 
able whether any collection in France can boast of 
Lancrets of such excellence as Le Moulinet, Blind- 
Man's Buff, ami the Assembly in the Garden Pavilion ; 
or Paters that can rival the admirable Fete Champetre, 
the Assembly by the Fountain, and the Soldiers before 
an Inn and Soldiers on the March, which are so close 
an approach to Watteau as to justify the conclusion 

o of a fam iful 
world n \ 

i nil than the li.t ol VVatteaus is 

itatii n -I il ma'sti i ■ followers, Lancret 

.11 id I '.it. r. v.\ i>< took from him the subjects i and typ , 

and qualil j 
of pign ! o ■ mi purpose h 

i samples of 

I'ater, who. 


nets than to li: 

thai they were begun by the master, and finished 

alter hi. death b\ I'ater. 

The intimaq and homelj eh. oi Chardin's 

famous companion pictures la Pourvoyeuse (dated 
1738) .mil La Ratisi use, replicas ol which are in 
ile I iechtenstein Gallery in Vienna, form a pleasing 
contrasl to tb artificial atmosphere of these minor 
:■ 1 Sonn whal ol .11 nriosity, 
owing i" Hi facl thai ;' it re life -1-"' in scale, 

Sealing a letter ol 1733. 
/,• Dessiuatem < clo ly 1 lal d to the I 'ard I 'astl 
of U Henri d Rothsi hild 1 ollei tion, and probably 

,iin model. 

Spai e does nol permit to enumerate the bewildering 

P me's pictures in the Kaiser's 

ilthough spei ial m ntion hould be mad- 

The German Emperor s Col lee t ion of Pictures 

ot the historically important group of Crown Trince 
Frederick II. with his sister Wilhelmins, in which 
the future soldier king is depicted at the age of 
three with a large drum, as though the military spirit 
were already active in him in his tender years. The 
art of Pesne can only be studied in this collection, 
which contains practically his life work. 11< was 
born in Paris in 16S3, studied first under his fathei 
and his uncle de la Fosse, went to Italy in 1703, 
and was much influenced in Venice by Audi . 
Celesti. He was called to the Berlin Court in 
1710, and became First Court Painter to Frederick 
William I., with an annual pension of 1,000 thalers. 
From that date to his death at a mature age he 
continued to devote his diligent and able brush to 
the service of the Prussian Kings. 

Of other French painters represented at Potsdam, 
Sanssouci, and Berlin, it is only necessary to mention 
Hyacinthe Rigaud, Nattier, whose portrait of Princesse 
Talmont is a particularly pleasing example of his 
decorative portraiture, Quentin La Tour. Boucher, 
Van l.oo, and — one of the few acquisitions of more 
recent days — a replica of David's Napoleon 1. on 
Horseback at Versailles. 

Comparatively few German and 1 Hitch pictures of 
• iii\ importance have remained in the Imperial palaces. 
A portrait of Durer by himself, with an inscription 
which gives not only a wrong date for his death, but 
professes to represent the master in 1503, is merely a 
copy of the Prado portrait of 1498. More interesting 
is the signed and dated Caritas, or rather a Virgin 
and Child, with angel, by Hans Baldung Grien. But 
the strength of this section lies in the ample repre- 
sentation of the Cranachs, father and son, who from 
their picture factory in Wittenberg supplied the North 
German Courts with numberless portraits, altarpieces, 
mythological, historical and hunting subjects. In 
view of the wholesale turn-out of Cranach's workshop 
— it is on record that on one occasion sixty copies 
were ordered from one portrait for the Court of 
Saxony, such portraits being used much in the manner 
of the medals in Italy — and of school copies being 
sent out with the master's signature, the winged 
serpent, it is exceedingly difficult to establish the 
authenticity of many of these pictures as the master's 
actual handiwork, especially after 1520, when the 
factor) was in full swing. Put there can be little 
doubt that the firmly drawn portrait of a lady, with a 
chain and girdle composed of the letters 1! and S, 
which was formerly ascribed to 1 Hirer, is an authentic 
work by the elder Cranach. The initials have led to 
the supposition that the portrait represents Barbara 
of Saxony. A portrait of Joachim I., signed in the 
correct manner and dated 1 5 ^ <j, is presumably from 

the same hand, although the costume appears to In 
studio work. 

By the younger ( Iranach is a portrait ol Joai him II. 
in sumptuous attire, which is apparently based upon 
the study from nature in the Dresden Gallery. The 
Baptism of Christ, which bears the date of 1550, is .1 
typical instance of the naive treatment of scriptural 
subjects in German art at a time when Italy had Ion- 
discarded all traces of the primitive conception of 
art. The crowded group gathered on the bank of the 
Jordan (which the artist with characteristic disregard 
of geography makes wend its course past Wittenberg), 
includes portraits of Luther, Melanchthon, the eldet 
Cranach, Joachim II. ami his wile, and Joachim and 
G orgi ofAnhalt. Even more striking as an instance 
■ if the manner in which German art became permeated 
with the Renaissance spirit before it had attained to 
classic freedom in the rendering of the human form, 
is Cranach's deliciously quaint and naive, if ill-drawn, 
Judgment of Pirn's. The artist's ingenuousness is tin 
more remarkable, as over half a century had passed 
since Botticelli had painted his Primavera and his 
Birth of Venus, to which this Judgment of Paris bears 
the same relation as the Reclining Nymph, of about 
1525-30, does to Giorgione's and Titian's marvellous 
renderings of Venus. The retrogressive character of 
( Yanaeh's art becomes even more apparent, if one 
compares his Adam and Eve in the German Emperor's 
collection with Van Eyck's figures on the shutters of 
the Ghent altarpiece, which stand at tile very dawn 
of Northern art. Childish anatomy, combined with 
dainty elegance, is again to be noted in the fairly late 
half-figure of Lucretia. There is far more action ami 
dramatic feeling in the Passion Scenes, forming part 
of the series of which a few have gone to the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum. The Judgment of Paris belongs 
to a series of upright panels, which also include the 
Bath of Bathsheba, David and' Goliath, and The 
Judgment of Cambyses. The only other German 
works of note are three portraits by Holbein's follower, 
Barthel Bruyn. 

There is no need to dwell upon the numerous 
large- allegories, pastorals, mythological pieces and 
pictures of the Chase painted by the Dutch followers 
of the academic tradition at Utrecht, and l>\ such 
flemish artists as Boyermans, Willebouts, Rombouts, 
and Ryckaert lor the dee. nation ol the ( ireat Eli 1 lot's 
and the early Prussian kings' palaces. Only few 
Dutch pi' inn's have remained that represent the art 
of the Rembrandl School and ol the "s nail masters," 
and chief among them is one of Rembrandt's 
earliest works depicting Delila betraying Samson. It 
was painted in 1628, and thus being one of the 

master's earliest pictures, shows the weaknesses ol his 

The Connoisseur 

immature style, with a clear indication of the promise 
of his great future. Rembrandtesque in character is 
also Jan Livens's portrait of Sultan Soliman, and in 
a less : Flinck's Bathsheba. One of 

the treasures among the hutch picture-, is a small 
ian portrait oi a youth by Thomas di RLeyser, 
similar in type to the pictures al thi Dresden and 
Frankfort Galleries. There an- also some interiors 
with peasants by Molenaer, an early picture ol two 
smoking women bj Jan Steen, and a showj portrail 
group b) Netscher. 

It is surprising thai quite a number oi important 

works by Rubens and Van Dyck 1 1 . i x . remained in 

tli [mperial palaces. In tin case ol the former the 

: pictures, such as the Birth 

oj Venus, V< > and Adonis (which is almost 

identical with tie- canvas at the Hermitage), the 

and Dejaneira, Christ triumphing over Death 

and Sin. and the Four Evangelists (formerly ascribed 

to Van Dyck), ate studio works after the master's 

designs, and with evidences of his own handiwork 

in the finishing touches. Entirel) b) Rubens's own 

hand is tin- verj beautiful Mother and Child, which 

o -fwc-like in conception that it can scarcel) 

■I accepted as a Virgin and Infant Saviour: a 

signed portrait oi Augustus, which belongs to a series 

ioned b) Frederick 1 [enry oi Orange from 

Rubens, Hoeck, lew-ins, and Terbrugghen ; the 

delicious Holy Family of the Work Basket, a copy 

of which is at the Vienna Museum ; and a large 
brilliant sketch of the Finding of Romulus and 

Most of the Van 1 h'eks belong to his early youth, 
when he was either still working in Rubens's studio 
or was at least entirely under his influence. A picture 
of A River God is a fragment cut out of one of these 
early works. Of gnat importance, as showing the 
master) to which Van Dyck had attained at the 
early age of sixteen, are the two paintings of the 
Virgin Man and Christ, which may be dated with 
a fair amount of certainty, since they correspond with 
the apostle series painted by him in 1615-16. A few 
years later in date is the Head of a Man al Prayer, 
which is marked 1>\ great breadth of modelling. Both 
the Five Children of Charles I. and the St. Jerome 
can only be accepted as studio works ; whilst the 
charming little nude Skating Boy is certainl) not 
by Van 1 >y< k. 

The few Italian pictures at the Sanssouci Palace 
are almost without exception from the Solly collection, 
and include, besides an important profile portrait of 
Sixtus [V.'s nephew, Fra Sislo delta Rovere, by 
Lodovico Moro's favourite portrait-painter, Bernardino 
de' Conti, a signed Madonna, by the Veronese Paolo 
Moranda: the Decapitation of St. John, by Girolamo 

Romanino ; 

Christ at I'.mmaus, by Francesco da 

Ponte, Jaci 

po bassano's son ; and a Madonna and 

Saints, whi< 

1: 1 >r. bode ascribes to Carletto Veronese. 

The Montgolfiers 

By Mrs. F. Nevill JacKson 

" Balloons occupy senators, philosophers, 
ladies, everybody" — this remark, made by Walpole 
concerning aeronautical experiments in England, 
applied with equal force to such matters on the Conti- 
nent, and it is interesting to note the mark made 
by this popular craze on the china fans and other 
bric-a-brac of the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
Joseph Michel Montgolfier was born in 1740, being 
one of a large family ; his father was a paper manufac- 
turer. Joseph ran away from school at the age of 
seventeen, and after various adventures was found and 
brought home, and again handed over to his professors 
and set to study theology, which was most distasteful 
to him. He found a treatise on higher mathematics 
at this time, and became enthusiastic on this subject : 
his calculations and study led to practical experiments 

in pneumatics, and he invented several machines for 
the improvement of the manufacture of paper, which 
were used in a separate establishment, as his father 
would have none but the old methods. 

The inventor of anecdotes has not failed to supply 
a story, in which a shirt airing before a lire became 
buoyant through being inflated with hot air, and thus 
supplied the idea to Montgolfier of aerial navigation 
by means of the inflation of a bag with gas or lightened 
air, but in reality his close scientific study led Mont- 
golfier to his discovery. 

There is an interesting print which shows him in his 
study contemplating a picture of Gibraltar, which was 
at that time being besieged. "Gerait-il done im- 
possible que les airs oppressent un mo/en pour 
pe'ne'trer." Thus we see the idea that the balloon 


The Connoisseur 

should be used in warfare was almost simultaneous 
with the discovi ry < 

The two Sevres teacups and saucers which are shown 
in our illustration are elaborately painted with scenes 
in which military men are manipulating the Mont- 
, as they were then called, and on the handsome 
pendant, set with paste jewels, a well-defined parachute 
is seen hanging below the balloon. 

By 1 7S3 the two brothers were working together, 
the younger, Etienne, having given up architecture 
to join tl ness of his father. The similarity 

of their tastes and studies, and their passionate 
devotion to each other, made their experiments for 
perilling the balloons of immense value. On 
[une 5th, 1783, a public exhibition was given at 
Annonai, when a balloon of silk lined with paper, of 
no feet circumference, was sent up with perfect 

In the following September an exhibition was given 
before the court at Versailles, and later the same 
model was used, a basket being attached containing 
animals, which, after an ascent, returned to the ground 
unharmed. The idea that the air was conquered 
appealed ecstatically to the imagination of the courtiers, 
and Pilatre de Rozier and the Marquis d'Orlandes 

volunteered to be the first travellers in an unattached 
balloon. This adventurous ascent was made at the 
Chateau de La Muette with complete success, and in 
the following year Joseph Montgolfier became the 
third aeronautic traveller. 

A small medal was struck by means of a subscrip- 
tion, under the direction of M. Faugaes de Saint 
Fond, to commemorate the ascent at Versailles — a 
specimen now in the house of Madame de Sevigne, in 
Paris, shows portraits of the two brothers in profile ; 
another medal of the same design, but larger in size, 
was issued to commemorate the ascent at the Chateau 
de La Muette. 

The brothers were made correspondents of the 
Academy of Science. Etienne was decorated with 
the Order of St. Michael, and Joseph was given a 
pensionof 1,000 francs, while their father was ennobled. 
Louis XVI. gave 40,000 francs for the purpose of 
further experiments ; these were being carried out 
when the Revolution put an end to all such useful 
work. Though active experimenting was no longer 
possible the brothers continued their work calmly 
through all the turmoils of that stormy time. Etienne 
was several times saved from arrest through the de- 
votion of his workpeople, who adored him, but the 



In the collection of H.I.M. the Gc 

n, Empe 

Tli c Mou tgolfiers 

Terror had a disastrous effect upon his mind, and he 
died in 1799. 

Joseph survived his brother eleven years, and during 
that time improved his balloons, and invented mam- 
useful mechanical appliances, especially connected 
with hydraulics. He wrote little, his best known works 
being: Discours sur /'Aerostat, published in 17S3 ; 
Memoire sur la Machine Aeroslatique, 17S4 ; and Les 
/ >yagt un Aerieus, 17S4. 

In these days of specializing in collecting early 
ballooning would make an excellent theme for the 
small collector. The prints, both French and English 
— for Lunardi, the Italian, created in England just 
such a furore as did the Montgolfiers in France 
— are extremely interesting, and every trinket in 
enamel, porcelain, leather, and ivory, was utilised at 
this time for representing the novel means of aerial 

. c 1 1 ■ 1 \ i h b 

A Collection of Earrings 

By Mrs. Herbert Bennett 

With all the races of the world, from the 
to the most highly civilized, earrings 
have been a favourite form ol ornament from time 
immemorial. Their origin is beyond history. Bar- 
baric it must have been; but their earliest shape 
ami substance, their possible significance, the 
material out of which the) were fashioned, and the 
identity ol the man 01 woman who, greatly daring, 
nade and wore them, are all lost in the mists 
It is, however, known with certainty that th 

n . the !'■ rsians and Babylonians, 
1 Lybians, and < iuthagenians, and were 

worn by both - ■ 

on th i ontrary, they 

were worn exclusively In women, and probably onlj 

o 11 n of th.- highest rank. In the Iliad Juno 

ling herself wil h ean ings -which 

are described with great care and accuracy as con- 
sisting of three drops resembling mulberries. Pliny 
and Seneca both mention their use by the women 
of their time, ami it must not be forgotten that the 
ears of the Venus de Mcdicis are pierced to receive 

Many very old Egyptian earrings have been pre- 
served, some of such beautiful design that they have 
been copied almost in detail and adapted to modern 

Coming to our own country, and nearer to our own 
times, we find that during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I., earrings were worn in England by men 
as well as women. The custom is frequently n fi rred 
to. Hall, in his Satires, speaks of the " ring, d i u 
of a newly-arrived traveller, and in Every Man in 
his Humour, one male character says to another, 
•• 1 will pawn the jewel in mine ear." Eong since 

A Collection of Earrings 

discarded as unmanly by the majority of the sterner 
sex, it is strange that the practice has still clung for 
centuries to the hardiest of our blood and race : 
sailors and gipsies — the wanderers of the sea and 
land — wear earrings to the present day. 

With a history so ancient and so honourable, lend- 
ing themselves as they do to the greatest beauty of 
form and colour, and demanding the utmost delicacy 
of workmanship, it is remarkable that earrings have 
received such scant attention from collectors. A few 
pairs here and there have been gathered together, 
but not in sufficient numbers to give any idea of 
the scope and fascination of the subject, which ranges 
from the merely grotesque to the highest develop- 
ment of the goldsmith's art. 

always been a favourite ornament for the ear. Seneca 
speaks of an earring set with four pearls and says 
that it was worth a patrimony. Evidently then has 
been a revolution since those days in the relative 
values hi pearls and patrimonies. 

A pair of Venetian earrings of a later date is in 
the shape of a cap of liberty, set closely with 
alternate bands of turquoise and garnets and having 
one small yellow topaz just under the opening of 
the cap. Another pair of Venetian origin bears- 
the head of a negro exquisitely wrought in black 
enamel and wearing a turban of white enamel and 

From Rome comes a pair of long cameo ear- 
rings, pale buff on a white ground, the background 




■ 11 oof. 


It was recently my good fortune to see a 
collection of more than a hundred pairs, the 
property of a friend who, during many holidays 
spent in wandering over Europe, has made a point 
of buying a pair of earrings, the older the better, as 
a memento of every place she visited. So simply 
did the collection begin, and the result is nothing 
short of a revelation. 

The premier place, in point of age, must be given 
ti« a pair of mediaeval Italian earrings bought on the 
Ponte Vecchio. Their shape is an elongated hoop; 
the upper half beaten out almost to the fineness ol 
wire, and the lower widening into a hollow basket 
cri cent of open-worked gold in a very ornate leaf 
pattern. These earrings are the same back and front, 
some of the leaves on either side- being enriched with 
Mil and white enamel. A ruby is set in the centre 
of the crescent, and its lower edge ornamented l>\ a 
hanging fringe of little Oriental pearls. 

Next comes a most beautiful pair of Italian ear- 
rings in fine gold and pearls, of such venerable age 
that the pearls are beginning to crumble. Thi ha; 

The Cap ,■■ Venetian. 

■ Mh ,. n: Uamoi 

being carved in fine diamond pattern ; and two 
beautiful pairs in turquoise, one pair being of a 
very curious bell shape, having the stones set in 
long downward lines and a rosette of turquoise at 
the top with a large pearl at its centre. Naples 
contributes an exquisite pair of earrings. Thev are 
formed of long loops of the finest seed coral, 
hanging from a gold crown made in the lightest 
ami daintiest filigree work, and set round with 
turquoise. At the top is a small coral medallion 
carved with the head of a buy and set in a frame 
of filigree gold and turquoise. The coral is a yerj 
Im colour and the heads the smallest that Can he 

Amongst the Italian earrings are two beautiful 
specimens of the rococo style. One pair is in 
gold, with two lumps, one inside the other, caught 
together by a smaller lump at the top, and lavishly 
set with various coloured stones. The other is of 
open work oxidized silver, shaped like a rounded 
hield, the centre set with a ruby surrounded by 
tun luoise. 

The Connoisseur 

A pair of old Spanish earrings from I'm i 
one o i tion. No less 

oui inches and a half long, there size alone 
to respect. 
But their workmanship is I itiful, and their 
onsidering their length 
and th ,vith which they ai 

["he i design are thickl) studded with dia- 

monds and the pear-shaped stones are pale pink topaz. 
I inish ait is a 
of i irrings in filigree- 

's.' less than live tiers go to make up the 
length, "' and sewn with the 

finest >erd pearls. A verj dainty pair comes from 
These also are in filigree work in an 

111. collection boasts two particularly good speci- 
mens of the Georgian period, one being extremely 
rare. From a button framed in filigree gold hangs 
a pear-shaped drop nearly four inches long, drop 
and button alike- being of the clearest and purest 
white cornelian. The shape is SO graceful that the 
effect is not in the least heavy, despite its length, 
and the stone is without a Haw. About half an inch 
from the bottom, the drop is girdled by a line gold 
i inn. fastened in front by two leaves in filigree work, 
and a tiny forget-me-not set with turquoise. It is 
most unusual for "drop" earrings to be ornamented 
in this way. The other pair is of the same length 
anil shape, but plainly made in moss agate, with 
.1 verj simple gold Setting. 




i : hit pattern, stu< Ided lei e an. I there w ith 

p. -ails. i i nape i lighl and pretty, and 

hole has somewhal thi effeel of a finely- 

■ nut. Then ar two pail ■- ol long 

rings, i .in- i i w nh diamonds, 

But the mo ' I" autiful ol all the Spanish 

collection ' te top, sel with pearls, to 

tached an i lal .oral gold and pearl bow- 

This in its turn supports two large gold vine 

ly di signed bum h ol 

earrings made 

1 loop set with dianv mds, am ! 

a stiff In- i the centre. 

in sented by 

i period 

I irite bum h ol 

nail pearls, 

by two 

["he early Victorian earring was nothing but a 
modifii ation of the Georgian, the principal dm 
being that the drop was considerably shorn r. < H 
these the most beautiful is a pair in a very rare 
shade ol green cornelian. The colour is indeed 
almost indescribable. It is neither apple-green nor 
water-green, bul something jusl midway, and has a 
curious limpid tone like a green sea in sunshine. 
The drops are cunningly finished with diamond tops, 
which set them ofl tdi antage. 

A pair of short pear-shaped drops in white 

sapphin . banging from marquisite hows, look verj 

nd pn tty ; and there are two pairs of amber 

ol i mi 1 :d amber, the other 

■ I tops. 

Coral earring- were verj fashionable during this 

their value bein rfei ti I their 

colour. This is typified \>\ a pan ol drops m , 
settings sh I]- d like ii> i up ol an acorn, and In 
anothei pah ol a verj unusual design, that is best 

d as all straight lines and light angles. The 

A Collection of Earrings 

: Gipsy Hoof. Emitre. 

" ■ 

colour of the first pair is the softest pink, as delicate 
as a rose leaf; the latter is of so deep and rich a 
red that it almost approaches crimson lake. 

A pair of long crystal earrings, another pan si i 
with flat-cut garnets, several in filigree gold work, 
and a lozenge-shaped pan in tortoiseshell and gold, 
all date from the middle of the last century. So 
does a very beautiful pair of carbuncle ear-drops, 
having the stone ornamented by a diamond fly with 
carbuncle eves. 

The "hoop" ranings are a class to themselves; 
and here a pair of old English hoops, set with Hat- 
cut garnets, can be compared with a genuine gipsy 
earring in line red cornelian, and with two pairs 
of Empire hoops, one set with pale yellow topaz, 
the other with seven emeralds in graduated sizes. 
This stvle of setting is verv uncommon, hoop 

AV, 0C0 

earrings being generally ornamented with even-sized 

Amongst the earrings that an- unclassified as to 
period, there is one pair of very quaint Hat ivory 
drops, shaped something like a Turkish slipper, and 
having the toe carved in relief with the head of 
Mary Queen of Si ots. A pair of Flemish earrings 
in pierced gold, in shape resembling an inverted 
Kg\ptian fan, and a pair of amethyst and turquoise 
drops with a rosette top, are both beautiful in form 
and colour, while a pair of Dutch peasant '.airings 
quite Indie their name, being pietU and delicate to 
a degree. 

Indian hoop earrings in fine filigree work, tiger 
claws set in gold, a pair of double hoops from 
Mexico, in 'based gold and pearls, and a pair of the 
same shape in a line shade of turquoise blue enamel, 




The Connoisseur 

. hai hi foi lovers ol fine work 

and curios \ t drop earrings bought 

I [agui has a large pearl set upon the stone, 

and is finished by an - laboratelj i hased gold top, 

thrown up with lines ol black enam 

But nothing in the who! i oil :i i ion is mon rari h 

than i pair ol long earrings made entirely 

in pearls, ["he model is unmistakable, the execution 

marvellous. It is a fuchsia, a white fuchsia so per- 

i . 

'a / 

fectly worked in tiny sued pearls, that not a vestige 
ol gold is visible. 

It is not possible in the scope of this article to do 
more than touch upon a few of the most prominent 
items in an almost unique collection, but it may at 
least serve to show the variety that the study of 
earrings offers to those who care to pursue it. Ir 
would amply repay any one in search of a fresh and 
practically untrodden field of interest. 

Some Recently Discovered Miniatures by Robertson, Plimer, 
Cosway, Engleheart, and Smart By Dudley Heath 

Miss Emily Robertson, in her excellent 
volume on the correspondence of her father, Andrew 
Robertson, miniaturist, publishes amongst other very 
interesting letters 'one in which the painter describes 
his first visit to the studio of Raeburn, the portrait 
painter. It was at the age of sixteen that young 
Robertson went to Edinburgh to study landscape and 
scene-painting under Nasmyth, but, he says, " being 
very desirous of seeing Raeburn's pictures, I bravely 
knocked at his door, armed with a shilling for his 
servant." Presently Raeburn comes and talks to 
the modest and half-frightened aspirant, and with 
genial tact draws from him the confession that he 
desires to copy some of the great painter's works. 

After considering a 
little, Raeburn gener- 
ously has a small room 
prepared where the 
student is allowed to 
copy any of the por- 
traits that he chooses. 
Robertson then tells us 
that "the first picture 
that I copied was an old 
gentleman, a half length, 
of Mr. John Tait, advo- 
cate, with a blazing warm 
sky on one side, close to 
the head, which I thought 
injured the effect. I never 
dreamt there was any 
harm in altering it and 
lowering the tone. Rae- 
burn stared at my copy 
and frowned, then at me 
and smiled, saying, ' I see 
you have improved upon 
my composition.' 'Yes, 
I think it is an improve- 
ment ; don't you think it 

is ? ' He then laughed heartily at my simplicity and 
asked me to dine with his family next day at his 
picturesque and delightful villa at Stockbridge, but he 
never forgot the joke of my altering his composition. 
Some years after I saw the picture again and found 
that he had adopted my alteration. This enabled 
me to turn the joke against him, but he said he 'did 
so merely to oblige me.'" This letter is, as Robertson 
himself declared, a far better pen-portrait of Raeburn 
than any that exist on canvas, and incidentally it is 
an excellent impressionistic sketch of the lesser genius, 
his pupil. But what is of immediate interest to us is 
the discovery of this first miniature copy by Andrew 
Robertson of the portrait of John Tait, advoi ate. 

This portrait, as it 
now exists, contains two 
figures, John Tait, Esq., 
of Harvieston, and his 
grandson of the same 
name. The figure of the 
child was inserted into 
the picture by Sir Henry 
Raeburn after the grand- 
father's death. The 
copy which Robertson 
made was painted in the 
year 1793, three years 
before the grandson was 
born. These facts ex- 
plain any differences 
that exist between the 
two pictures, but the 
nl replica "in 
little " ot the advocate's 
portrait shows con- 
clusively the source of 
Robertson's style, and 
provi how faithful he re- 
mained to his first admir- 
al ii m 1 t the Scotsman's 

The Connoisseur 


genius. This miniature has tin- additional interest 
of an inscription on the back, in Robertson's hand- 
writing — " John Tait, 

after Rael ■ I 

i London." It 
was in the posse 
a lady in Sussex, who 

■ loi ii 
with other miniatures 

id not to 

ol \1 i 

- ish this 

I loll. 

- w Plimer, is 

i ' | 

vhich little 


tiie Royal Academy during this time, and the only 
evidence forthcoming of his whereabouts is chronicled 
in a 1 etter from his 
wife's sister, in which 
she speaks of him as 
working in the West of 
England. The original 
of the portrait was born 
at Twyford House, near 
Winchester, i n M a y , 
1S0S, and at the time 
the portrait was painted 
he was about six years 
old. He was the son 
of C.eorge W. Ricketts, 
Receiver- General of 
i 1 [ants., whose 

ivife, I.aetitia. was 
i and co-heir of 
Car e w M ild may, of 
Shawford 1 louse, Hants. 
Edward Ricketts re- 
i i i\ ;<1 an appointment 
in the 1 reasurj < »ffii e, 

Lord I ;\ r] '. 

.it lover 

and collector ol pic 

.- >k ,. The 

- harm o! i olour of the 
original miniature is a 
little unusual ; the 
background ii ■ 

Some Recently Discovered Miniatim 


neutral tint, the tunic is a nut brown, and the mantle 
a dark green : this, with the fair hair and fresh com- 
plexion, forms a very pleasing harmony. 

We now come to two notable examples by Cosway 
and Engleheart respectively, both of which are 
extremely characteristic ; the one a delicate, free and 
graceful, tinted drawing, and the other a fine, distin- 
guished portrait of a gentleman. They have rei i ntlj 
come into the possession of Mrs. F. Maltby Bland. 
If my deductions are correct, which I believe they 
are, these two portraits represent Col. Elliott and 
Mrs. Elliott, his wife. 

The drawing, at any rate, is known to be a portrait 
of Mrs. Elliott, nee Miss Maltby, sister to Dr. Maltby, 
Bishop of Durham. This lady seems to have been 
painted several times by Cosway, and other members 
of her family were also painted in miniature by the 
French painters, Troiveaux and Mansion. There 
was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, in 
1889, a miniature ol Miss Maltby by Richard Cosway, 
belonging to Mr. feffery Whitehead. Appended to it 


was the following note: " Miss Maltby calling one day 
at a friend's house, where Cosway was visiting, he pro- 
posed taking her likeness just as she was then attired ; 
( 'oswav called this lady one of the three Craces." 

The portrait of a gentleman, by Engleheart, has 
always belonged to the same collection as the drawing 
of Mrs. Elliott, and is signed "E" and dated 1S01. 
On reference to the list of miniatures painted by 
G. Engleheart in that year, there is found to be one 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott, and as this is the only 
member or connection of the family that he painted 
in 1S01, it is fairly safe to assume that it is a portrait 
of the husband of Mrs. Elliott. The other little 
miniature of an unknown gentleman is also signed, 
but not being dated and having passed through many 
hands it is impossible to identify it. It now belongs 
to the owner of the Robertson miniature. The 
small portrait ol a lady, by John Smart, is similarly 
without any evidence or associations which can help 
in attaching a name to it, though it is undoubtedly a 
work of that painstaking painter. 


The Armourers of Italy 

Part I. 

By Charles ffoulkes 

1\ a former article in this magazine a 
general survey of the armourers of Europe was given 
with illustrations of their trade-marks. This might 
have been sufficient to whet the appetite of those 
who before had never realised what a high position 
n held during the Middle Ages and 
Renaissance, but it can hardly be said to have done 
justice to the individuals and their masterpieces. 
Withoul unduh exaggerating the importance of the 
• I the armourer, we may justly consider that, 
of all the applied arts, this alone, in its finest 
p i od, fulfilled 
all thos 
essential con 

(litmus without 
which ti" 
work of art or 
can exist. The 

I nstly, 
:; in the 
best | 

for which it 

This is cxein- 

in the sto 

i n the 

weapon will slip harmlessly. The second condition 
is that the work should be convenient for use. In 
the best period of armour, roughly speaking from 
1400 to 1570, this convenience is admirably studied 
in the easy movements of knee and arm pieces, 
and in the laminated plates or horizontal strips 
which compose the defences for the upper arm, 
hand, and feet. To any one who has made the 
experiment of wearing a properly constructed suit of 
armour this fact will be plain ; for the weight is so 
evenly distributed over the body and limbs, and the 
articulations of 
the suit follow 
the anatomical 
construction of 
the wearer so 
closely, that, 
in but a short 
time, the suit of 
plate becomes 
a second na- 
ture. The 
third of our 
conditions is 
that the work 
should suggest 
the material of 
which it is 
made, and that 
only. This 
rule was often 
broken at the 
beginning of 
the sixteenth 
century, when 
11 1 1. a ame t h e 
fashion to imi- 
tate in metal 
the puffed and 
;toni slashed suits of 

The Armourers of Italy 

civilian dress. The human lace was also represented 
on helmets, of which many are to be seen both in 
private and State collections. One helmet in the 
Tower has steel moustaches fixed to the lip, and the 
eyes which form the occularia of the helmet present 
a very grotesque appearance. The fourth condition, 
which was more often regarded in the breach than in 
the observance during the late sixteenth century, 
insists that any decoration or ornament shall be 
subservient to the foregoing three conditions. 

When we remember the ceaseless wars of the 
Italian States during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, and also take note of the fact that the safety of 
the leader of the army was of para- 
mount importance, we can readily 
understand the importance of the 
armourer and of his craft. The 
chief centre for this trade was Milan, 
and it may be of some interest 
to note that our word " milliner " 
was originally the " Milaner " who, 
besides supplying armour, was a 
universal provider of silks, ribbons 
and laces for feminine wear. 

So great was this industry even 
in the early fifteenth century that 
we find this town supplying ar- 
mour for 4,000 cavalry and 2,000 
infantry in a few days after the 
battle of Maclodio, which was 
fought in 1427. 

The State Archives at Milan No. II.— mar 

, a brigand: 

contain many references to the 

armourers of the town, of which it will suffice to 

take those which concern the principal artists whose 

work remains to us in the national museums of Spain, 

Vienna, Paris, Turin, and London. 

The name of Ferrante Bellino, however, should be 
noticed, for he is accredited with an invention for 
polishing steel about the year 1570. It is needless to 
point out that this had been done long before this 
date, but the fact that it is mentioned in Morigia's 
Historia dell' antichita di Milano (1592) shows that 
it must have been a new and remarkable improvement 
on the old methods. 

Armourers were sent over with armour made for 
the Karl of Derby in Milan, when the Earl-Marshal 
proposed a duel against him in 1398, but Froissarl 
simply states the fact without entering into details. 
Statues, monuments, and medals are excellen 
for dating a fashion in costume, for they prove 
that at any rate it was worn before the date of 
their execution. A reference to the statues of C.atte- 
malata by Verrochio, Coleoni by Donatello, and the 

11 :dals of Pisanello, if examined side by side with 
the armour shown on contemporary German monu- 
ments, show that the armourers of Italy at the 
middle of the fifteenth century were in advance of 
ih' 11 German rivals, especially as regards the decora- 
tion nf armour, which was rarely attempted in Germany 
at this period. 

lew records exist of the Cantoni family, who 
flourished in the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Jaccopo is mentioned as " Magister Armorum " in a 
document dated 1492, and again we find mention 
of tlie fact that he was dispatched by Galea/, Maria 
Sforza in 147S-S0 with two cases of arms of all kinds 
and sixty cuirasses. A brigandine 
in the Armeria Reale at Madrid 
bears the signature of Bernadino, 
his son, on one of the plates, and 
two suits in the Vienna Armoury 
are attributed to him by Sig. Gelli 
and Moretti. 

The Merate brothers, Francesco 
and Gabriello, flourished at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. 
Examples of their work and trade- 
marks are not definitely known; 
but in a note on No. A. 3 in the 
Catalogue of the Madrid Arm- 
oury, Count Valencia suggests that 
the signature M stamped on this 
suit may possibly be ascribed to 
them. The magnificent bard or 
cantoni on i lorse armour in the Tower, known 

Vr MADRID , .. ~ .. it,,! 

as the Burgundian bard, bears 
the same mark. This armour is embossed with the 
Burgundian badges, the cross ragule, and the flint 
and steel. It was sent as a present to Henry VIII. 
by the Emperor Maximilian. The embossing of 
the bard in no way offends any of the con- 
structional laws. The designs are not raised with 
a sharp undercut outline, but swell gradually from 
the flat planes, preserving thus the smooth glanc- 
ing surface, and by the boldness of their treatment 
increase the strength and resisting qualities of the 

The Merates were employed by Maximilian, the 
husband of Mary of Burgundy, and worked both 
at Arbois in Burgundy and in Milan. The Emperoi 
mentions Francesco and his brothei .is good armourers 
in a letter sent to Ludovico il Mom dated Worms, 
25 April, 1495. In the list of taxpayers in the 
parish of S. Maria, lieltrade, the church ol '.he 
Swordsmiths' Gild in Milan, Gabrielo da Merate is 
mentioned under the dates 1524-0 as being liable 
for 200 ducats as an annual tax. The village ol 


The Connoisseur 

\I .rate, from 
w h i c h t h e y 
took their 
ten mile 
Missalia, which 
to a n o t h e r 
famous family 
• • irers. 
This i. mnl'. 
ol Missaglia, 
\ igroni, al- 
though taking 
thei r n .1 m 
from the village 
oi M issal ia, 
seem to have 
made their 
a first 
in I Ho, 01 Ella, 
near the hike ol Como. They migrated to Milan 
as their business 1 xtended, ami soon collected 3 

ientel ol Italian ami foreign prii 
anxious to employ these master-craftsmen. 

The interesting details concerning the Missaglia 
:n til- Via degli Spadari, Milan, have been 


fully treated in 
Cielli and Mor- 
etti's mono- 
graph on this 
family. The 
house was 
pulled down in 
1 90 1 to make 
room for street 
( )n September 
15th o f that 
year a farewell 
festival was 
held in honour 
of the statue 
of the Virgin, 
which stood at 
one corner of 
the building — 
an object of 
great veneration to the artisan population of this 
quarter of the city. To give credit where it is clue, 
we should mention that it was the late Herr Wendelin 
Boeheim who first made use of the material con- 
nected with this house and its occupants in the Vienna 
Tahrbuch des Kunthistorischen Samlungen, 1 889, and 

>' >R I II 


■ ■"... . > t 

■ II AN 


The Armourers of Italy 

an interesting note 
on Boeheim's dis- 
covery of the house 
is given in Baron de 
Cosson's Arsenals 
and A rmourers of 
Southern German r 
( Arch. Journ. xlviii ). 
The decorations on 
the house have been 
restored in the ac- 
companying sketch 
from the fragments 
which were discover- 
ed previous to its 
demolition. The 
monograms of the 
family, and also of 
Antonio, one of its 


a.ntonio missaglia, circa 1480 

appear at the top; below these are 

painted the " Iride " or rainbow badge 

of Galeazzo Sforza and the Cardinal 

Ascanio, the broom used as a device No. VII.— ma 

by Ludovico il Moro, the dove of Bona AND ° THER " 

' . MISSAGl 

di Savoia, and several astrological and 
astronomical designs. This house was used as the 
residence of the family, and only the finishing work 
was done here. The heavy work was carried out at a 
".molino," or factory, near the Porta Romana, for 
which the Missaglias paid a quit-rent of one salad, or 
light helmet, every year to the Duke of Milan. The 
unfinished armour was brought into the house in 
the Via degli Spadari by the " Porta d'Inferno." a 
name which survived till the demolition ol the house ; 
and, when we picture to ourselves the gloom of the 
typical Italian workshop, the ruddy fires, and the > lang 
of hammer on anvil, we realise the suitability of the 
name. Few complete suits signed by the M 
family exist. There are two in the Imperial Museum 
at Vienna bearing the marks of Antonio and Tomaso, 
and one of later date by a member of the Missaglia 
family in the Musee d Artillerie in Paris. This suit 
(catalogued ('.. 7) is finely engraved and gilded in 
parts. It bears the image of the Virgin with the 
motto "O Mater Dei memento mori." The decora- 
tion in no way impairs the utility of the armour, 
I nit simply enriches the surface without interfering 

with the polished surface. The gorget, according to 
the catalogue of 1890, does not belong to the suit. 
A suit in the Royal Armour) at Turin (B. 2) is 
ascribed to Antonio Missaglia, but bears no mark. 
The fan-shaped plates at the knee bear some re- 
semblance to those shown on the statue of Gattemalata 
by 1 >onatello. 

Several salads in the museums and armouries of 
Europe and England bear the family stamp, one is 
preserved in the case near the entrance to the Council 
Chamber of the Tower, and near to this is a " 1 lose 
helmet," bearing the mark of the same family, which 
forms part of the " Tonlet " suit of Henry Mil. 
There is also a salad with a similar mark in the 
Wallace collection. 

In 1466 we find mention of the balance of an 
account being paid to Antonio Missaglia of the sum 
of 30,568 lire 2 soldi 1 1 denarii, for armour furnished 
by his family to the Duke of Milan; and in the year 
1465 the sum of 22,400 lire for arms, supplied to 
the " famigli, camereri galuppi, ragazzi 
ducali," for the ceremony of the marri- 
age ol Madona Ippolita with Alfonso 
of Calabria, and again for 3,200 lire 
for arms furnished to Galeazzo Sforza, 
1 Hike of Milan, for his journey to 
Prance. That this family did not con- 
line their trade to Italy alone is proved 


by the entry of 8,800 lire 
for arms promised to the 
King of Prance (Louis 
XL), and to certain of 
his knights and ambas- 

The total of this por- 
tion of the accounts of 
the Missaglia fa 
comes to nearly a hun 
tired thousand fra 
only represents a small 
portion of their business. 

Baron de Cosson, in 
the number of lh' / 
logical Tournal 
above referred 
to, suggests that 
the magnifi- 
cent monument 
of Richard Bi au- 
champ, P. ail ol 

NO. VIII. m: Mi 11 R 01 11 

The Connoisseur 

Warwick, was modelled 
from a suit made by 
one of the Missaglias. 
He points out that the 
Earl is known to havi 
been in Italy and to 
have taken part in a 
tournament at Verona 
in 1408 when Petraiolo 
Missaglia was courl 
armourer to the l»uke of 
Milan. A comparison 
of the VVarwii k 
with the two drawings o! 
the suits at Vienna will 
show that Tin- tl 
not put forward with- 
out 1 grounds. In 

addition to this, the 

fact of the strong 

.i, 1 between 

the armour shown on 

the effigy and on the 

■ oi Mantegna 

makes it practically 

certain that al ai 

it was of North Italian 

make. Mantegna was 

born in 143 1, the Earl of 

Warwick died in i439> 

and his effigy was put 

up in 1454. so that it 

seems clear that the 

must have been 

painted from a suit 

which was mad 

the last years ol thi 

.1 k's life 

and kept possib 

'• property" by 

: as an example 

• craftsmanship. 

Atany rate, the similarity 

nking as to be 

worthy of notice. 

! i made by 

i No. vi.) bears 

No. IX. to : as ONi • 


{Brit. Mus., Cot. MS., 
Julius E. IV.,fol. 212b). 
In the year 1565 the 
Missaglia family peti- 
tioned that the con- 
demnation of Gio Anto- 
nio, one of their number, 
for homicide, should be 
rescinded. Anne of 50 
scudi, or three strokes of 
the whip before the in- 
quisitor, was the sen- 
tence passed on him, 
and the family offered 
12 scudi or one stroke 
of the whip. This miti- 
gation of the punishment 
was refused, and they 
were forced to pay the 
whole sum. In 1573 
the State Archives of 
Milan record the name 
of Count Antonio Mis- 
saglia. Whether the 
homicide and the Count 
are the same as the 
famous armourer we 
have no definite know- 
ledge, but the various 
records quoted, when 
compared with those of 
that lawless master- 
craftsman, Benvenuto 
Cellini, suggest that not 
only honour but also in- 
dulgence were granted 
to men whose services 
were of so much use to 
the State. 

The Negrolis were an 
offshoot of the Missa- 
glias, and seem to have 
altered the original 
spelling of the family 
name of Negroni, for 
we find them recorded 
under both spellings. 
Vassari writes of Philip 
Negroli that his work, 
especially in respect ol 
ili family, decorating armour, was 

'- PARIS « .1 Known that it 

no detailed description. [To be 


1 «? 




.1/ Versailles 

H UIKIN. IH C 1 1 ! ; S S I . IMiK'l.i: \\s 

Pottery and 


Pratt Ware 

By G. Woolliscroft Rhead 

Certain jugs of slightly cream-tinted earthen- 
wai . glazed with a bluish glaze, bearing modelled 
ornamentation of subjects connected with the sea. and 
coloured under-glaze, have fur some time past been 
known to collectors under the more or less vague term 
of " Pratt " jugs. The examples are almost invariably 
unmarked : and up to the present no sufficiently 
definite information as to their authorship has been 
forthcoming. As a consequence, pieces appearing al 
intervals in the different sale rooms command com- 
paratively low prices. As a matter of fact, this potter 
is not nearly appreciated as much as he deservi - to 
lie, inasmuch as he may be said to be the one 
Staffordshire potter whose work bears any affinity 
to that of the great Italian Maiolicists, in so far that 
the modelling is vigorous and full of character, and 
the colour palette the same restricted one of the 
Italians, viz., a cobalt blue, a green of fine quality, 
a rich orange, and brown. 

It must here be remarked that these pieces suffer in 
reproduction by photography: the work, although 
based upon form and relief, is conceived from the 
colour standpoint, the colouring, therefore, in transla- 
tion, often appears ruder and coarser than it really is 
upon the ware, 
the colour value 
being nei i 5- 

saril y lost or 

somewhat dis- 

A rare marked 
example in the 
possession of 
M i . A . E . 
Clarke, of Wis- 
bech ( I I on i 
whose col- 

i on all the sailor and sweetheart ji 

accompanying illustrations are taken, with the excep- 
tion of the ornamented teapoy ami the examples from 
South Kensington), is impressed upon the bottom 
with the word " PRATT " in capitals. It enables us 
to identify with tolerable certainty the various classes 
of this interesting ware, which may be placed under 
live different heads, viz. : ( i ) Subjects connected with 
the sea, of which a typical example is the marked one- 
above referred to, the subject being The Farewell and 
The Return. On the one side is a sailor bidding 
adieu to his sweetheart in a field ; his ship in the 
distance; and on the other he is coming ashore and 
hastening to meet her. This same subject appears 
also on other jugs in various collections (unmarked), 
with varying borders and accessories. Other pi i 
this class are the "Nelson and Berry" jug, with busts 
of the two naval heroes, their ships between. This 
and other pieces have been imitated by less important 
potters, the modelling coarser, and the colouring ruder 
than the originals, — an example is extant with Captain 
Hardy substituted for Captain Kerry; the Duncan 
jug, with portrait of Admiral Duncan, who defeated 
the Dutch Admiral De Winter off Camperdown in 
1707 ; the Jervis jug, with bust of a naval officer, in- 
scribed " Lord 
J a r vis " ; the 
U ellingtonand 
1 1 ill jug : and 
the Duke Of 
York jug, with 
group on re- 
verse sid ol 
slaying the 


(2) Pastoral 

Subjl els, as the 
line Unit dish 

77/ e Connoisseur 

in the South l. n in ; on coll i tion, which is alto 
one of the most i h irming i samples of the art of this 
ing p iti i. On eithei side ol a growing vine 
appear a shepherd with < rook and spotted dog, and a 
girl gathering fruit, the sentimental interest being 
nparted bj a winged figure of Cupid in a neighbour- 
ing tree, accompanied by a dove. The subject is 
i ,,n thi opposite side with, on the one side 
i moon, with seven stars, 
01 ■• field " of thi piei b ing occupied by 
i epand lambs, and shepherds' crooks. The handles 
are formed of a vine branch throwing off leaves and 
fruit. 'I he pi :ce is Orcadian in its naive simplicity : 
coloui i mployed are the four colours character- 
istic ol Pratt's work. Another example of ties class 

is the characteristic little jug in the Bethnal Green 
Museum, on the one side of which is a farmer pursuing 
a fox running away with a goose, and on the reverse 
the farmer's wife is letting loose the dogs. 

(3) Caricatures of the extravagant head dresses of 
the period of 1775 and later. These usually appear 
on small flasks, teapoys, etc., and are also in relief 
1 oloured. The two teapoys illustrated are examples. 

(4) Purely ornamental pieces, painted on the flat 
surface of the ware, as the little teapoy and flower 
holder illustrated, the character of the ornament 
somewhat resembling Rouen ware. It will be noticed 
that precisely similar sprig ornamentation appears on 
the side of the teapoy with the two grotesque figures. 

his also occurs on teapots bearing subjects in relief. 

Pratt Ware 



(5) Figures, of which Pratt made a number, and 
which, although unmarked, may be readily identified 
from the similarity in the character of the modelling 
to well-authenticated examples, and from the peculiar 
quality of their colouring, as Pratt may be said to 
be the only potter of that period who remained 
uninfluenced by Wedgwood's methods, and adhered 
consistently to the under-glaze method of colouring. 
Examples of these are — the group of "umbrella 
courtship" (No. 1643 in the Willett collection at 
Brighton), in which the same sprigged ornament is 
seen on the dress of the girl; the jug in form of 
a sailor seated on a chest. No. 297 in the same 

In the Mayer Museum at Liverpool is a teapot 
with the usual raised ornamentation, and with panels 
of painted land-cape executed in the free manner of 

the old Delft. Two examples are given, which, 
although rude in execution, possess that line percep- 
tion of style characteristic of this potter. 

Pratt was imitated at Herculaneum, Newcastle and 
Sunderland, hence the mistake collectors have made 
in assigning genuine Pratt specimens to these plai es ; 
in every instance these imitations were poorer in 
character. Several pieces made at Herculaneum occur 
in the Liverpool Museum. 

Other pieces which may be identified with this 
potter are the "Wellington'' jug. with equestrian 
portrait of the great Duke, and a military trophy on 
the reverse side (collection of Mr. Frank Freeth) ; 
the "Miser and Spendthrift" jug. the spendthrift 
hugging ,1 bottle, and the miser clutching a bag of 
gold; the "Parson and Clerk" jug, the parson 
standing with long pipe 111 his hand, the clerk seated 

peacock j re 

1 I. I MUSI cm 



rl-.M'Or Willi TAINT II) I.ANDSC 

/V<//7 // 'are 



smoking, on the reverse side a drunken peasant at 
a table holding a mug in his hand ; the "Sportsman" 
jug, with figures ol three sportsmen with guns, dog, 
and hare-,; the "Debtor and Creditor" jug, with 
medallions of debtor on the one side and creditor 
on the reverse. A leading characteristic of these 
"Pratt" jugs is the zig-zag or pointed borders top 
and bottom, the plain zig-zags being often alternated 
or entirely replaced by acanthus leaf decoration. 
This occurs in its various forms on a number of 

To the Pratts must be attributed many of the 
mugs, jugs, etc., formed of the heads of smiling 
satyrs garlanded with the vine, as also some "Toby" 
jugs in the Willett and other collections, in which 
the colour combination and quality are particularly 

These potters also employed transfer printing. In 
the Victoria and Albert Museum is a pint flask with 
a beautifully modelled figure of Nelson in relief, 
coloured, on an ornamental ground of blue transfer, 
marked 1). R. at the bottom in blue (illustrated). 

Of the history and personality of the I'ratts very 

little is known— scarcely anything can be gleaned 
from the pages of either Shaw, Jewitt, or Chaffers 
Felix Pratt married one of the three daughters Ol 
Thomas Heath, who was potting at Lane 1'elf in 
ryro; the two other daughters married the potters 
Palmer and Neale, who so freely pirated Wedgwood': 
productions in the latter pan ol the eighteenth cen 
tury. Pratt's manufactory was built on the site ol 
'I homas Heath's pottery at Lane Hell (now Middle 

In an interview recently accorded to the writer by 
the present representatives of the Pratt family at 
Fenton, the following information was forthcoming: — 
That the Pratt family have no records of their 
predecessors beyond the grandfather of the present 
Messrs. Pratt, born 17S0 and died iSdo, conse- 
quently too late to be the author of the pieces 
under consideration, which, roughly speaking, cover 
the period between 1775 and 1810 ; and that he 
considered himself a better potter than was Josiah 
Wedgwood. That there have been six generations 
of Pratts potters. That all the members of the 
Pratt family have- been excellent colour makers , 



The Cottnoisseur 

this, doubtless, accounting for the fine quality of 
colour we find on Pratt ware. Further, the Messrs. 
Pratt corroborated the information given above with 
respect to Felix Pratt and Thomas Heath. 

The factory is still in existence, and at present in the 
occupation of the Rubian Art Pottery Co. 

The successors of Felix Pratt have continued the 
production of pottery to the present day. They 

n ol William Pratt appears in the list 
given b) Chaffers from .1 map in the Staffordshire 
Pottery Directory, Hanley, [802, as potting at Lane 
Delf. This, however, is another branch of the family, 


initiated amongst other things a system of transfer 
printing in several colours (under-glaze), for which 
they were awarded a medal at the Exhibition of 1S51, 
and which is still produced. 




Some Knitting Implements of Cumberland and Westmorland 
By J. C. Varty=Smith 

To those living in the Midlands and the 
South of England the subject of this paper will no 
doubt be puzzling, and the accompanying illustrations 
may at a first glance be taken for instruments of war- 
fare used by some savage tribes. They are, however, 
innocent and useful instruments of industry, which 

were among the belongings of our grandmothers and 
their fore-elders of the eighteenth century. 

The u^e of knitting sheaths or sticks, once very 
common in the Holder counties of England and 
Scotland, is now almost a thing of the past. 

The art of knitting cannot be called old in 

. . . . 


is one of .'■ 



V//C Connoisseur 

comparison with other 
textile industries. No 
mention is made oi il be 

h century. 
An -V ■ < il Parliament 
(Hen '. 1 1 . i : 
of knitted woollen caps. 
And again in another 

■ 1 ■ I . ' 5 5 3 I. 
"knitte peticotes, knitte 

and knitte hose " are 

These artii les must 

j luxuries. 

History relates how 

Mi Mo ta lie, Queen 

th's silk woman, 

II i Majesty 

with a pair of black silk 

orth she never wore cloth any The Scotch claim the inv 

mon . some authorities to Spain 

Stockings, evidentl) much prized articles, are Scotch base their claim on 
also mentioned as forming part of the wardrobe of son of a Scotch king, being 


„i,i family • 


Edward IV. Henry VI 11. 
also wore Spanish silk 
stockings on rare occa- 
sions. On the authority 
of Stow we find that the 
Earl of Pembroke was the 
first nobleman to appear 
in knitted stockings. 

The art of knitting must 
have been becoming more 
general in Shakespeare's 
time, for mention is made 
of it in some of his plays, 
and as if it were no rare 
accomplishment. For 
instance, in the " Two 
Gentlemen of Verona," 
knitting is given as one of 
the qualifications of Silvia, 
the beloved of Valentine, 
ention of knitting, but by 
is the honour due. The 
account of St. Fiacre, the 
chosen the patron saint 

■ litalh of it 

,i,;i l-y 

•si's 4 s'| 

F?1 ^1 ^ ; 



8 ~ " - %.- I -S ^? ^ C 

The Connoisseur 

■ , ; 

and the other it 

lild ol French tocking ] nitti i - in Paris about 

i] [527. There is a tradition in the Shetland 

cuei ' rom the Spanish 

aught the inhabitants the art. 

Whether knitting sheaths and sticks were used by 

ry early workers it is difficult to say. The 

writer has been unable to find any printed n ; 

of their use, while oral traditions date them uol 

■ eighl nth 1 ntury. 

i 1 : used extensivi ly by the Scotch and 

knitters, and that many specimens are to be 

in the land- ! \ tmorland and 

ittle surprise when the almost 

ing i whii li were knitted for 

sale in those parts during the end ol the 


immortalised th ■ 11a 1 ol L)i nl 

Oi : 
olson and Burn, it is stati 1 

1 il market was 1.000 pai 

1 1 


occurrence during the winter months for friends in 
the dales to meet together at the house of a neighbour 
and have a knitting "go forth,'' as it was termed, the 
workers sitting round a log fire knitting, while 
someone read aloud or told a story. 

Henry Brougham, delivering his election address 
in Ravenstonedale about the year 1S20, prior to his 
elevation to the position of Lord Chancellor, noticed 
that nearly all the women and young girls kept busily 
plying then needles while listening to his discourse. 
I le humorously remarked at the time that he thought 
the name of the place should be changed to 

Knitting sheaths and sticks have a hole at one end 

in which to place one o! the needles when knitting. 

ath was kepl in position on the right side- oi 

the user by being slipped mto the waistband, 01 

und the apron string. In the most 

■ . ■ 1 le quill or metal 

d between pieces of cloth or flannel, 
and tins was pinned to the dress in the same position 
as the larger sheaths. 

10 artii le lias so much sentiment attached 
to ii as the old-time knitting sticks of out fore elders. 
They were often the work of the village youths as 

Some Knitting Implements of Cumber/and and Westmorland 

presents to their sweethearts. The decoration chiefly 
takes the form of chip-carving, all done by the pocket- 
knife. The metal sheaths were no doubt made in 
the evening at the village forge. 

Sheaths usually show the initials of both giver and 
receiver, sometimes accompanied by date, 1722 being 
the earliest known to the writer. Besides being 
carved, a few may be seen inlaid with ivory, metal, 
or mother-of-pearl. They take many forms, as will 
be seen by the illustrations. 

The ball of yarn or " clue " was in some instances 
placed on a metal hook on the right side of the 
knitter, the ball being re-airanged on the holder from 
time to time as the wool was worked off. The point 
of the hook in one will be seen to be bent back, in 
order to prevent the ball from coming off too readily. 
'1 hese " clue holders " were made in various shapes 
and sizes of brass and iron ; they are now scarce and 
rarely to be met with. 

Another old-time device was a wooden pin on 
which the yarn was wound, called a "broach," 
pointed at one end and broad and flat at the other, 
which was inserted inside the shoe ol the knitter. 

In Dong., Virgil 273, iS, we have the term 
" broach " used : " Hir womanly handis nowthir rok 
of tie ne spyndis vsit nor brochis of Minerva Ouhilk 
in the. craft of claith making dois serve." 

As a foundation fur the ball of yarn another idea 

was followed. The windpipe of a goose was taken 
and made into the form of a ring, the hollow ends 
slipped into one another, but before doing so a few 
dry peas were inserted, the whole when chy forming 
a rattle ; on this the yarn was wound. If the ball 
was lust, its whereabouts was then made known by 
the rattling of the peas, as knitting was generally 
resorted to in the evening, when feeble rushlights and 
home-made dip candles were in vogue. 

'I he scimitar-shaped sheaths were without doubt 
the earliest forms used ; these were followed by the 
straight, fancy and spindle form, concluding with 
the smaller heart-shaped varieties, the latter being 
fastened upon cloth with edges broad enough to pin 
to the dress. Metal tubes and goose quills placed 
between red flannel are the most modern, and may 
sometimes be seen in use at the present time. 

These North Country knitting sheaths may be 
classed with the carved Welsh " love spoons " of 
the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. These 
spoons have broad, elaborately chip-carved handles, 
ornamented as a rule with hearts and similar symbols. 
Sonic of the more prized ones have double bowls 
issuing from one broad handle, no doubt typical of 
unity of heart between the giver and receiver, and 
signifying "we two are one." A representative 
collection of these spoons may be seen in Caidiff 





The trustees ol the National ( lallery have acquired 
from M i Ernesl Brown & Phillips the well-known 
painting April Love, by Arthur 1 [ughes. 
This work was painted in 1856, and 
Hi.- most notable examples ol 
the pre Raphaelite movement. It has 
in the possession 
ol Mr. II Hi. Boddington, of YVilmslow, and has 
recently been <>n exhibition 
at the Leicester Galleries, 

.7 Love Ruskin 

wrot " Exquisite in every 

way ; lovelj in colour ; most 

subtle in the quivering 

n ol the li|is, and 


n like a leaf by 


I ure will shortly 

in the National 
Gallery of liriti-h Art. 


A Charles II. 


Delft Plate ""< 

busl ol 

I . by Dwight, at 
William ,: 

■II I'llll 1 ll'S 

is a comprehensive one. Not the least interesting 
to the collector is the series of Delft plates and 
dishes made at Lambeth, and beating the effigies of 
Charles I., Charles II., and James II. upon them. 
Although portraits of Charles I. appear in this series 
of dishes (usually about 13 inches in diameter), they 
are nut contemporary, and were probably not made 
at Lambeth until after 1670, and they were evidently 
made in pious memory of 
" King 1 li.irles the Maim ." 
'These and the crude 
" blue dash " chargers or 
dishes with the blue dashes 
clumsily applied around the 
edge, and sometimes, be it 
said, in brown instead of blue, 
often have dates and initials. 
The trees and foliage, if any, 
are usually done with a 
sponge hastily applied. 

The dish here illustrated 
represents Charles II. at full 
length in his regal robes, 
wearing .1 1 row n. antl carrying 
tin- orb and sceptre. The 
portraiture is of the .rudest, 
and hardly rises above the 
king on ,1 pack of cards. 

In point ui evolution these 

royal portraits sui 1 ei 7 d the 

oi loft in his 

dishes ol slip ware. But to 

the 1 ollei ioi they arc of 
1. as they 
• v denned pei tod 
in English ea rt hen wa re. 
I he} follow tin- drug pol 
and the dated sack-bottle, 
although Dellt was made 



in England, at Bristol and 
elsewhere, [up. to the 
middle of the reign of 
George III., these dishes 
with mval portraits lie 
between 1670 and the 
opening years of the reign 
of George I., that is to 
saw roughly, a little over 
a quarter of a century. — 
A. H. 

This box, set with 
brilliants and a portrait of 


was given 

b y t h e 
Emperor Napoleon of 
France to the Hon. 

Anne Seymour I lamer as charles 11. 

a "souvenir" — the word 

he used in consequence of her having presented him 
with a bust of Mr. Fox executed in marble by herself. 
The bust had been promised at the "Peace of 
Amiens," was finished 1S12 and sent to 1'' ranee, where 
it remained, but was not presented till May 1st, 
1815, when, by command of the Emperor, Anne 
Seymour Darner had an audience for that purpose at 
the Palais Elysce, where the Emperor then resid 

It was bequeathed to the 
British Museum by Mrs. 
Damer in 1828. 

The Holy Family, by Van J 

Dyck, which we reproduce as MA 

our frontispiece, 
Our Plates is one of seven 

works by Ru- 
bens's illustrious pupil in the 
Rodolphe Kami Collection. 
As regards tonus and types, it 
recalls Rubens, but the lu- 
minous tone of the brilliant 
colour is derived from Titian, 
before whose works the young 
master's art istic sense had 
taken on still greater refine- 
ment. The little naked figure 
of the Infant Jesus on his 
mother's lap, his fresh and 
exuberant life restrained fur a 
moment by the gentle bunds 
ol sleep, is a delicious creation. SNUFF . BOX PRESE 
The Virgin, in a dark blue by the emperor 

gown and cherrj coloured 
mantle, has a grace ol 
expression and a bi autj 
of movement which sug- 
gest Murillo, under whose 
name, indeed, the picture 
was for some time known 
in the market. The St. 
roseph, who gazes h a\ n 
ward with di ep emotion, 
betrays the study of 
Tintoretto in his dis- 
ordered white beard, his 
brownish carnations, and 
his brilliant yellow mantle. 
The canvas measures 
39 inches by 36 inches. 
The portrait of Louise 
Ma/ic Adelaide de Bour- 
jeth delft plate ion, Duchesse d'Orleans, 

which we reproduce in 
colours, ranks high amongst the many fine portraits 
executed by Madame Vigee Le Brun, the intimate friend 
of Marie Antoinette, whom she painted no fewer than 
twenty-five times. The daughter of a portrait painter, 
Madame Le Brun was born in Paris in 1755. Quite 
early in life she displayed evidence of artistic talent, and 
rei eiving lessons from Davesne and Briard, her reputa- 
tion was establish- d before she had reached her twenty- 
fifth year. Many distinguished 
personages were subjects for 
her brush, amongst them being 
members of the French Royal 
Family, Madam-- de Stael, 
Madame Catalani, La Bruyere, 
and Abb,- Fleury. 

The plate- on the cover of 
the present 1111 nber is a repro- 
duction of Henry Morland's 
well-known work. The Laundry 
Maid, in the National Gallery. 
The special plate ol Mrs. 
Hoare andChild, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, presented loosewith 
this number, is well known to 
all visitors to the Wallace Col- 

in 1 766, 

r Jos 
at nit 

The Connoisseur 

In his recent addition to the pewtei collectors 
increasing library Mr. Christopher Markham addresses 
himself mainly to the consideration of 
:er Marks &f , Min|rU , Mt com plex subject of 
Pewter Marks, and while covering 
much ground previously traversed by 
Mi. Charles Welch in his History of 
the Pevterers' Company and by Mr. 
M asse" 

and Old 
Pewter Ware 

A. Markham, 
(Reeves and 
London 21s.) 


in his 


nformation in 

md moi e i on 

form, but, as 


an h, provides 

M r-lover with 

fresh and interesting 

throwing ad- 


tain points, which 

■ ely must 

main to a largi 

extent obscure. 

The small number 
ol dated touches n 
any yearly dal 

to that on silver, and 

which the n i ording i >l 

must alw.r 

diffii nil to do more 

date Ol the majority of 

marks, and well - foum ons as to the 

hes initials only 
d in his 


brief but 


i pair and 

and Mr. Markham 


cleaning ; but we think a comparison between many 
well-tended private collections and the uncleaned 
specimens in certain museums will suggest that the 
discreet cleaner is probably wise in his generation, 
and incidentally earning the gratitude of future 

In the chapters devoted to the enumeration of the 
various articles for domestic and ecclesiastical use pro- 
duced by the pewterer 
the author confines 
himself within narrow 
limits, touching briefly 
on the various articles 
in illustrated notes. 

The selection of 
objects requisitioned 
for illustrating this 
section of the book 
has not invariably been 
happy, and the photo- 
graphs of Britannia 
metal College " Pots " 
used in connection 
with the brief notes on 
tankards might, with 
advantage, have given 
place to others of such 
fine representative 
pewter tankards as are 
included in many well- 
known col 1 ect i ons, 
notably in one famous 
series in Worcester- 
shire, to which the 
author has apparently 
had access. 

Britannia metal is 
admittedly akin to hard 
pewter, but the excel- 
lent productions of 
Dixon, of Sheffield. 
in that metal are not regarded seriously by seekers 
aftei old pewter. 

The illustrations from photographs and drawings 

an numerous, and often interesting, but we are 

1 to think the appearance of the book would 

I fullei reliance on the cam ra. 

Apart from the drawbacks referred to, Mr. 

Markham i to I igratulated on placing at the 

\ olume winch must command 

the attention ol those interested in the stud; ol 

tainted with the works ol such 

an adm on kindred subjects.- - W \i 1 1 R 

. 1 1 117 F N I 1 1 


The English edition recently issued of Mr. Frank 

Weitenkampf's How to Appreciate Prints makes a 

welcome addition to the collector's 

How to 

te Prints 

bookshelf. It is a volun 


Appreciate j-nnis wr j tten w j t h a s i n gl eness of purpose, 
By Frank ^ . g wel , ca]culated to serve others 

_ eI „. , , The author endeavours, bv enlisting 
(Grant Richards, . 

,. . the reader s interest in and sympathy 

7s. 6d. net) . , , . 

with various artists aims and their 

methods of work, to kindle within him a desire to 
possess the fruits of their labours. But in so doing 
he contrives to impart a good deal of technical infor- 
mation which many who pursue this fascinating hobby 
have not acquired. Practically the whole range of 
collecting has lately been traversed by popular hand- 
books which yield the amateur collector all the knowledge 
necessary, next to practical experience, to enable him to 
follow one or other of the branches treated. These 
manuals, however, admirable as they are, premise a 
certain knowledge of the subject on the put of those to 
whom they appeal, and an inborn desire to make that 
subject their own. The title of the volume under review 
is a sufficient indication that its author had no pre- 
conceived notion of this kind, but that he appreciated 
the intricacy and the initial difficulties of a subject, the 
name of which often suggests to the lay mind a mere 
mechanical process in which an artist's individuality has 
no place whatever. But it remains a work which every 
collector should find helpful. The various processes of 
etching, dry-point, line engraving, mezzotint, stipple, 
colour-printing and lithography, are all explained with 
graphic completeness, to which numerous illustrations in 
half-tone of typical examples lend their aid. 

Not the least noteworthy feature of the book is, that 
it does not attempt to regard the work of producing 
" pictures in print " as an art that existed only in the 
past, but instead, it contains a careful survey of the 
whole sphere of engraving, displaying the same sym- 
pathy with the workers in lithography and the modern 
photo-rnechanical process, as with the early artists in 
woodcut and etching. It is, too, of great practical 
advantage to the student that each chapter deals with 
one subject only, and is quite complete in itself, so that 
it may be read, if desired, independently of the res: of 
the volume. 

Having told the reader everything about the various 
methods of technique necessary to secure his apprei iatii >n, 
Mr. Weitenkampf proceeds to give some useful hints 
about collecting, hints that apply more particularly to 
the art-loving amateur who is desirous of building up 
a collection from an artistic standpoint, rather than to 
one whose main idea is to secure a good financial 
asset. However, as he states, " If the two coincide, all 
the better.'' The chapter on "The Making of Prints" 
will undoubtedly be found most useful by the amateur, 
who too often is bewildered in the matter of "States." 
The information given here should make it comparatively 
easy for anyone to judge a print intelligently. Finally, 
the book has a well-tabulated index for reference. 

E. S. S. 

WHEREVER there exists an understanding and a love 
of scientific work, of the throwing in of hypothesis an ong 
accumulated data- and the resultant 
A New Light vision of these data interpreted and 
on the related, intelligible parts of the develop- 

Renaissance ;„<, picture of life— Mr. Bayley's book- 

Displayed in m Afedi&val Paper Marks will find 
Contemporary we]conle . 

Emblems Whilst several writer- have thrown 

By Harold 
(London : 
J. M. Dent 

and Co. 


passing glances at the available facts, 
and have hinted at a possible harvest 
of en 


nent, there has been, until 

present work, no book on the 

subiect of the water-marks in paper 
excepting Monsieur Charles Briquet's monumental 
dictionary, Les Filigrancs, appearing in Paris two years 
ago, comprising over ten thousand facsimiles sorted and 
classified, incidentally accompanied by a repudiation of 
any idea of coherence in these signs. 

It has been left to Mr. Bayley to complete the process 
of investigation, to look at this mass of material in the 
light of a suspicion, to use his scientific imagination upon 
it, to carry back the abstracted facts to their setting, to 
trace their origin, patiently to study the milieu of their 
development, and to see them at last n<> longer arbitrary 
and meaningless, but real and living, playing then- 
coherent part. 

And in this pleasant, leisurely volume, with its attendant 
troop of charming illustrations, he takes us to look with 
him at the setting whence these signs emerged— back to 
the heart of the Middle Ages, on joyous errand of trial, 
whether the picture, already so rich, will accept his 
proffered embellishment— back to medkeval Provence 
standing in sharp relief, with its ominous precocity, 
against the dark background of the rest of Europe, a 
radiant country, home of troubadours, of lovers of art 
and literature, cherisher of legend and romance, and salient 
bulwark of heresy, attracting the persecuted from all 
quarters to bring their intelligence and industry in various 
enrichment of its fair burgeoning. 

Down amidst its surging life, in amorigst the craftsmen 
of the little towns and villages, our guide cries a halt and 
bids us watch the lives and thoughts of the strong ones 
into whose hands the skilled labour of Provence fell and 
flourished, the Albigensian heretics who watched over 
the cradle of European paper-making, little colonies of 
craftsmen living round their mills soberly in the fear of 
God, perpetually at warfare with the official custodians of 
Christianity. It is largely upon the opinions and the 
lues of these men and their relation to the troubadours, 
the Nonconformist press of the day with their unorthodox 
Grail legends, their mystic romaunts and songs, that the 
evidence for Mr. Bayley's belief in the deliberate and 
ed significance of paper-marks rests— upon that 
and upon the internal support from the la< t of the gradual 
modification and embellishment by the Albigensian 
,:.,:! men of the Grail and Romaunt emblems which 

|Ui litis- in watei marks, modi! 
embellishments not merely of the design, but of the idea, 
: i t,, prove thai the makers wer< isi ious of the 

The Connoisseur 

underlying symbolism as a persistent force remaining 

unbroken, moreover growing and expanding after the 

descent of the Papal Crusade on the Provencal heretics 

in 1209, when the whole land was silenced by the sword, 

and the scattered Albigensian refugees spread over 

like a leaven, appearing under the guise of 

the Brethren of the Common Life, Hussites, Lollards, 

Brethren of tin Homines Intelligence, 

Franciscans, founded by the e\-troubadour St. Francis 

1 riend of God, and Waldenses. "So honey- 

ts our author, "was Europe by these 


a Walden 

ti im Antwerp to Rome 
could sleep every night 
a: iIm house of a fellow- 

Through cha] 

where we may 

watch the youth ol papei 

making and printing, a 

bright under-world of tin-, 

■ flit, and life, 

■ 1 ret tip' 

sturdy warfare for the dis- 

enthralment ol I 

Mr. P.a\ ley marshals hi ^ 

. anil turns to 

US at last, his p 

his li[i-. 

ing forward to 1 

w hen these things 

the light 

mimon -la y a n d 

naissan ce had 

It is < 1m actei istii "t 

behind .1 ;poke ;m in 

and almos 

Turning the tears o 
Decking the earth 
The sinking storm- 

night to joyous gems, 
ith radiance, 'broidering 
louds with a golden hinge. 

scarcely room t"i 

bly, tiir 

in the Eas 


Whether or no we agree to accept all Mr. Bayley's 
deductions, to land unconditionally at the port where he 
would finally deposit us matters but little to the enjoy- 
ment of the voyage. We may agree or dispute that 
"the awakening known as the Renaissance was the direct 
result of an influence deliberately and traditionally exer- 
cised by paper-makers, printers, cobblers, and other 
artisans, and that the 
nursing mother of the 
Renaissance, and conse- 
quently of the Reforma- 
tion, was not, as hitherto 
assumed, Italy, but the 
Provencal district of 
France," but we are 
bound at the very least 
to concede that he has 
done valuable and inter- 
esting work in bringing to 
light fresh documentary 
evidence that the torch 
of heresy was never 

To those to whom the 
co-existence of orthodoxy 
and heresy, the outrunning 
of the form by the idea, 
and their mutual depend- 
ent e, is a constant con- 
cept, this book will be a 
rich rekindling — undis- 
turbed by the fact that 
the author does not take 
this view of things, but is 
an apologist for noncon- 
formity, confessing him- 
self 51 1 by his vision of the 
medieval conflict as a 
battle between white and 
black with a predetermined end, anil by his necessarily 
bewilderment over the fa. 1 that the official 
Church hehl her own. 

["he three chapters on the Invention of Printing, Printers' 
tnd the ["ransference of Wood Blocks, are per- 
hly suggestive. D. M. RICHARDSON. 

of the 1 

WHEN Rubens wa 
i Philip II 
The School 

of Madrid 


A. de Bcructc 

\ Horet 


7s. 6d. net) 

be painted wit 

sent by the 1 )uke of Mantua to 
he 1 "pied many 
iasterpieces in that King's collec- 
tion. The Duke wished him to be 

worl 1 ian I ters, 

inn Rubens svi ote : " 1 do not speak 

feeling,butona ml 

of the desire of Sr. Iberti, who wishes 

that in a moment many pictures should 

lanish painters. 1 will follow 


his advice, but I do not approve it, considering the short 

time we have at our disposal, and the incredible 

inadequacy and idleness of these painters and of their 

manner (from which may God preserve me from any 

resemblance I) so absolutely different to mine." 

Rubens returned to Madrid a quarter of a century 

later, but then Velaz- 
quez was in his pi ime, 

and the foundation had 

been laid for what is 

now known as " The 

School of Madrid." 

Before the days of 

Velazquez there had 

been many painters in 

Madrid, but they were 

of little importance, 

and lacked the link of 

style to connect them 

as members of a 

School. This link was 

supplied by the power- 
ful art of Velazquez, 

which determined for 

two generations the 

realistic direction of 

the art of Madrid. 

Indeed, the School of 

Madrid is mainly com- 
posed of Velazquez's 

pupils, and followers, 

chief of whom was his 

son-in-law, Mazo. The 
world-wide fame of 
Velazquez, and the 
eagerness of collectors 
to secure examples of 
his art, unfortunately 
led to the attribution 
to the master of many 
works by his followers, 
and as far back as in 
the days of Cean Ber- 
mudez, heads and 
figures were cut out 
of pictures by Antonio 
Puga, one of Velaz- 
quez's imitators, to be 
shipped to England 

and sold as originals by the master. Only in recent 
years have serious attempts been made to ascertain the 
authorship of many doubtful works, and to separate 
the paintings of Velazquez from those of his gifted 
pupil, del Mazo. Sefior de Beruete y Moret devotes 
only a short chapter to the art of Velazquez, of which 
little remains to be said after the exhaustive study 
devoted to the master's art by the author's lather; but 
Beruete y Moret's analysis of the work produced by the 
other painters of the School of Madrid is a valuable 


his investigation upon the Family of Ma o 
formerly attributed to Velazquez) at the Vienna 
Gallery, and on a few authentic signed works by the 
ile <'t the master's followers, the author suc- 
ceeds in convincing us that Mazo is responsible tnr 
inany a picture that still passes under the mine illus- 
trious name, such as 
the Admiral Pulido 
Pareja at the National 
Gallery, and the two 
cms of /><>/i Bal- 
ta .11 ( arlos in the 
Riding School in the 
Wallai e Collection and 
in the Duke of West- 
minster's Collection. 
The personality of 
Mazo en ei ges as that 
of a master second 
only to Velazquez him- 
self, although even his 
greatest achievements 
show certain traces of 
weakness which are 
never found in the 
work of the head of 
the School. 

The same thorough 
method of research is 
applied to the work of 
Velazquez's talented 
mulatti i slave, Juan de 
Pareja, to the brothers 
Rizi, to 1'ereda, Car- 
refio, Cerezo, Claudio 
Coello, and scores of 
more or less gifted 
painters of the second 
and third rank, whose 
\ e r y n a m e s have 
been almost forgotten, 
and \vhose fame has 
been obscured by the 
towering genius of 
Velazquez. To Juan 
Rizi the author 
attributes an inten st- 
ill" portrait of a 


JD CO.) 


boy in Sir Freder 
jug been a puzzle 


jensable supplement to Beruete' 

Cook's Collection, 


Thus, the development, or rather decline, of the 
School is traced to the dying days of the seventeenth 
century, when I.uca Giordano's showy and n 

.kill gained the day, and Spanish art lost 
its national character and seriousness m tin- imitation 
ot the imported decadent Italian manner. It is stir- 
that the author, in spite ol Senoi l 
recently published discovery, still gives the wrong date 
nt El i Ireco's birth. 

The Connoisseur 


The Church of St. James, Avebury, North Wilts, 
is famous for its remains of Saxon and Norman 
architecture. When the writer was 
conducting archaeological excavations 
at the great stone circle of Avebury 
last spring, he secured a good photograph of the 
west side of the font, of which the accompanying 
illustration is a representation. 

This tub font (probably intended for immersion) 
is Saxon in character, with Norman ornamentation 
of the first quarter of the twelfth century. By some 
the bowl is regarded as 
Saxon of a bo u t a.d. 
ijoo, the carving 
added later. It is cir- 
cular in plan, with an 
external diameter at top 
of 30J in. ; internal dia- 
meter, 25 in. It stands 
41 in. high above the 
floor, ol which the plinth 
measures 5 in. thick, and 
:stal with cham- 
fered edge, on which the 
font stands, 7 in. The 
font is lead lined, the 
in a \ i in u in internal 
depth of the bowl being 

The figure of a bishop, 

the w e st end 
of the church, is saiil 
to have a nunc, now 
almosl pletely ob- 
literated ; a sta| 

ilc- position of 

the chain foi the plug of the font was fixed here, 

anil has played havoc with the bishop's features for 

I [e holds a book to his heart with 

his left hand, and I in Ins right hand, with 

which he is •■ bruising " the hen! ol ■< dragon 01 
in its turn is bruising his heel 
on the bishop's left side, but this is in und 

ppei pari i 1 >l 
capitals, win. h is typical ol 

FONT A 1 I III I in Ri 11 

Sculthorpe (Norfolk), Alphington (Devon), Corfe and 
West Camel (Somerset), etc. 

The symbolism of the Avebury font may represent 
the fall of man, and the initial recovery of his lost 
estate through the washing of the water of baptism. 

"An ^Esthetic Conversion" Heal & Son 

An ^Esthetic Conversion is the title of a dainty 
little brochure from the pen ol Mr. Joseph Thorp, 
published by Messrs. Heal & Son. In his preface 
the author states that "these notes are put together 
and published entirely 
at my own suggestion ; 
that therein I have ex- 
pressed my individual 
judgments, unhampered 
bythe usual limitations." 
"This," he continues, 
" should make the notes 
a better guide to the 
spirit and character of 
this old-established and 
justly-respected house of 
business than the dis- 
counted utterances of 
the ordinary trade an- 

Embellished with a 
number of excellently- 
drawn illustrations, and 
tastefully bound in grey 
boards, the volume is 
well worthy of the per- 
usal ol' those interested 
in furniture thoughtfully 
designed and soundly 


BooKs Received 

, Parts V. XL. and XII., 7,1. net. 
(Cassell & <"<>.. Ltd.) 
St. Fran . ! • : ■■ ■ ■,:■- ,t ,t\un I.'Ail Primilifs 

■ t>) Arnold Goffin. (i.. Van Oesl S Co.) 

,1 1 . Mr.liun. ,,,1. (B x I. I-'. Meehan ) 
, bj Waltei 1 .cm Ross, 2s 61I net. (V\ 1 I Ross.) 
1 . civ . 1909, X... 39, Vol. X.. by I. Y. W. 
I .., F.S \.. js. 11. 1. (Alex. Mi. line, 1. 1.1.) 

. fan \\ II ., by 
II. I. .nni W. P. V\ righ . \ 

Pari XIV., by P. G.I . M. W Bro. kwell, ami F. W. 

Ii\ Haldane Macfall, 

I' ■ ■ I ly, is. o«l. net. 

I - 1 ■ Jack.) 

», i •• Vgnes 1 1, rliert, illustrated by I lonald 
Mas veil, 1 1 ,hn I . in 

.., Vols. I. and 
[I., by I 1 ■ 1 i |ohn Murray. 1 

Tht Rom ti K. J. Andei - id 


. Old 1 Books, bj K.-v. 

I : . urrtiit, 

I , 111 




[The Editor invites the assistance of readers of 
The Connoisseur Magazine who may be able to 
impart the information required by Correspondents.} 

Antique Sword. 
Dear Sir. — I enclose photographs of a sword 
which has been in my possession for ma years, 
and which apparently bears the heads of Charles I. 
and his Queen. 1 should be glad to know if any of 
your readers can give me any particulars regarding it. 
Yours faithfully, 


Unidentified Country Hoi -i . 
Dear Sir, — In the July number of 'I'm, Con- 
noisseur Magazine information is required about 
an unidentified country house. I think it is the 
house at Haarlem (Holland), now used as a Colonial 
Museum, at the entrance of the Haarlem wood. The 

lawn is at the present time a deer park. In the 
tenth century the house was built by the Amsterdam 
banker Hope, who was of Knglish birth. He was the 
founder of the well known banking-house, Hope & Co , 
still existing. 

If you might take interest, I will try to get 
photographs of the building in its present form. 
I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully. 

YV. Van der Tak. 

Unidentified Country Hoi se. 
Dear Sir.— The "Unidentified Country House" 

on page 191 of the July CONNOISSEUR MAGAZINE is 

Bedgebury Park, near Hawkhurst, the late residence 
of Mr. Beresford Hope. It has recently been altered 
by Mr. Lewis, the owner, a South African millionaire, 
who bought it. 

I remain, yours very truly. J. Langhorne. 


The Connoisseur 

Uniden riFiED Country House. 
Dear Sir, — I am not acquainted with the look 
oi Deepdcne, Dorking: bvit since that house was. 
at the end of the eighteenth century, the seat ol 
the well-known art patron Mr. Hope, I venture to 
hazard the suggestion that the Country House of 
winch Mr. Leggatl 
sent a photo 


F. M. Clement 

ll"i Bi in'- "Sir 
Thomas Mi iri .' 
Dear Sir, On page 
is | ol your July issue 
about Holbein's Sir 
Thomas More and his 
family, and the dis- 
appearance of the 
pii tine. A description 
nf this picture may be 
found m Mr. Hutton's 
Burford Papers, pages 
[8, 19 It formerly 
il tu the Li nt- 
hall family, and possibly 

[., and 
thence obtained by 
Speaker Lenthall. 

that the 

fi is now '• at 

i 1 Pari . 

d in m\ Sir Thomas Mo 
I remain 



, , . hi which you 


Tune number, has been identified. It is, as I 
assumed, after Rembrandt, and was engraved by 
T. Spilsbury. The lettering on a print impression 
is as follows : — 

"A^Dutch Lady after a picture by Rembrandt in 
the possession of William Baillie Esq. published 
August 25th 1769 and 
sold by Henry Parker 
at No. 82 m Cornhill, 

The proof was evi- 
dently unknown to 
Chaloner Smith ; but he 
describes a print im- 
pression on page 1.335, 
No. 40. 

Yours faithfully, 
H. W. Brtjton. 

Old English 

Sir, — Would owners 
of old English tapestry 
bearing the names of 
the makers Poyntz, 
Saunders. Bradshaw. or 
Vanderbank kindly 
send me particulars 
thereof for an illustrated 
book which I am com- 
piling on the subject. 
Yours truly, 
E. Alfred Jones. 



Dear Sir, — I shall be 

glad if you will kindly 
insert in The Connoissei 1 M usazine a reproduction 
of the enclosed photograph with a view to ascertaining 
the subject and artist if possible. The si/.e of the 
canvas is _■ it. 2 in. by 1 It. 5 in. The name ol 
the aitist is illegible, but the date upon it (almosl 
illegible) app ars to be 1691. The picture has been 

in the possi sion ol my family for very mam years. • 
Yours faithfully, K. E. Ai 1 1 v 

ely of the first importance, 
during the concluding two 

or three weeks of the 
season are usually of 


e i ii 

Sir Cuthbe 

character- an omnium 
gatliei it m of small 
properties which have 
accumulated during 
the spring" months. 
This year at Christie's 
July included the most 
important collection 
Iter's — and two other 

of the year 
noteworthy sales. 

The various ancient and modern pictures sold on 
July 2nd were derived from several sources; but much 
of the interest of the day was provided by three of the 
four pictures the property of Mr. E. W. Parker, J. P., 
of Skirwith Abbey, Cumberland. The most important 
of these was a striking version of Rembrandt's Descent 
from the Cross, 55 in. by 42 in., signed and dated 1651 — 
this picture has probably been in England for over a 
century and a half; in 1834 it was sold as the property 
of Viscountess Hampden, when it brought only .£139. 
At the J. A. Beaver sale in 1840 it was bought in at 
240 gns., and since that date it had disappeared from 
public notice ; it was now purchased by a Paris dealer 
at 7,800 gns. — a considerable advance on the previous 
auction record in this country, the 6,700 gns. paid in 
1893 for the portrait of the Wife of Biirgomaser Six. 
Another important picture, untraced by all recent wi iters, 
was Turner's East Coives Castle, the Seat of J. Nash, Esq., 
the Regatta Beating to Windward, 36 in. by 48 in., 
painted for John Nash (at whose sale in 1835 it sold 
for 190 gns.), and exhibited at the Royal Academy of 
1828 ; this realised 6,500 gns. The companion picture, 
also painted for Nash, and exhibited at the Academy 
of 1828, was purchased at Nash's sale and passed with 
the Sheepshanks collection into the South Kensington 
Museum. A. Cuyp, A Town on a River, sunset effect, 
40 in. by 52 in., signed, 1,680 gns.; and R. Wilson, 
Solitude, 40 in. by 50 in., 350 gns. 

The sale included, in the order of the catalogue, the 

following:— A drawing by J. Holland, The Church of 
the Gesuati, Venice, 18 in. by 37 in., 245 gns. Pictures: 
R. P. Bonington, View on the French Coast, low tide, 
with figures, 14 in. by 20 in., 155 gns.; A. Cuyp, Rivet 
Scene, with boats and figures, evening, on panel, 23 in. 
by 40 in., 550 gns.; two by F. Guardi, Santa Maria 
delta Salute, Venice, with gondolas, 11 in. by 16 in., 
250 gns.; and A View of "La Zuecca," with boats and 
gondolas, 10 in. by iS in., 305 gns. — both from Lord 
Farnham's collection, 1869. Past=ls, each 22 in. by 
25 in., by D. Gardner, three children of David Lewis, 
of Malvern Hall: Elisabeth, afterwards Lady Croft, in 
white dress with mauve scarf, in a landscape, 300 gns. ; 
Maria, afterwards Lady Dysart, in white dress with pink 
bows, a dog by her side, 420 gns. ; and Da-aid Greswolde 
Lewis, m brown coat, blue vest, and white breeches, 
100 gns. A pastel by J. Russell, Girl with a Spaniel, 
24 in. by 18 in., engraved by P. H. Tomkins, 480 gns. 
Pictures: J. Northcole, Mrs. Collingwood, in white and 
gold dress with red cloak, 30 in. by 25 in., 195 gns. ; 
Sir M. A. Shee, Portrait of Mrs. Anna Shawe Leeke, 
in red dress, with a dog on the sea-shore, 93 in. by 
57 in., 100 gns. ; J. van Huysum, Flowers and Una!. 
Vests, on panel, 31 in. by 23 in., 230 gns. ; F. Pourbus, 
Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, in black dress and 
white head-dress, on panel, 19 in. by 15 in., 180 gns. ; 

E. De Witte, Interior of Amsterdam 'Cathedral, with 
numerous figures, 75 in. by 64 in., 400 gns. ; Vigee Le 
Brun, Portrait of a Lady, in white muslin dress with blue 
s.ish and bow, ^o in. by 24 in., 900 gns. ; Sir G. Kneller, 
Portrait of John Dale of Marlborough, in brown dress 
and red cloak with flowing wig, battle in the background, 
64 in. by 53 in., 800 gns. ; Sir J. Reynolds, Portrait of 
a Gentleman, in red coat and brown vest, white stock, 

29 in. by 24 in., 180 gns. ; A. Cuyp, Portrait of a Youth, 
in rich red cloak, at a window, on panel, 20 in. by 16 in., 

1. . ; J. Hoppner, Portrait of William Robertson, 
in dark blue coat with black collar, white cravat, 

30 in. by 25 in. ; W. Williams, Courtship and Matri 
mony, 23 in. b) 18 in., 1786, a pan engraved by 

F. Jukes, 300 gns.; J. Van Goyen, River Scene, with 
boats, figure--, and animals, on panel, 15 in. by 23 in., 
290 gns. ; |. B. Greuze, Portrait of Jacaues Xecker, in lilac- 
coloured coat and white vest, 16 in. by [3 in., 160 gns 

The C 'onnoisseur 

(,. Morland, The Comforts of Industry and The Miseries 
of Idleness, a pair, 12 in. by 14 in., engraved by 
H. Hudson, 1790, 820 gns.— this pair was presented by 
George Morland to E. Collins, of Maize Hill, Green- 
wich, great-grandfather of the vendor, Mr. Edward 
Collins Wood, of Keithick, Coupar Angus ; G. Romney, 
Portrait oj Admiral Sir John Orde, Bart., in captain's 
uniform of blue coat, white vest and breeches, 50 in. by 
40m., 1,680 gns.; N. Maes, Portraits 0] a Gentleman, 
in black gown with white linen collar, seated in an 
armchair, and of his wife, in black dress with white 
lawn at the neck and on the sleeves, a pair, 44 in. by 
36 in., signed, 2,150 gns.; J. Hoppner, Portrait oj a 
11 white dress with black lace shawl, seated, with 
1 1. 1 two daughters, 50 in. by 40 in., i,45° gns. : and 
Sir 11. Raeburn, Portrait of Master Thomas Blisland, 
in green dress with loose white frilled collar, seated on 
a bank, 56 in. by 44 in., 5,400 gns. 

'I'm. great sale of the season — one of the greatest, 
indeed, for many years — was that of the collection ot 

pictures and drawings of .Sir \V. Cuthbert 
The Quilter Quilter, who has disposed of his house 
Collection and picture gallery at 74, South Audley 

Street, London. The sale was held by 
Messrs. Christie on July 9th, and an illustrated account 

of the collection appeared in The Connoissei r Maga- 
1,1 m| that month. There were 1 24 lots, which showed 
a total of ^87,790 ios., but one or two pictures — particu- 
larly Holman Hunt's Scapegoat -probably did not rea< h 
Mi, ri ;erves, which in all cases were declared b) the 
auctioneer to be small. The sale was regarded .1^ a 
most successful one. and the prices higher than had bei n 
anticipated. The popularity of several of the artists 
who e works an represented in tin, sale 1-. no longer it had b< en : there was consequi ntl\ .1 1 mi uli 1 . 1 1 ■ l< 

mat [in 1 «1 •-. een pasi and | ti pi ii es I he lo ; in 

1 in, n, howevei . wa 1 ounterbalani 1 d b] I 

thi cot i valui , ,i 11 ime of the other 

sale. Water-colour drawings, English School: Ford 
.1 ' 1 Brown ■ Foscari, j; in. bj 24 in., 1S70, 
260 gns. — from the F. Cravei ale, ll 

the chain 
; C 1 ielding, Si ot h Mountain 
en Ma/ee, with mist, 17 in. b) \; in.. 184,1, 
he 1 umner sale, 1 

A. C. < ■ /. onists, 19 in. 

225 gns. ; S. Prout, Milan, a \ 1 

fi ures, 20 in. by 27 in., 

! I l,. \\ ml. 

On the River Arun, 17 in. 1 oni nental 



with a Howl of Soup, 1 

A. M.iuv,, Land p unaer 

some frees, 12 in. by 8 in., 200 gns., and Peasant Girl 
and Five Cows, 6 in. by 12 in., 225 gns. 

Modern pictures, Continental School: C. Bisschop, 
The Crown Jewels, a portrait of the son of Sir Henry 
Howard, K.C.M.G., in a page's dress, and holding a red 
cushion on which are a coronet and jewels, 47 in. by 
31 in., 150 gns. ; P. J. Clays, A Calm on the Scheldt, 
panel, 24 in. by 43 in., 1867, 320 gns.— from the 
S. Plummer sale, 18S2 (300 gns.) ; J. B. C. Corot, Souvenir 
,/e la Villa Pamphili, 15 in. by 21 in., etched by Lalanne, 
1,350 gns.; C. F. Daubigny, Les Laveuses, a view on 
the River (Use, panel, 15 in. by 26 in., 1873, 1,550 gns. ; 
N. Diaz, Venus and Adonis, in a landscape accompanied 
by < upids, on panel, 17 in. by 14 in., 800 gns. : E. Frere, 
The Young Student, panel, 10 in. by 8 in., 1877, 115 gns. ; 
C. van Haanen, Trying on the Ball Dress, a scene in a 
Venetian dressmaker's workroom, 28 in. by 17 in., 1884, 
100 gns. ; H. Harpignies, Poplar Trees at Herisson, 
17 in. by 14 in., 170 gns. ; E. Isabey, The Favourite, or 
My Lady's Parrot, panel, 13 in. by 10 in., 280 gns.; 
two by J. Israels, Watching the Cradle, 30 in. by 24 ins., 
2,250 gns. : and Children of the Sea, panel, 9 in. by 
13 in., 450 gns.; Franz Van Lenbach, Portrait of 
Signora Eleonora /'use, the actress, in brown dress 
with white sleeves, oval, 32 in. by 28 in., 1886, 560 gns. ; 
Baron H. Leys, Martin Luther reading the Bible to his 
Companions, on panel, 27 in. by 41 in., 1865, 560 gns. — 
from the C. Kurtz sale, 1880(1,150 gns.); J. F. Millet, 
leune Fille atlrapee par des amours, panel, 25 in. by 10 in., 
600 gns. ; M. Munkacsy, The Two Families, a lady and 
her 1 hildren in an apartment, feeding some puppies, panel, 
16 in. by 23 in., 270 gns.— the original study for the 
Academy picture, and from the sale of W. H. Michael, 
1887 (510 gns.); and Hermann Philips, A Musical 
Reverie, panel, 32 in. by 25 in., 160 gns. 

English School: K. P. Bonington, The Grand Canal, 

Venice, 8 in. by 11 in., sketch for the large picture, 

j6o gns.— from the Novar sale, 18S0 (100 gns.); 

Sir E. Burne-Jones, Green Summer, group of eight girls 

seated upon the grass listening to a story which one of 

them is reading, 26 in. by 42 in., 1S68, 320 gns. —from 

the W. Graham sale, 1886(500 gns.) ; J. Constable, West 

End i ields, Hampstead, noon, 13 in. by 20 in., 600 gns. 

from Capt. C. G. Constable's sale, 1887 (2S0 gns.); 

] 1. ( ox, 1 Outskirts of a Wood, open moorland at thi 1 dgi 

vood Forest, 27 in. by 35 in., exhibited at the 

Academy, 1845, 1,650 gns from the E. C. Pottei sale, 

18S4 (1,350 gns.); J. Crome, A Squall o[f Yarmouth, 

20 in. by 32 ; H. W, II. Davis, Loch Maree, 

cattle and heep in thi foreground, sunset, 9 in. by 19 in., 

1SS2, 1 10 gns. ; Keeley Halswelle, Shooter's Hill, Pang- 

; in. by 24 in., 1879-92, 245 gns.: S11 II. Von 

llerkoniei. The Last Muster: Sunday at the Royal 

, Chelsea, 82 in. by 6i in., 1875, engraved by 

A. I inn II: frequently exhibited, winning the mddaille 

Phonneur at Paris in 1878, 3,100 gns. ; \V. Holman Hunt, 

! in. by 5 1 in., painted at 1 )osdoi mi, on 

1 m, rusted shallow oi the I '1 ad 

I oyal Ai ademy, 1856, and 

ed by C. Mottram fron three pre\ ious 

In the Sale Room 

sales: B. G. Windus, 1S62 (475 gns.), J. Heugh, 1878 
(4S0 gns.), and Sir Thomas Fairbairn, 1887 (1,350 gns. : 
Sir Edwin Landseer, Scene from the Midsummei \ 
Dream, with Titania and Bottom, fairies attending, Pea 
blossom, Cobweb, Mustard-Seed, Moth, etc., 31 in. by 
52 in., painted for J. K. Brunei's Shakespeare Room, 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1851, and engraved by 
S. Cousins, 2,400 gns. — from the Brunei sale, i860 
(2,800 gns.); Cecil G. Lawson, The Doone Valley, North 
Devon, 41 in. by 53 in., from the Royal Academy, [882, 
2,250 gns. — from the B. Priestman sale, 1896 (550 gns.), 
and the C. A. Barton sale, 1902 (1,638 gns.) ; two by B. W. 
Leader, both exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1883, 
and engraved by Brunet Debaines, Parting Day, 
43 in. by 71 in., 1,200 gns.; and Green Pastures and 
Still Waters, 47 in. by 71 in., 1,150 gns.; Lord 
Leighton, Cymon and Iphigenia, 64 in. by 129 in., from 
the Academy of 1884, 2,250 gns.; J. Linnell, sen., 
On Summer Eve by Haunted Stream, 27 in. by 35 in., 
1853, 500 gns. — from the A. Wood sale, 1874 (795 gns. ; 
three by Sir John E. Millais, Murthly Moss, Perth- 
shire, 50 in. by 73 in., from the Academy of 1887, and 
etched by Brunet Debaines, 3,000 gns. ; Joan of Arc, 
small full-length figure in armour, with red skirt, kneel- 
ing, facing the spectator, 31 in. by 23 in., Royal Academy, 
1865, 700 gns. : and Portrait of the Rt. Hon. John Bright, 
three-quarter length, standing, in dark clothes, 50 in. by 
36 in., Royal Academy, 18S0, engraved by T. O. Barlow, 
680 gns. ; P. R. Morris, Piping Home, 20 in. by 30 in., 
115 gns.; Sir YV. Q. Orchardson, The Challenge, a 
Puritan's struggle between honour and conscience, 25 in. 
by 41 in., 1,000 gns. — from the S. Plummer sale, 1882 
(480 gns.) ; J. l'ettie, Sweet Seventeen, a portrait of 
Miss Lizzie Bossom, in black dress, with lace fichu and 
red rose, panel, 34 in. by 30 in., exhibited at the Institute 
of Painters in Oils, 18S3, 620 gns. ; J. Phillip, Selling 
Relics, Cathedral Porch, Seville, 62 in. by S4 in., the last 
picture painted by the artist, 950 gns. — from the Hermon 
sale, 1SS2 (3,750 gns.) ; G. J. Pinwell, Oat of Tune: the 
Old Cross, a man and woman seated on the steps of a 
village cross, a scene in Bricknoller Churchyard, with 
the Quantock Hills behind, 38 in. by 50 in., 1869, 
560 gns.— from the Artist's sale, 1S76 (60 gns.); 
Sir E. J. Poynter, Under the Sea Wall, 22 in. by 
14 in., Royal Academy, 188S, 1,000 gns.; Briton 
Riviere, The Magician's Doorway, 42 in. by 62 in., 
1882, 620 gns.; 1). G. Rossetti, La India Mano, 
a three-quarter length female figure washing her hands 
in a bowl, an angel on either side of her, 62 in. by 46 in., 
1875, 2,000 gns.— from the F. S. Ellis sale, [885 
(S 1 5 gns.); F. Sandys, Portrait of a Lady, in white and 
yellow striped dress, panel, 18 in. by 14 in., 210 gns. ; 
J. Stannard, A Coast Scene, 23 in. by 36 in., 300 gns. ; 
J. M. W. Turner, Venus and Adonis, 60 in. by 47 in., 
painted about 1S06-1810, 4,000 gns. — from the (ohn 
Green sale, 1S30 (83 gns.), and the Beckett Deni 
1885 (1,450 gns.); G. Vincent, Greenwich H<'spitai, .1 
view of the river, with numerous boats and ships, 27 in. 
by 35 in., 1827, 1,060 gns.— from the F. Fisher sale, 1888 
(740 gns.) ; F. Walker, The Bathers, 36 in. by 84 in., 

exhibited .it the Royal Academy, [867, and etched by 

P.. W. Macbeth, 2,900 gns. — from the W. Graham sale, 
.500 gns.); and J. W. Waterhouse, Marianne, 
Wife of Herod, 105 in. by 72 in., illustrating a passage in 
fo ' phus, exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1887, 480 gns. 
Early English pictures: Sir W. Beechey, Portrait of 
Mis. Archer, in short-waisted white dress, 30 in. by 
25 in., S90 gns. ; J. W. Chandler, Mrs. Franklin, in 
white dress with blue sash, 30 in. by 25 in., signed with 
initials and dated 1793, 1 10 gns.; G. H. Harlow, 
Portrait Group of Mrs. Hopwood and her three young 
Children, 36 in. by 2S in., 720 gns. — from the Duncan 
Dunbar sale, 1894 (185 gns.); Sir J. Reynolds, Venus 
and Piping Tor, 50 in. by 40 in., purchased from the 
artist by J. J. Angerstein, in whose family it remained 
until 1885, when it passed into the Quilter collection, 
6,400 gns. ; and the original sketch for the picture in the 
National Gallery, The Graces Decorating a Terminal 
Figure of Hymen, 22 in. by 28 in., 400 gns. ; ( 1. Romney, 
Portrait 0/ Mis. Jordan, in white dress, cut low, pink 
sash, and white muslin head-dress, 50 in. by 40 in., 
4,800 gns.— from the E. C. Potter sale, 1S84 (700 gns.); 
Sir M. A. Shee, Portrait of Mrs. Stephen Ketnble as 
" Cowslip " in " 'The Agreeable Surprise," whole length, 
in white dress with blue shawl and high hat, 94 in. by 
57 in., exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1793, 380 gns. — 
from the H. A. Rannie sale, 1898 (90 gns.); and J. 
/offan\, Port) ail of James (Jain, the actor, in red coat 
and white vest, 36 in. by 2S in., 190 gns. 

Works by old masters : P.artel Beham, Portraits of a 
Gentleman and His Wife, panel, 25 in. by 19 in., 

fo 1 1 >- in the collection of the Emperor of Austria 

at Schloss Lanenburg, near Vienna, 900 gns.; O. Bre- 
kelenkam, A Cavalier and Lady seated at a Table, on 
panel, 16 in. by 13 in., signed with initials and dated 
1666, 320 gns. ; J. Pantoja de la Cruz, Portrait of the 
Countess Pallavicino, three-quarter figure in richly 
brocaded dress, large lace ruff, wearing a coronet, 62 in. 
by 47 in., 1,600 gns. ; F. Guardi, An Island near Venice. 
36 in. by 43 in., signed, S60 gns.— from the Marquis de 
Blaisel sale, 1872 (.£170); B. Van der Heist, Portrait of 
a Lady, in black dress with white lace fichu and cap, 
2S in. by 23 in., 300 gns.— from the Massey-Mainwaring 
sale, 1898 (46 gns.); P. Le Sire, Portraits of Regnier 
Strik fohanszoon, in black check cloak and black hat, 
white linen collar, and of D'Alida I 'an Scharlaken, in 
black dowered dress with large white run", on panel, 
33 in. by 26 in., signed and dated 1637, 1,040 gns.— a 
pair hi fine portraits by this exceedingly rare Dordrecht 
master, of whose work the only known example in a public 
gallery is at I [anover ; the incorrect spelling of the name, 
"Le Sein," on pages 169 and 170 of THE CONNOISSEUR 
MAGAZINE, for fuly, arose from the not too legible signa- 
tures on the panels ; B. I . Murillo, The Immaculate Con- 
ception, 74 in. by 54 m., painted for Charles II. of Spain, 
ns : P. Van del Neer, River Scene, with .1 chateau, 
windmills, and buildings, panel, 12 in. by 18 in., signed 
with initials, 420 gns. ; J. Ochterveldt, The Musi, Lesson, 

oi with .1 J ig lady in white satin dress seated 

,ini :, wnli ,1 gentleman in brown dress, 37 in. by 

Tlie Connoisseur 

30 in., 850 gns.— from the sale of E. Marshall, at Reading, 
1897 (460 gns.); J. Steen, Backgammon Players, panel, 

16 in. by 14 in., 620 gns. ; Velasquez, Portrait oj 
Mariana, Si ond Wife oj Philip //'. of Spain, in court 
mourning, a black silk dress, the borders of which arc 
trimmed with silver stripes and immense hoops, 58 in. 
by 47 in., 2,300 gns.; P. Veronese, St. Gregory the 
then! and St. Jerome, a pair of small full-length 
figures, 30 in. by 13 in., 600 gns.; and P. I)e Vos, A 
Pea 0, i and Cock Fighting, 53 in. by 71 in., signed, 
670 gns. 

The modern pictures and drawings of the Dutch and 
Frem h Schools, the property of the Dowager the Hon. 
Louise Van Alphen, of The Hague, formed the first 
portion of the sale on July 16th. The more important 
drawings were two by J. Israels. Saying (,'raee, 17 in. by 
22 in., 410 gns.; and The Pig-Sty, 12 in. by 17 in., 
260 gns. j I . M.11: The Bridge, a view in a Dutch town, 
with a wooden bridge over a canal, 20 in. by 27 in., 
1,250 gns. ; and A. Maine. .-/ Shepherd and his Flock, 

17 in. by 24 in., 950 gns. Pictures: B. J. Blommers, 
Boys Bathing, iS in. by 15 in., 200 gns. ; C. F. Daubigny, 
Moonrise, 19 in. by 31 in., 2oogns. ; N. Dm/. L'Heureuse 
Famille, panel, 18 in. by 13 in., 150 gns.; two by 
II Fantin Latour, Peonies in a Class Vase, 15 in. by 
14 in., 240 gns.; and Asters and Gladiolas in a 1 ■ 
Bottle, 15 in. bj 12 in., 1861, 170 gns. ; three by J. Israels, 
Portrait of a Girl, in brown dress ami white 1 ap, 27 in. 
by 21 m., i,ooo gns. ; The Signal, a fisherman seated on 
.1 hoi, i- waving a flag to a boat out at sea, 25 in. by 
37 in., 750 gns. ; and ./ Shrimper, panel, 15 in. b) one, 

420 gns. ; six by |. Mans, including Low fide, 24 in. by 
20 in., 1,150 gns.; five by W. Maris, Milking Time, 
28 in. by 22 in., 750 gns.; Feea 1 > in. by 

22 in., 820 gns. : Ducks, 21 in. by 36 in., 580 gns. ; A 
Dutch Dyke, with dinks ni-ai 1 u..; and 

Cattle in a Pasture, panel, 7 in b) i< 
,\ Mauve, Cowi and Calves in .1 Pasture neat a dale, 
n ii. 52 in., 700 gns. ; and A. Neuhuys, The Peasant 
Family, 39 in. by 29 in., .'- 
The second portion o) the day's sale was made up 

1 cellani m 1 lortmenl of pictures an< ient and 

:n' ideri I e important weie : J, Km dael, 

oitagi md figures on a sandy 
path, 25 in. by 29 in., signed, 760 gns.; D. Van Tol, 
panel, 19 in. by 14 in., 150 gns.; eleven picture 

71-81). 1 o] 1 .1 gentleman," 

were until recently in the Mel ulloch col 

ioper, 1 
30 in. by 42 in., 1 1 ;n two b) Peti 1 ' Iraham, 

From / '<■ I lie Gannet 

engraved by | 1'. I 

/1///1/ Cattle in . 1881, 

I'. W. Leader, Conway Bay ami /fie 
1 arnai 

•et Hand in Mine ami 
Trust in .1/ 

Tete, panel, 

59 in. by 43 in., 620 gns. ; and S. E. Waller, One-and- 
Twenty, 64 in. by 100 in., Royal Academy, 1891,400 gns. 

Among the other properties were a pair of exceedingly 
interesting and important small whole-length portraits, by 
A. Nasmyth, of Mr. and Mrs. J. Cool-burn Ross, 3d in. 
by 27 in., 128 gns.; H. Fantin-Latour, Azaleas in a 
Nankin Jar, r6 in. by 9 in., 1874, 205 gns.; T. Gains- 
borough, The Artist's Daughter as a Gleaner, 29 in. by 
24 in., 540 gns.; D. Gardner, Portrait of Mrs. E. A. 
Hall, a lie no ants Mrs. Morse, 29 in. by 24 in., 130 gns.; 
French School, Portrait of a Lady, in blue grey dress 
and white satin cloak, 3] in. by 25 in., 330 gns. ; two 
by ('■. Romney, Miss Watson, afterwards Mrs. Edward 
Wakefield, in white dress with blue sash, 36 in. by 
27 in., 1,500 gns. : and Edward Wakefield, of Gilford, 
1 0. Down, in brown coat and white stock, 35 in. 
by 27 in., 290 gns., both painted in 1793; and Sir 
H. Raeburn, Portrait oj Sir John Sinclair, whole length, 
in scarlet coat with yellow facings, white vest and red 
sash, 94 in. by 60 in., 6,200 gns. ; this was the well-known 
portrait which was " knocked-down " at Robinson & 
Fisher's in May, 1903, at 14,000 gns. 

On July 23rd the sale included : Sir P. Lely, Portrait 
oj I lie Duchess of Cleveland, in yellow dress with blue 
scarf, 48 in. by 39 in., 170 gns. ; J. M. Nattier, Portrait 
of Mile, de Langeis, in grey dress with blue scarf, holding 
a flower, 4S in. by 36 in., 4S0 gns. ; and J. B. Monnoyer, 
Flower in a terra-cotta rase, fruit, parrots, and rabbits, 
90 in. by 72 in., 210 gns. ; and on July 28th, the final sale 
of .the season, only two lots reached three figures: 
De Bruyn, Portrait of a Genlleman,in fur-trimmed cloak 
and black cap, an. I a Portrait of a Lady, in black dress 
with white ruffle and cap, a fan in hand, 22 in. by 17 in., 
31.. gns. ; and H. Bosch, The Adoration of the Magi, on 
panel, 32 in. by 20 in., 185 gns. 

AMONG a number of interesting books belonging to 

Colonel Cotes, wdiose library was mentioned last month 

rather more casualh 



than it deserved, was 

a very fair copy of 
Wycherley's Miscel- 
lany Poems of [704, 


a folio which contains 

found m any English 

book. It represents 

the dramatist at the 

e was .1 fashionable young 

e he pi 0dU( eil the first of 

■hich made him the darling 

" '»> eigl 

1 town, 

. / o-i e in 


of the court and of society. To meet with the Mis- 
'0 ms nol difficult, but a, most ol the 

.us casually stumbled across have had the 

I, the sale of one which has not shared 
rort - ot passing notice. It reali ied 

i .111. 1 will be worth more s„ n ,e 

iy. A vi 1, ual 1 opy of this book 

iossession of a well known linn of 

/;/ the Sale Room 

booksellers in the West-end, for which they asked as 
much as ,£140. It was a presentation copy with auto- 
graph inscription in Wycherlcy's handwriting, with 
signature, addressed "For Ye Right Honble the Earle 
of Radnor from his most obliged and humble servant," 
and had been in the library of Sir Andrew Fount. line, 
of Narford Hall, Norfolk, who had obtained it at a 
time when books had not the same sentimental value 
which now distinguishes many of the nobler sort. A 
book was then a book, and this one but little better 
perhaps than any other copy which might have been 
procured with a little trouble at the time ; but in our 
day it possesses an interest altogether exceptional, and 
this must be our excuse for mentioning it in this 
record of current events. The details of the romantic 
life of Wycherley, surrounded as it was with a glamour 
which the portrait seems in a measure to reflect, makes 
this book, provided it be perfect, a great favourite with 
collectors all over the world. 

The opening sale in July, which is always the final 
month of the London auction season, so far as books 
are concerned, was held at Sotheby's on the first and 
following day, the 672 lots in the catalogue realising 
,£1,183. This sale was of a very miscellaneous character, 
all kinds of books being placed as they were received, 
doubtless from a large number of different sources, 
without regard to order or any kind of arrangement, 
except as regards size— the object, of course, being to 
keep the property of different owners as separate and 
distinct as possible. This often occurs, and it is just 
at sales of this character that the book-hunter is most 
likely to gather in his harvest. The most noticeable 
work among many which were distinctly interesting was 
a copy of the third edition of Walton's Compleat Angler, 

with the date 1664 instead of 1661, which is of 1 , 

frequent occurrence, though both dates are equally 
correct. This realised ,£60 (old cf), though it was a 
little soiled, and had the title-page torn and a few 
margins wormed. A Breviarium ad /'sum Cisterciensis 
Ordinis, printed at Paris per Jo. Kaerbriand (15 — ), Svo, 
made ,£10 5s. This Breviary seems to have been used 
in an English Abbey of the Cistercian order, as there 
were some manuscript entries of English saints in the 
Calendar in a contemporary hand. ( Hher prices realised 
at this sale were as follows : — La Fontaine's Fables 
Choisies, Oudry's tine edition on large paper, 4 vols., 
folio, 1755-59, with the plate Le Singe et le Leopard 
before the inscription on the banner, ,£30 10s. (contemp 
mor., by Derome) ; Dickens's Works, the Edition de 
Luxe, 30 vols., 1S81-S2, royal Svo, £z\ (tree cl 
Manning & Bray's History and Antiquities of Surrey, 
3 vols., folio, 1804-14, ^13 (hf. cf.) ; Dugdale's Monasticon 
Anglicanum, by Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, 6 vols, 
in 8, folio, 1S46, .£13 5s. (hf. bd.); and a copy of the 
first edition of the Genevan or "Breeches" version 
of the Bible, printed in 4to at Geneva by Rowland 
Hall, 1560, .£20 10s. (russ., rebacked). A really good 
and sound copy of this Bible is worth about /. 50 ; 
but, as in the case of all old Bibles, such copies are 
very difficult to meet with. This had one of the maps 

mounted, and several others were supplied from a shorter 

i'n July 7th Messrs. Hodgson sold for ,£30 an uncut 
copy in its original wrappers of Charles Lloyd's Poems 
011 ,'/), Ih'iilii of /'risri/ia Farmer, printed al Bristol in 
1796. This is mainly interesting on account of the con- 
tribution by Charles Lamb, entitled "The Grandam,' 
and to find the work in its original wrappers is certainly 
very unusual. A copy in that state was sold in November, 
1896, for ,£5, and it was described at the time as one of 
the two copies known, though others seem to have been 
discovered since. In February, 1901, a similar example 
sold for ,£50, and another on May 6th of the same year 
f°r £3°- I" April, 1902, a copy in the wrappers realised 
,£20 (wormed), and in June, 1904, a similar copy ,£28. 
These, of course, may not have been different examples 
of the same work, but nevertheless a recital of the prices 
realised at various periods shows the present position, 
from a marketable point of view, of this very important 
fragment of English literature. Charles Lloyd was the 
grandson of Priscilla Farmer, and though his verses are, 
in themselves, of comparatively little account, Lamb's 
"beautiful fragment," coupled with the "Sonnet" by 
Coleridge, which also appears within the covers of this 
book, invest it with an interest it would be idle to affect 
to ignore. Up to this point very little need be said of 
the book-sales of July, but from the 8th of the month to 
its close an enormous quantity of books was disposed of, 
including the important libraries of the late Dr. Francis 
Elgar, consisting of a collection of works on shipping, 
navigation and the Navy ; the late Major-General Sir 
M. W. E. Go, set, of Westgate House, Dedham ; Mr. 
Thomas Blandford, one of the original members of the 
Alpine Club: Mr. S. T. Fisher, of Old Queen Street, 
S.W. : and several miscellaneous collections of very 
considerable importance. 

The sale of July 8th and 9th was not productive of very 
much out of the ordinary, and it opened in a very casual 
manner, the Abbotsford edition of Sir Walter Scott's 
Wa-oerley A'orels, 12 vols., Svo, 1S42-46, realising as little 
as ,£3 10s. (hf. mor. gt. . The edition, good though it 
is, has gradually fallen away of late yews. At one time 
this set would have realised ,£10, but later editions 
seem to have almost entirely supplanted the Abbotsford 
edition. The Edition de Luxe of George Meredith's 
Works, 32 vols., Svo, 1896-98, realised .£12 10s. (as 
issued'; Piranesi's I'edule di Roma and Views .i the 
Vatican, original Roman impressions, in 3 vols., folio, 
made ,£24 5s., although more than thirty plates were 
missing ; Tanner's Mirror for Mathematiques, 1 587, 4to, 
,£8 5s. (russ. g.e., some leaves repaired); Glanville's 
I'e Profit ielatibus Rerutn, the Osterley Park copy. 1535, 
folio, ,£23 ios. (oak bds., slightly wormed) ; Chapman's 
Architectura Nai>alis Mercatoria, 176S, oblong folio, 
,£11 5s. (hf. cf, title repaired ; and 50 volumes of 
Transactions of the institute of Naval Architects, with 
the Index \"ls. [-46), 1860-1908, 4to, £13 10s. (cl.). 
were all sold at Sotheby's, as was also on the 
13th and 14th a most important collei tion of illuminated 
and othei manu Cl pts and rare and valuable old books 

The Connoisseur 

derived from a variety of source?. Although the catalogue 
contained but 350 entries, the amount realised was con- 
siderably over ,£5,500. For reasons frequently explained 
in this column and is very little use referring 

to the prices realised for illuminated manuscripts, works 
ol arl of the kind needing most elaborate and lengthy 
descriptions before they can be properly appreciated. 
In corroboration of this it may just be mentioned that 
some thirty illuminated miniatures cut from old service 
books of the 14th, 15th, and [6th centuries realised sums 
from £2 ros. to /:S each, according to the 
md quality of their execution. Mere size, as such, 
has nothing to do with the value of works of this 1 lass, 
and the same remark applies to illuminated manuscripts 
in their entirety. 

Anion- the bonk, winch can be adequately described, 
the following realised, at this sale, the prices affixed : — 
Patrick Cordon's Historieof Prince Robert, sin named the 
Bruce, 1615. .(to, £20 (mor., g.e., some leaves repaired ; 
Mai lowe' • . Ml 1 I he first edition, printed at 

Middlebourgh, without date (but 1590), ,£11 15s. (mor. 
ex.); La Fontaine's Contes et Nouvelles en Vers, the 
■ iux edition, with the Cas lie Conscience, 

■1, •; 1 lies, 2 vols., 8vo, 

1762, /50 lorig. mor., b> 1 >'■ le ; 1 lorat's Les Baisers, 

1770, 8\ .. I lerbert's The : 

1 64 1 , Svo, bound in morocco by Mary Collet, oi Little 

Gidding, 11 ila Ferrar, to whom George 

Herbert left the 1 are and editing of the book, £\o 5s. ; 

.: Haden's Etudes d PEau- Forte, 25 etchings on 

China paper, with description- by Burty, Paris, 1866, 

folio, £\~i mor. ; Shakespeare's Fourth Folio, 1(185, 

,£38 (mor. ex., title and several leaves repaired ; 1 eoi 

Meredith's Poems, first edition, with the Slip ol I rrata 

; an excessively rare production 

■ < , commencing Tncipit Liber 

Vacatur Speculum Xpistiani, n. d, ,. [484), 4to, 

,£129 (cl □ Smeeton's General Biography, 

|to, illustrated by the insertion 
2,200 portraits, many of them mezzotints, £ 5 ; ; Wood's 

•■ l'", ,{ 35 ' i Bi 11 

Jonson's Seianus, his Fall, 1605, ipy,but 

the signature unfortunately cut through, £62 nevi cl ; 
A Collection 0) 

in two volumes, .(to, and in 

1st edition, 1645, Svo, /60 (old us cut); 

it Pai 

and the 

Editio : - fine 1 opy . It 

ortrait ol 

the 1 1. 11 : ril /'405 ; and the m.i 

£y.\. From - 
and that by no 1 

tant entry in the 

ry rare 

pieces, such as Hamlet ic. 161 1), Massinger's The Virgin 
Martyr, 1 63 1 , and The Complaint of Christmas and the 
Teares of Twelfetyde, 1631, hitherto only known by the 
entry in the Stationers' Register. For the present, at any 
rate, this particular copy must be accounted unique. 

At a sale held at Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's about 
this time, a large paper copy of Carey's Life in Paris, 
1822, Svo, realised ,£13 (mor. ex.), and a number of 
other books substantial prices, e.g., Harris's Portraits 
Game and Wild Animals of Southern Africa, 
with 30 large coloured plates by Howard, 1S40, ,£12 
(hf. mor.) ; Williamson's Oriental Field Sports, 1S07, 
folio, the 40 plates evidently belonging to the edition of 
1819, as they all bore that date, ,£12 5s. (mor.) ; Catlin's 
North American Indian Portfolio, 1S44, 48 coloured 
plates mounted like drawings, £\\ 5s. (hf. mor.); 
Cokayne's Complete Peerage, 8 vols., 1887-9S, £\\ (hf. 
cf.) ; Loddiges' Botanit al Cabinet, on large paper, 20 vols., 
Svo, 1S17-33, ,£30 (cf. ex., and hf. mor. not uniform); 
and several works illustrated by Rowlandson, including 
Poetical Sketches of Scarborough, 1812, Svo, £6 17s. 6d. 
(orig. bds., with label); The English Dance 0/ I hath, 
2 vols, in 1, Svo, 1815-16, .£8 5s. (hf. cf.) ; The Dance 
of Life, 1S17, Svo, .£4 5s. (hf. cf.) ; and An Academy for 
Grown Horsemen and The Annals of Horsemanship, 
1S09, Svo, ,£5 (bds., with label). On the 13th Messrs. 
Christie, Manson, and Woods sold for ,£110 the original 
manuscript of Robert Burns's Ay Waukiri 0, three 
.th chorus twice repeated, all in the poet's hand- 
writing. This MS. is of special interest, as it has not 
apparently been seen by any of Burns's editors, nor was 
it hitherto known to whom the poem was addressed. 
This question is, however, now set at rest, for the MS. 
was headed "Songs for Miss Craig, with the dutiful 
regards of Robt. Burns." Miss Craig went to Australia 
shortl) after the poem was written, and it remained in 
that countrj until .1 few j ens ago. 

The library ol Dr. Richard Watson, who died in 1816, 

was sold at Hodgson's on July 15th, and contained, inter 

alia, a number of books on alchemy and chemistry 

Mi \\ ,' on wa Professor of Chemistry at Can, bridge 

ity for some six or seven years) as well as the 

following : The Book of Common Prayer as proposed 

mi iIk use .'t the Protestant Episcopal Church in New 

York, printed at Philadelphia in 1786, 8vo, .£10 con 

temp. mor. : the Bihlia Sura i'oiygtotta, 5 vols., folio, 

1514 [7, known as the " Complutensian" Polyglot from 

of its having been printed at Complutum 

ome leaves repaired) ; and the 

Biblia Sac a G> ■ t, printed .it Venice in 1 518, the first 

Greek Septuagint, £23 (cf.). 

if Dr. rary 00 upied one da j 1 

othi npoi .int works were disposed 
nt. two being particularly noticeable by reason of their 
.n e were Vppei lej 's I ip a 
Spoilsman, 1st 1 1 01 red cl.), and the 

I '; (ton, 3rd edition, 1851, 
£\o 10s Hie first-named work would 

have realised much more had it been in blue cloth instead 
of in red est 1 ml) were bound in blue. 

In the Sale Room 

The Library of the late Major-General Sir M. W. E. 
Gosset, sold at Sotheby's on the 19th of July, contained 
a number of books of very considerable interest, the 
most noticeable being a set, from the commencement in 
1792 until 1S70, of The Sporting Magazine in 156 
volumes, all except the last fifty, which were in the 
unopened parts as issued, being uniformly bound in 
crimson calf and entirely uncut. This set, probably the 
finest ever offered for sale, realised the large sum of 
.£500. Two subscriber's copies of Lord Lilford's Coloured 
Figures of the Birds of the British /stands, 7 vols., 
Svo, 1885-97, sold for ,£49 and £51 respectively, the 
former being in half morocco, g.e., and the latter in half 
morocco extra. A sum of £50 was obtained for Gould's 
Birds of Great Britain, 5 vols., folio 1873 (mor. ex.); 
£20 for The Annals of Sporting and /'amy Gazette, 
13 vols, (the number for June, 1828, missing, as is 
generally the case), 1S22-2S, Svo (hf. cf. gt., with all 
faults); £30 10s. for Les GSuvres Computes de Voltaire, 
70 vols., Svo, 1785-9 (contemp. mor.); and £62 10s. for 
Reichenbach's Ieones Flore Germanioe et Helvetie.e, 
vols. 1 to 24 bound in 19, 1834-1909 (hf. cf., 2 vols, in 
parts as issued). The catalogue of this Library con- 
tained 315 lots and the total sum realised was £1,366, 
this disclosing a very good average. The miscellaneous 
sale of the 27th July, also held at Sotheby's, was equally 
important, if not more so. The very rare first edition of 
George Mereditlis Poems (1S51), with the slip of errata, 
and having inserted an autograph letter of the author, 
sold for £21 10s. (orig. cl.) ; King Henry VIII.'s Primer 
in Englishe, printed by Grafton in 1545, sm. 4to, £58 
(unbd.,. some margins frayed); Hubbard's Narrative of 
the Troubles with the Indians in New England, with 
the original Boston map, 1677, 4to, and having also in 
the same volume The Happiness of a People in the 
Wisdome of their Rulen Directing, 1676, £150 (orig. 
cf, map slightly torn); Audubon's Birds of America, 
4 vols., large folio, 1827-3S, with 435 fine coloured plates, 
£380 (hf. mor., t.e.g.) ; the first edition of Isaac Watts 's 
Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1707, Svo, £29 (mor. g.e.), 
and a copy of the Genevan or " Breeches " version of the 
Bible, printed by Barker in 1599, 4to, £230. This Bible 
is very often met with, as some 60,000 copies are said to 
have been printed, and ordinarily it is not worth more 
than about £2. This particular copy, however, was in a 
remarkable needlework binding of the Elizabethan 
period, wrought by Anne Cornwallis, in the finest 
possible state of preservation. It was the binding, and 
not the book, which realised the large sum named. 

As very often happens at the close of the season, such 
a mass of books was thrown on the market that it is 
quite impossible to deal with even the best in this 
column. In due course they will all be reported in 
Auction Sale Prices, and to that record the reader is 
referred for any detailed information he may stand in 
need of. The result of the season's book-sales, viewed 
in a broad and comprehensive way, has not been wholly 

toi y. Many very important volumes have changed 
hands, as is always the case; but the general tei 
has been towards lower prices for those of an ordinary 
character, it being true of this season as of the last, that a 
d important library might be formed at much less 
1 t than would have been possible ten or a dozen years 

ovided the collector is content to leave what may. 
without offence, be called "fashionable books" to those 
who are able and willing to pay for them. Tins will be 
made clear in the next article, which will give the usual 
summary of the season's activities, compiled with an 
endeavour to show the reason why some books com- 
mand prices which are not infrequently described as 
extortionate, while others, often of much greater utility, 
and far more interesting from every point of view except 
one, are comparatively neglected, or in some cases almost 
wholly ignored. The auction season, to be hereafter 
quoted as that of 1908-9. opened on the 6th of October 
last year, and concluded with the last days of July of 
this. Its fortunes have been followed from month to 
month in this column, and all that now remains to be 
done is to submit a general summary drawn up in such a 
way as to give a bird's-eye view of the situation as a 

ONLY one sale of engravings of importance was held 
in London during July, that being the dispersal at 
Christie's on the 20th, which consisted 
Miscellaneous ^^ entirely of engravings of the 
Early English school. The honours of the day rested 
with I. R. Smith, two of whose prints, Delia in Town and 
Delia in the Country, after Morland, both printed in 
colours, realised £152 5s.; and two others. Rustic 
Amusement and Rustic Employment, after the same, 
going for £105. There must also be mentioned .1 fim 
proof of Le Baiser Envoye, by C. Turner, after Greuze, 
which made £115 10s. ; and proof before any letters oi 
La Surprise, by Dubuffe, alter Lawrence, for which 
£54 12s. was given. 

An extensive collection of Italian majolica was sold at 
Christie's on the 8th, a number of notable prices being 
obtained. A large oval Urbino dish, 25 in. by 20 in., 
realised £609 ; and two others made £241 10s. and 
£220 10s. In the same sale a set of ten Chippendale 
chairs, carved with foliage and scrolls, realised .£924. 

The sale at Christie's on the 15th was chiefly notable 
for a pair of old Chinese porcelain beakers, enamelled 
with flowers in famille verte and aubergine on a black 
-round, which realised £2,730 ; and two oblong panels 
1 Is tapestry, for which £630 was given. 
At the same rooms on the 6th .1 gold cross tor the 
Peninsular War with six clasps, and a large gold medal 
to general officers lor the Peninsular War, both presented 
to the late Ccneral Lord Hill, realised £399 •"" 1 

£241 10-.. respectively; while at Cleiidimm 1 ns on 

1 I (istinguished Service ( Irder realised £21. 

The Connoisseur 


Special Notice 

I NQUIRIES should be made upon the coupon 
which will be found in the advertisement pages. While, 
owing to our enormous correspondence and the fact 
that every number of The Connoisseur Magazine 
is printed a month in advance, it is impossible for us 
to guarantee in every case a prompt reply in these 
columns, an immediate reply will be sent by post to 
II i aders who desire it, upon payment of a nominal 
fee. Expert opinions and valuations can be supplied 
when objects are sent to our offices for inspection, 
and, where necessary, arrangements can be made for 
ii it to examine single objects and collections 
in the country, and give advice, the fee in all cases 
to be arranged beforehand. Objects sent to us may 
be insured whilst they are in our possession, at a 
moderate cost. All communications and goods should 
be addressed to the " Managei ol Enquiry Dept., 
The Connoisseur Magazine, 95, Temple Chambers, 
Temple Avenue, E.I "." 

'Books. — "The Spectator," nth Edit., 17.?.?. 

At,;i,S (Auckland, N ./.). Thi, edition ol / 

1 than ios. 11 nd for old biblical 

"In 1'rimum l.ihrum Mose Enarrationes," 1564. 

\i,i;i (Si vanger).— Your old commentary i^ worth under 


Bunyan's " Holy War." U, 1 78 (Wellington) [fyoui 
about £$ or £6. 

wanting the frontispiece, was recently 

1 r £-■ 
Bible, 1808. \i. 1 , 1: o] \n i 1 id) \ sibli is 

Hectors' value. 

" Books Of Music." '.I-;' j(Brandon). These volumes 
re woi lilling ;. 

"The limes," 1805. i old copy 

■.-. irth onl ■ i I 


"The Secrete Museum at Naples." 

N.W.). — The : ioui £5. 

"Stanlej Memoirs," i-<>-. Vi,290 Hounslow). 

Coins and Medals. Hank Dollar of 1804. 


is il worth 
no value 


George IV, Crown, iNm. i p , 

Engravings. George IV., in William Finden, 
after Sir 1 homas 1 awrence. 

1 ngravingsbj linns Meyer, ..Her A. E. Chalon. 

Engravings after Hogarth.— A996 (Sidcup).— Your 
two engravings after Hogarth are worth, at the outside, about 
5 s. each. 

BartolOZZi Prints.— Al, 094 (Kedcliffe Square). — We can- 
not quite identify your prints from the description, especially as 
\ou do not give the name ol the painter. Theyappear, however, 
■ . to a class where the value would not exceed 30s. or £2 


The Duke of Buccleuch, by Thomas Lupton, after 
J. Watson Gordon. -Ai, 145 (Ilkley). — This engraving of 
■ Sue, euch sells lor about 12s. 6d. 

"The Politicians" and "The Rent Day," after 
Sir David Wilkie. — .A.1,149 (Nottingham). — These prints 
were nevei published in colours. Fine proofs in black are 
worth only 15s. each, and as yours have been spoilt by being 
coloured, they are not worth more than about 7s. 6d. each. 

Landscapes after George Smith. 

too ill 

The Twin Sisters, by J. Thomson, after J. Hayter. 

— Ai.,246 (Widnes). — This is not a print of any great commercial 

"Setting out to the Fair "and "The Fairings," 

by F. Eginton, after F. Wheatley.— Ai,240(Wakeneld). 

—The value of the prints depend-, upon their condition. II "the) 

I impressions in black, the pair should be worth £-, or 

£6, and if a line pair in colours, perhaps about ,£20. 

Furniture.— Method of Curing Worms in 

Wood. — Ai, 100 (Bedford Park).— There is no sure method of 
ing worm from wood furniture. Many furniture shops 
-ell a preparation which proves efficacious in a number of cases, 
"i .1 l'".u1 plan is to irv injecting oil or turpentine. An amateur, 
however, would be well advised to send valuable pieces to 
a skilled man rather than to attempt the task alone. 

ObjetS d'Art. — Napoleon Relics. —A 1,098 

(Met n). [I 1- nece sarj to prove satisfactorily the authenticity 

. ' . \ . ie 10 have a special value as relics of 

No ole m, nd this would probably prove an easier matter in your 
country than here. In the ordinary way these decorations have 
little sale over here, and the average market value, apart from 
any special historic interest, is about £1 each. 

Papier-Mache Snuff-Box. — Ai, 336 (Boscombe). — The 

11 yom snuff-box is very unlikely to be an original by 

Mich siiull-lioxes, with copies of well-known pictures 

on thi lids, are common, and worth about 25s. to 30s. each. 

1 ndence regarding the original picture of Tht Proposal, 

\.\ 1.. II. Harlow, is trow proceeding in our "Note- and 
1, luetics " columns. 

Metal Tea Caddy. -Ai,25o (Plymouth).— The mark yon 

-.end a Hop date ol your tea caddy. We 

wi n rut up foi inspection. 

"Pottery and "Porcelain. — Black Jasper 

Ware Cream .lug. At, .502 (Redcar). This jug may be 

Many pieces, made at the 

factory during the 1 01 ) ars, have numbers 

us patterns. It is impossible to form 

ui ■ ug 1 1 the, as then- are 

tig. Your coin is 
' in 1 1 1 . but unless it is in very line 
ilv a few pence. 

Watch. Brequet, Paris, 1780.-A1.25s 1 A cot 1 ."- 

■ 1. . 1 ■ ; . ■. Mil-.] b) collectors 
togt h, youi ipei irm n 1 1 robablj 
m £-i- 


<m- v 

October, 1909. 

A Surrey Manor House Part I. 

Written and Illustrated by Leonard Willoughby 

The history of an old Tudor manor house 
in Surrey as given to us from the facile pen of Mr. 
Frederic Harrison is one of extraordinary fascination. 
The story he tells in his Annals of an Old Manor 
House loses nothing by his easy, graceful, and alto- 
gether charming style of writing, and certainly adds an 

chapter to the history- 

absorbing and very instl 
of Tudor times. 

Ingiving'the barest outline of the ancient history 

of the manor of Sutton in early and unsettled days, 
and of thus.- many notable personages who sub- 
sequently lived, moved, and had their being in the 


Vol. XXV.— No, 

The Connoisseur 

manor house itself, long centuri :s agone, 1 must needs 

dip for son).- guidance and information into Mr. 
Harrison's exhaustive researches on the subject. In 
doing no I therefore tender to him my grateful 
ai knowledgments, for thei : is or imongst the 
many who from first to last have inhabited Sutton 
Place that is better informed of its history. Nor is 
there one who has f ll a d lepei and more abiding 
affection for tin- venerable old i n epi i i lad house, 

halfway between Guildford and Woking, and conse- 
quently not far from the valley of the Thames. 

There was no great value attaching to it as a 
property, neither was it a strategic or a vantage- 
ground in the rase of strife. Nevertheless, it was a 
coveted possession of statesmen and Crown favourites 
for over four centuries. Mr. Harrison tells us that 
" it was tossed about like a racquet ball from chief 
to chief, as were scores ^>\ estates in the south, if 


with its associations and its peaceful and picl 

On a broad green sylvan bank overlooking the 
n ads just north of Guildford, through which the 
the fan o ise, built whilst Henr) VIII. 

on which it was 
built Wi ' ■■ 


lanor of 
Woking, and I 



I, within 
which fra ncaustic 

they were worth the having. It passes successively 

to eight or ten families. More than ten times it is 

forfeited to the Crown. At least ten tinn s the own. i 

ol it, or the immediate heir to it, is beheaded, 

attaint d, 01 killed in civil war. It passes from king 

to baron, and bai 1. from baron to king ; from Red 

Rose to Whil Ro . from Vork to Lancaster; and 

during the Wars ol the Roses it is not eas) to a) 

i \ iom il bi longs in law. It is 

othei owners. |>\ the ( onqueroi ; 

by his i Rob 'i Mal.t : l.v King St 

by his son William. Earl of Warren; bj Henry II.: 

n; by the Lords Basset : b) Rogi t 

I arl ol Norfolk : by Hugh I (espencer ; by 

l.dw.ed 111. ; by Edmund ol Woodstoi k, hall un< le 

ol Edward 111. . bj Roger Mortimer, Earl ol M n 

by John, Earl ol Kent ; by Jen. the Fair Maid ol 

A Surrey Manor House 

Kent, afterwards wife of the Black Prince; and by 
Thomas, Earl of Kent, her sun. Thence it passed 

by marriage to John, Earl of Somerset, the son of 
John of (launt. At last, by the death of various 
Beauforts, who fell in battle or on the scaffold in 
the Wars of the Roses, the inheritance ultimately 
passed, in E468, to Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 
the mother of Henry VII. She included it in her 
marriage settlement with Thomas, Earl of Derby, 

still the house now standing had nothing to do with 
it, and was entirely identified with its builder. Sir 

Richard Weston, and his descendants. Before des- 

the house as it appears to-day, loi it stands 
with but little alt. 'ration as it was built nearly four 
centuries ago, 1 must say a word con. rning im 
members of this family, who were notable men in 
their respective ways. These included Edmund 
Weston, Esquire ol the King's Body (Henry VII.); 


and at her death in 1509 she left the manor to 
Henry VIII., her grandson.' Henry VIII. and his 
grandmother held the property for thirty-six years, 
and in 152 1 the king granted the estate to his 
comrade and friend, Richard Weston. From the day 
that Sutton became the property of the Westons it 
has ever remained in one family or tin allied branch, 
rhough Henry VIII., Wolsey, Elizabeth, Thomas 
Cromwell, Sir Thomas More, and other distinguished 
persons were frequently at Sutton Place, still, from 
the moment Henry granted the estate to his favourite 
knight, the manor cased to have any connection 
with the history ol' England, and became merely a 
private estate and the house an unobserved country 

Though the manor of Sutton was, as I have pointed 
out, for centuries closely connected with the Crown, 


Sir Richard, his son ; Sir Francis, son of Sir Richard; 
Sir Henry, son of Sir Francis : and Sir Richard, son 
of Sir Henry. The former was born in the earl} pari 
of the fifteenth century, while the latter died in 1652. 
The last male Weston who owned Sutton died in 
1730, in George Il.'s reign, his daughter being the 
lasl survivor of the Mood of the founder. 

The Westons were an am ienl Famil) ol knights and 
squires, who were soldiers and crusaders, tracing their 
pedigree back to the time ol Henr) I. According to 
the mil which is now in the British Mus inn. th 
famil) settled in the county of Lincoln in Henry's 

reign. In [413 John de Weston, then settled at 

boston, Lincolnshire, received four yard 

cloth tit the- coronation of Henry V. His son Peter, 
also oi boston, 111 the reign ol Edward 1\ . had three 
sons— Edmund, fohn. and William. Of these r hn 


The Connoisseur 

was Lord Prior of the Knights ol St. John in England ; 
William a Knight of St. John at Rhodes; while 
Edmund, the eldest, was the fathei oi Sir Richard 
Weston, of Sutton. The head oi the English branch 
of the Order ol St. John — the Lord Trior— had his 
headquarters at the house in Clerkenwell until the 

t h e Ri fo 
tion in fS4o. 
look rank as 
first of the lay 

in the 
r o 1 1 o 1 
after the vis- 
i ounts. The 
Knights Hospi- 
tallers of the 
< Irdi r of St. 
fohn oi Jeru- 
i : i was 
found e d i n 
, i [8 for the 
purpose of 
maintaining the 

ii ui 

ii il .1 in 


links. They 

1 i s h 

i i 

1 ; I I , ,:: 

the loss ol that 


ttled b) 

the Emperoi 

V. at 

by a Grand 

H '' ' l! GR1 " ' 

■ Of this 

I tnd, ol which Sir 
William W'.st. m was the last Lord Prior, the old 
down by illness, dying the v< i 

ii.,. . ; . 

of ^ i bui I \\ 

ol it, tor it so fortuned that upon 

i 'ti I lay and 1 1 


by death, which strooke him to the heart at the first 
time when he heard of the dissolution of the Order." 
Fuller, in his Memoirs, adds : " His hospital and 
earthly tabernacle were buried together, and gold, 
though a great cordial, could not cure a broken 
heart.' boston at this period was a large port, and 
carried on a 
trad-- with the 

Amongst the 
Admirals of the 
Fleet of the 
K n igh ts of 
Rhodes were 
S i r J o h n 
Weston (1474). 
and Sir William 
Weston (1520). 
These Westons, 
the t h r e e 
knights of St. 
J h n , the 
brother and 


parts in 

he . 

r u s a d e s 

tgainst the 


. It IS 



that tl 



matei i- 


h e 1 p e d 


■ Tudor 

in the sui cess- 

fu 1 

\ e n 1 11 re 


ended in 

the 1 

lacing of 

It is pretty evident that the services rendered by the 
family to the Tudors placed thee, m high favour, 
and, in 1 on ■< qui w e, important appointments were 

I upon them. Edmund Weston was ap- 
pointed (apt. mi. Keeper, and Govemoi oi the Island 

II e\ within a month ol the battle oi Bos- 

niii'li subsei |uenl \ bei ante almosl 

in th Family. W. Berry in Ins History 0) 

' c " l he oil, 1 ,• ol governor of the island 

lity, A\\t\ in the fourteenth and 

' be n often held bv royal 

A Surrey Manor House 

princes. The Westerns held the post continually State ceremony, and for thirty-three years, from the 

from 1488 to i S4 .. Sir Richard Weston, who was firsl j ai o! hi< ^ n igr, n ign unl 

the most .mportant and prominent member of tin, 1,, served his maste. faithfully, neve, losing 

ever loyal family, was an extraordinary man-one office, and retaining all through his entir, confidence 

who was not only a soldier, but also ., diploma, Never was master more truly served, and this Henrv 


and statesman— a rare combination. Were this all it 
would haw been enough; but he was more, foi he 
was also a seaman, ambassador, governor, treasurer, 
privy councillor, ami judge of the Court ol Wards. 
lb- amassed much wraith, and was a great patron ol 
art. It was due in a great measure to tins famous 
in ins ability and services thai Henry \ II. and 
Henrj VIII. built up the strength ol thi \ 
monarch'.- in the sixteenth century. State papers of 
that period show that he look part in almost every 

ai knowledged by the unbroken loyalty he evinced in 
return. Mr. Harrison adds: '-II' rose into royal 
favour under Archbishop Warham lone befoi : \\ ols . 
he retain d il under Wolsey, and after VVolsey's fall, 
aftei thai ol More, and after thai ol I 
well. He served th m all, and o 

I'll' appointments and promotion 1 1 
showered upon him, sui ha II VI] 

to detail in full. \ however, was his 

The Connoisseur 

I M 


itment I -ieut i\A\n of the < !astle and Forest 
of Windsor. He married Anne Sands, or Sandys, 
ol Shere, his wife becoming gentlewoman of the 
qu n in [509, as she was to Queen Elizabeth of 
York, who died in 1503. By his marriage he had 
an ill-fated son, Francis, born in 1511, who was 
named after Francis I. ol Fram e. 

1 .11 Weston was sent with a force under 
Lord Darcy to assist Ferdinand ol Spain in the 
campaigns against the ^^^^^^^^^^^^^™ 
Moors. This expedition 
rani.- tu nothing. In 
1 5 1 t II enry knighted 
and from that 
tint onhi fortunes were 
unbi iunded. In 1 5 1 6 
tCnighl ol 
1 li 11 [) , whii 1) brought 

iter an embassy 
1 Fram 
to obtain ratifii 

riage ol 

\ith the 

Ml! 1 

This pi 1 Wol 

after died, and Mary eventually married Philip II. of 
Spain. Sir Richard remained in France five months, 
and during this time had ample opportunity of seeing 
the French chateau which had been recently built. 
It is probable that, being a man of great taste and a 
lover of art, he determined to build himself a house, 
on his return, which should resemble the 1 hat. au 
he had seen on the Loire. In 1520 Sir Richard was 
pres hi at the Field ol the Cloth of Gold as one of 
1I1 ■ kni-hts s,-l ■, ted I'm 
Hampshire. A few 
"^s v "^/ < ~* months later he was one 

ut the witnesses to the 
alliam ■ ol Henry with 
the Emperor Charles V. 
In 1523 Sir Richard 
raised a contingent to 
servi under the Duke 
ol Suffolk in the use- 
less war against France, 
which, owing to the 
jealousies ol the allied 
princes and the mis- 
management of Bran- 
don, was a I'n in plete 
failure. In 1525 he ob 
tained, through VVolsey, 
i;i niii. e ol the 1 >uch) 
ol I am aster, and in the 
.11 wasappointed 
I 1 asurei to th town 
and marshes of Calais. 
Here he resided a good 
deal. In 1527 he was 
appointed Grand Mastei 

A Surrey Manor He 


mJ&BH&*ti3R&£&,iA , Wi&i\ fih 


Lord Prior of England, which gave him rank as 
one of the great officers of State. Three wars 
later he was made Under-Treasurer of England, 
which office he held for twelve years, surrendering 
it only in his last illness, when about seventy-five 
ye irs of age. 

In 1523 Anne Boleyn was crowned, the coronation 

being received very coldly by the majority of English 
people. Both Weston and his son Francis, however, 
showed their loyalty to her, and within two months 
of'the coronation Henry paid a Suite visit to Sutton 

About this tune Henry was restless and anxious, 
queen was expecting her confinement, and 









t : both desperately anxious that .1 son should 
1 tried his best to hide his anxi :tj 

1 hi vil . and Ins " pastimes in huntying redd 

were his chiel amusement. It is even prob- 
unting was an excuse to 

1. el his . ouncil 
Sutton was the 
ol coun- 
1 il nv etings, at 
n 1 disi 
for th 
crisis in liis 

turned to 





Anne's fate 1 
Sir Richard' 
note that, despit 


part played in this tragedy by 
son. It is quite remarkable to 
e fact that Henry had but just 
>n oi Sir Francis Weston, Sir 
still the owner ol Sutton Plai e 
sovereign. Bearing his terrible 
bereave m ent 
bravely, he re- 
tained Henry's 
favour, subse- 
quently atl nd 


•f Jan. 






It 1 





. 1 

1 1 540 

Sir Rii 








.1 : 

and h 



11 en 

r y 


A Surrey Manor House 

was sent to meet Anne 
of Cleves on her land- 
ing in England prior 
to her marriage, which 
turned out so d i s- 
astrously, and which 
lost the instigator of 
it. Thoaias Cromwell, 
Earl of Essex, his head. 
But neither Cromwell's 
nor Wolsey's downfall 
affected Sir Richard's 
position, and he was 
appointed Master of the 
New Court of Wards, 
which office he held till 
his death, t wo yea is 
after. He was buried 
in the parish church oi 
the Trinity in ( iuild- 
ford, but unhappily all 
trai :s oi his tomb have 
disappeared. He was 
succeeded by his grand- 
son, Ihe only son of Sir 
Francis, whom Henry 
executed. Mr. Harri- 
son's description of Sir 
Richard is that " he was 
one of those skilful, wary, 

and trusty servants of the Tudors by whose elicit and 
craft they established a strong personal government in 
England. . . . His only son and heir, a personal 
playmate and minion of the king, had been married 
to a rich heiress by the king's favour in 1530, and 
in 1532 he was mad..- a Knight of the Hath at the 
coronation of Anne Boleyn. Four years afterwards that 
son was exe- 
cuted t>n Tower 
Hill as one 
of the reputed 
lovers of the 
queen. Vet the 



remained at 
Sutton to 1 njo) 
and ai 1 ept the 
favour of the 

To be a 
trusted minister 
and servant of 
Henry VIII. for 

thirty-three years shows 
that this man must 
have been possessed of 
marvellous tact, for no 
other servant of Henry 
Tudor had a similar 
record. He was in 
office under Wolsey and 
Cromwell, during the 
Reformation, and the 
Six Acts, as well as the 
Pilgrimage of Grace 
and Henry's first live 
marriages, during which 
time he was steadfast in 
his loyalty. "And what 
a wreck and ruin alter 
all," adds Mr. Harrison, 
" was the old man's life ! 
With what bitterness 
and hopelessness of 
heart in his last years 
must he have looked 
across the links of the 
VVey and beheld the 
fresh beauty of his newly 
risen house. There is 
a certain accord be- 
tween the fortunes of 
the knight and the 
and the house which the 
minister built him on the ancestral manor of the 
king has shared in the blight which crushed the 
lives of both. It is still overshadowed by the catas- 
trophe which snatched from the one his wife and 
from the other his son. Bright and promising was 
the fortune of Henry and the fortune of Sir Richard 
'when these 
walls first rose 
in the freshness 
of their fanci- 
ful grace. But 
I be only son 
who bad played 
within them as 
a boy never 

lived 10 inhabil 
ili-- hou 
1m, 1 watched 
in the building. 
He who gave 
the estate in 
nty, 1 hi 

Oil 111: i. 

fortunes of the 

The Connoisseur 

rAiNi Glass 
with monogram III a ■' ■ 

to it in blood and shame. 
He who obtained the estate 
by the king's favour, lost 
the son who should have 
inherited it by the king's 

fury. Ami ; i 1 1 ■ m n o 

inked seem still to 

have lived on in relations of 

course, nay, almost of 

ties had come to them by 
some inscrutable di tiny, a 
if the lather could as little 
blame the king as the king 
could blame the father.'' 

Almost immediately after 
Sir Richard received from 
Henry the grant of the 
manor of Sutton in 1521, 
work to build the 
house which now stands. It 
is not known whether the 
desigm r or architect was 
English or Italian. But 
1 he was, he was a 
man of wonderful taste. Contemporary with Sutton 

tre such famous buildings as Hampton Court 
Grimsthorpe < astle, Lin- 
colnshire, the home of 
the Willoughbys ; II n 
grave 1 1. ill, built by Sir 
Kitson, and sn 
long inhabit ed by the 
mily ; Christ 
Church, Oxford ; and 
Trinity I 1 

I 'lace is 
notable as 1, 

Ountry house in 
England built - ni 

fortified build 
were in- 

11 behind 

nd I ranee in 

ing the style ol 

Castle . roivrtt, 

two 1 

zvith buckle, and the f'unnine iel-us 
a tun. Jo LcNoi. 

eighty-one feel eai h waj 
building was an 


purely domestic buildings 
in place of the fort ifi ed 

There was no suggestion 
of even the smallest attempt 
at defence in the house he 
erected, it being simply a 
building of brick and terra- 
cotta, symmetrical, light, and 
airy, with great windows, 
tall clusters of chimneys, and 
spacious apartments. 

The house was built on 
the manor, about half a 
mile eastward of the old 
hunting lodge, where the 
chapel now stands. In 
shape it consisted of a main 
building facing north and 
south, with two long wings 
projecting to the north from 
either end, these again being 
connected by a gatehouse. 
Thus a complete quadrangle 
was formed, measuring 

On the western side of the 

uadrangle, of about fifty feet by 
forty feet, while the stab- 
mg and offices were be- 
yond. As I mention, d, 
the entire house was built 
of red brick, the mould- 
ings, window dressings, 
mullions, architraves, and 
ornamentations being of 
terra-cotta. Th is was 
pi 1 1 1.1 1 is the first time 
l 11.1 1 oit.i was introduced 
into -in English do uestic 
building. No stone was 
used, with the exception 
ol the Mocks on which 
massive doors of the 
gatehouse hung. To-day 
the old brickwork is a joy 
gi\ en ii .1 deli [htful 
mellowed torn . while the 
wonderful old I 

is in as line a state ol 

iervation as on the 
11 was pul in [9 
years ago, the mouldings 
retaining their sharpness. 

The Connoisseur 

as the illustrations will show. With the exception of 
the gatehouse, which has unhappily disappeared owing 
to a serious fire, tl rnally, is as Sir Richard 

used it, and so we are enabled to g t an xai I 
impression ol the first purely domestic country house, 
just afi ! the war ol the baron i < ased. 1 louses in 
ii to afford accommodation, 
not only for the family themselves, but also for 
numerous retainers and servants. Hence it was that 
on - usuallj found in earl) houses the large hall, where 
all dined together, with the raised part or dais al one 

th i lord and his family, and at th< opposite 
ry, butler's pantry, offices, and cellars. 

,-as a gallery or solar room upstairs, used 1>\- 
the master ol the house, and generally a window or 
opening from which he could look down on those 
below befoi and aftei I :asting. At Sutton Place 
the gallerj is a very fine specimen. The minstrels' 

was .'l the opposite end of the hall. In a later 
i -,ill describe th : hou - full) .1- il now <-. and 

give illustrations ol s 1 ol the interesting contents, 

which have been col- 
car and ex :11 m good 

houses in Eng- 
land to co npare with 
Sutton Plai . either in 
charm of design 01 set - 
tin- ; while til" fact that 
it was built ami lived in 
b h an interesting 

man as Sir Richard 
it just 

tOUl '11 ol 


which hang in the din- 

and drawing 

i hall. 

II ri 

d Sutton 

PI 1 


1588), Herselin (1530), Jean Raes, \V. Pannemaker 
(1548), and Bernard van Orley, the designer of the 
Hampton Court tapestries. These tapestries hear the 
Brussels marks — a castle or and shield gules. There 
are a great number of these in the house, all in 
excellent condition and hung to great advantage, 
the subjects varying, some being scriptural, others 
allegorical. The Brussels pieces have the borders of 
vines and pomegranates, which are characteristic, while- 
one or two are purely landscape subjects. There are 
. ;.il pieces ol old Jacobean needlework and 
stump-work in the gallery, and one in particular, 
1 piece ol Elizabethan needlework relating to the 
Galmer family and the Earls of Winchelsea, is of 
especial interest. 

The old painted glass which adorns the great 
hall is just as it was put in centuries ago. The 
wonderful colouring in the heraldic devices on the 
glass is worthy of stud\', and it is remarkable to find 
that they have been so well preserved. It must be 
remembered that glass-painting reached its perfection 
between 1530 and 1550. 
and had even begun to 
decline in 1545. Not 
only do these arms refer 
to the Westons, but also 
to those connected b) 
alliance with the family, 
and those, including 
kings, queen s, and 
princes, who visited 
Sutton, or owned the 
manor. There are also 
the emblems of both 
Roses, white and red. 
the badge of the Union 
ol the rival houses of 

York and Lancaster. 
No fss than fourteen 
windows with ninety-two 
separate lights in the 
hall at Sutton Place are 

filled with shields, with 

1 01 set oi de- 

\ ices iii eai h. ( >f vary- 
ing 1 [uality, and belong- 
ing tO I 111 ee difl I Hi 

th 5 .11 ■ oi rare 
I.e. ens and workman- 
ihip, and are certainly 
amongst the most in 
tcresting oi tie^ varied 
features ^1 Sutton 


The Evolution of Black Basaltes Ware 

By E. N. Scott 

Black basaltes ware, which has its lowly 
origin in the rude products of the seventeenth century 
peasant potters, and its exalted culmination in the 
monumental works of Wedgwood, is worth)' to rank 
side by side with that most original of the great 
potter's productions — jasper. True, its appeal is more 
limited, but in the same sense as the appeal of sculpture 
is more limited than that of painting. Basaltes invites 
appreciation solely through its beauty of form and the 
variety of tone produced by the play of light on its 
surface, just as does a piece of sculptured marble. 
Jasper claims attention through its charm of colour as 
much as through its beauty of form and design, just 
as does an example of painting. The truth is, the 
sense of form comes of a deeper understanding of 
KStheticism than does the sense of colour, for the 
latter is the more easily impressionable. Sculpture is 
no lower in the scale of line arts than painting, and so 
basaltes is no 
lower in the 

scale ol applied 

arts than jasper. 

Basaltes is 

the indigenous 

product of Staf- 
fordshire, for it 

was doubtless 

with the pea- 
sant potters ol 

that county in 

the seventeenth 

century that it 

had its origin. 

The somewhat 

vague evidence 

nl historians, 

combined with -- 

the more cer- 
tain evidence 

ot remaining 

pieces, proves modelled 

that they sprinkled their red ware with a mixture of 
powdered manganese and lead-ore, and so produi ed a 
glazed pottery, which was, at any rate, superficially 
black — or nearly so. This black glazed ware, of which 
we give two photographs, uf course differed from 
basaltes, which is ungla/ed and black throughout. 
The further step in the evolution of basaltes was 
probably taken by the Elers during their stay in 
Staffordshire from about 1690 to 1 7 10, by mixing 
the manganese with the clay they were using foi 
their red terra-ootta, and so producing an unglazed 
stoneware which was black throughout. There is no 
reason to doubt that this was so, although no pieces 
are in existence which can be attributed to them, but 
it needs no great presumption to conclude- that putters 
so. resourceful as the Elers availed themselves ol the 
suggestion offered by the methods of the peasant 
potters, and added to the manufacture of their more 
famous red pot- 
tery — the pro- 
duction of black 

lilt le ti.'.lpi ii -> III 

1I1 Hanlej 
Museum, which 
belong in the 
eighteenth cen 

turv and which 
trated. They 
.,. le I .vyford, 
who, together 
with \.:liue,. 
I, arned the 

The Cannoisseur 

I.I rs b) feigning idiocy. There is no evid 
suggest thai Twyford showed am, signal originality in 
i i imic productions, and the proof of his having 
blai i. ah mpports the theory that the Elers 
-I ii. and he 1 :amed from them the 
u ned the 
of th red wai , fhese pieces, however, differ 
very considerably in design from 
th" u,n usuallj .hi i ibuti 'I tn 
the I >utchmi n, and show a free 
nl ot naturalistic orna- 
ment in contradistinction to the 
i trained u ol conventii mal 
motivi ■ 

Vet th imbued with a 

nlike appreciation ol the 

plastic nature ol the mat i ial, one 

ted with 

ng with the unglazed black 

handle— sh 

and appi dling. Bui there is no 

' asontoi [ .mi them a ol particularly original 

i i turalistii 

rth nw.n. 
I . ■ 

made this 
black wai I ptian blai k," .Kami to tl 

ol w dgwood, who, oin at i ; 66, broughl 

it to its c pet :i. under 



polish which, urn 

light, g 

tone to its surfai 



charm is well exemplified in the fine sphinx i mi - 
pi i ■ ol Wedgwood & Bentley's manufacture, here 
illustrated. Basaltes possesses some of the character- 
istics of natural basalt, ami it possesses, too, something 
of the appearance (> f bronze, but its truest artistic 
qualities are related to neither: they are essentially 
Wedgwood recognised its resemblance to 
natural basalt, as is i \ ident by the 
name he applied, and it was verj 
likely the work of the Egyptian 
sculptors m this material that 
suggested the Egyptian as the first 
of the classii stj les hi ai li ipti d 

Wedgwood, tOO, perceived the 
suggestion of bronze, ami when — 
probably inspired by the classic 
productions in this metal — he 
desired to imitate bronze in 
ce by twyford P°"ery, he carried this suggestion 
too far by applying to the wai his 
tustic." Examples of this an . 
however, rare, but in the Wedgwood Memorial Insti- 
tute at Burslem there is a candelabrum, which has been 

' I) iiianipiil an id that one at first needs i ■ 
- on\ an ing that it is basaltes at all. But Wedgwood 
man to try to perpetuate this 
method skilful but inartistii — ol imitating in one 

material what 
another. And 



ch better produced in 
e see he turned his attention to 

ution ol works which 
w re not onlj beautiful in design, 

Inn w Inch also complied with 
ni ' . ramii i [ualities of 
1 i ' limn. 
Reverting to the origin of this 
hould b. observed how- 
all along the line the production 

ol blai k potterj is as ;oi ial d 

with red. and this is one. 

The Evolution of Black Basaltes If 'are 

seeing how the fabrication of the one so easily .1 
out of the other. Wedgwood for a time made 

two side by side, as is evident from the similaril 
methods of execution and enrich- 
ment — particularly the application ol 
engine turning to both — and also 
from the fact that in many pieces the 
two bodies are seen in combination. 
With regard to the latter point, most 
representative collections of Wedg- 
wood wares contain pieces of red 
pottery decorated with black applied 
ornament, and also examples of 
basaltes enriched with red applied 
ornament. The latter, which include 
useful and ornamental examples and 
also medallions, are pleasing in effi ct, 
the limited application of the red 
suggesting a sense of refined con- 
tract. Nevertheless, they pale into 
artistic insignificance he-side the noble- 
simplicity of the fine specimens which 
are unallied with any other body, and 
which depend solely for their effect 
upon modelling — produced by vari- 
ous means — and upon the natural 
qualities of the material. 

Yet again, the red and black wares 
are associated in Wedgwood's productions, for when, of th 
influenced as he was by Bentley's classic taste- and sever 
th-- acquisition of examples of classic art, he essayed to fitnes 
reproduce t he- 
painted ( rreek 
and Etruscan 
vases, he once 
more utilise.! 
ill- I wo wares. 
Upon the red 
he painted his 
"shining black" 
to for m t h e 
ground, leaving 
the red of the 
body to i-i\]])- 
pose the orna- 
111 en t ; a n d 
upon the black 
he painted the 
ornament with 
Ins ■■ encaustic 

enamels."' He, 
h o w e v e r , 

Utilised the LEOPARD TRIPOD 


first process, 12 inches 

which was, of course, th,- method generall) adopt,.-, 1 by 
the ancients, to a very limited extent. The majority 
oi these ■ in- d bj means oi thi 9 cond 

proi ess, because ol its gri atei facilil j 
of execution, and because of the 
smaller demand it made upon the 
skill ol his painters. Ol th 
frankly imitative of the ( irei k and 
Etruscan productions, it is onl) 
necessary to say a mud. Scientificallj 
the) were excellent, but artistically 
their execution was so lacking the 

facile, spontaneous, and decisive 
touch of the ancients, that Wedg- 
wood probably realised them to be 
neithei worth) of his medium nor of 
his - raftsmanship. At fast, his later 
productions justify this assumption. 

Basaltes, unallied with any Other 
hod\ and disassociated from enamels 
- -in fai 1, true- basaltes — now claims 
attention. As was the case with 
each class of his productions, he first 
employed it, probably from 1766, in 
the fabrication of articles of utility, 
such as tea and coffee ware, salt- 
1 - liars, candlesticks, flowei pots, and 
inkstands. In the production of most 
se articles he evinced a simplicit) of form and 
v of enrichment that give a sense ol ah- -Un- 
to the material, to the methods of fabrication, 
and to the pur- 

pose of their 


1 eii and tea 
pots and other 
. like articles ol 
usefulness in 
most collec- 
tions, which, 
for beauty of 
and ap- 
propriates ss 

of em ii 

are worth) to 
take a place 
with the more 
ambitious de- 
corative piei - 
Then qualiti :s 
arise in a large 
til .1 .111 ■ from 
1 h I- 1 1 method 

The Connoisseur 


of manufacture, throw- 
ing on the wheel and 
turning on the lathe. 
\\ dgwood 'I' i 
the possibilities ol th 
lathe, first used in Staf- 

by tl I 
to the utmost 
i -I 11 ■ capacities, and 
found in it artistic 
propert i es thai were 
quite unthought of 
I he objeel ion maj b 
raised that if 
of engine-turning is too 
ii il to beartistic, 
but in i I ca 

:• : fine texture 
and hard nature have to 
bo taken into account, 
and then the appropri- 
ateness "I lathe-work in 
relation to this ware will 
b realised A study 
ol en. 1 1| these i offee 
oi ti ' pots, 01 such like 

ol utility, dei orat. d with flutings incised as 
the piece was being finished on the lathe, will serve 
to show tin fitness ol this method ol decoration. 
1 1 simplicity and geometrii al ai i him 5 seem 
--..1. if. wha ..' : . Me -I for 
if. enrichment ..i in 

.... m in. ii:. hi, .1 
....ii 1 ii. had ma tered tb 
technique of his craft, wa 
oduction ol d 



artistie p 

timing that the 

almost ( e 

is, from 
whii h th.' handli s sprang in th.' 

were thrown on the 
wheel and finished on 
the lathe, but without 
fluting. The next step 
was the application of 
oval medallions of figures 
to these same vase S. As 
a matter of fact, the first 
basaltes shape recorded 
by Wedgwood in his 
original shape - book — 
now preserved at Etruria 
— is one of these medal- 
lion-decorated vases, but 
it is only reasonable to 
assume that thus.' with- 
out the medallions were 
first produced. In the 
course of development 
these same vases were 
varied by the addition, 
in place of th- medal- 
lions, of festoons of vine 
or flowers. 
re piece Seeing how success- 

,5 inches fuUy Wedgwood had 

utilised the tinting produced by the lathe in the enrich- 
ment of his useful articles, it is not surprising that he- 
soon realised how advantageously it might be applied 
to his vases. Indeed, for simplicity of form and re- 
straint of enrichment, the vases 
which mainly depend upon ngincj 
turning for their decoration hold 
iii. foremost place amongst his 
prodm ts in basaltes. The bodi s 
a : gi nerall) decorated with 
flutings, surmounted b) 
of festoon.-. I draper) or flowers, 
th.' handles springing from -atyi 

heads, masks, 01 goal 
Naturally, these motives were 
varied, but the vasi s ol the 
simplest charai ter, produi 
about 1701) to 17S0 the best 

yi .us of the W 1 'lew l& Bi tltli j 

partnership are ol similai form, 
in, I aie obviouslj related on,- to 
1 Th.' artistic climax 
oi this class ol ».iM'\ we venture 
to assert, was reached in the 
beautiful example her.- repro- 
.-! oi .. pair to b 

th'- top 

about 1 

11 El 

. The flutin 
fitted to its oviform 




Rijks Museum, Amsterdam 

The Evolution of Black Basaltes JVare 

body, and the leopard-head handles, together with the 
bands of ornament around the shoulder and foot, seem 
to supply just sufficient enrichment to the restrained 
form of the vase. 

These simple pieces, which are essentially the 
product of the thrower's wheel and the turner's lathe, 
gradually developed into the more elaborate examples 
which are inherently associated with the process of 
casting — long before introduced in the production of 
salt glaze. The most famous amongst the early 
ornamental examples of greater elaboration were the 
" Wine and Water " vases, modelled by Flaxman in 
1775 — here illustrated. It is not at all unlikely that 
in their production Flaxman was influenced by 
designs in bronze, but apart from the handles, which 
appear too weak for a ceramic material even of the 
Strength of basaltes, they are quite appropriate to the 
material and possess a dignity and grace of form and 
enrichment which are quite satisfying. The elabora- 
tion of design, in pieces mainly produced by casting, 
reaches its culmination in the tripod vases, lamps, 
pot-pourri vases and such like examples of basaltes, 
of which we give three examples. One of the finest 
specimens of this class is the large sphinx centre- 
piece before referred to. The photograph gives some 
idea of its dignity of form, despite its elaborate 
character, and of its unity of design, notwithstanding 
the combination of decorative motives of different 
historic periods. The sphinx pot-pourri is an early 
example of the numerous tripod vases produced and 
is another good example of the caster's art. The 
leopard tripod vase is a later example of the same 
class and, even apart from its design and modelling, 
is of special interest by reason of its method of pro- 
duction. The lower portions are cast. The upper 
bell-shaped portion and the lid are thrown and 
turned, the band of ornament and the diminutive 
figures forming the knob being afterwards applied. 
The engine-turned fluting, by reason of its simplicity, 
appropriately acts as a foil to the richness of the 
lower portion. 

In the pieces belonging to this period oi greater 
elaboration, we have the culmination of classicism as 
applied to basaltes. Beginning with pure Egyptian 
ornament, Wedgwood also used Greek, Roman and 
Renaissance — indeed he borrowed more or less from 
all the historic styles — and combined motive with 
motive, as only a master craftsman would venture to 
do, until he evolved a classicism of Ins own. In some 
tew instances, the great potter even went so far as to 
combine with the conventional ornament ol 
art the naturalistic enrichment he used less frequently, 
but in so doing, he set himself an even greater task 
than in combining the motives of differing historic 

styles. When the naturalistic ornament was treated 
broadly and severely, the result was not displeasing ; 
bin when it was not, the result was a sense of incon- 

\ case in point is a large classic pot-pourri 
d form, formerly in the- Propert collection and 
now in the Wedgwood Institute, and in this instance 
: o ivj has been applied— almost, it would 
seem, as an afterthought. Another example is a 
tazza with red applied ornament, in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, and in this 'case the enrichment 
consists of naturalistic vine growth as a frieze and a 
Greek border as the plinth decoration. 

The final development of true basaltes took place 
in 1776, when Wedgwood commenced to apply bas- 
reliefs of classic figures and groups to his vases and 
oilier pieces — reliefs which in frequent instances were 
the same as heiapplied to liis jasper ware ; for instance, 
The Dancing Hours and The Apotheosis of Homer. 
Indeed, at this period the two ; wares were closer) 
related in design. In the Wedgwood Institute there 
is an exact replica in basaltes of the jasper vase 
in the British Museum which bears the relief The 
Apotheosis of Homer, and is surmounted by a small 
pegasus. An example of another type of development 
was the application of reliefs to the " Wine and Water " 
vases. In the Wedgwood Institute there are varia- 
tions of these vases, in which the all-sufficient festoons 
of the originals have been replaced by reliefs, repre- 
senting The Birth and Education of Bacchus and A 
Bacchanalian Dance. A comparison of the two 
designs, however, reveals how immeasurably superior 
were the more simple and dignified originals by Flax- 
man. But it is not to be 'assumed that this latest 
class of basaltes productions does not comprise pieces 
ol individually artistic worth, for one of the most 
artistic examples of basaltes which we have seen — 
especially if regarded from the decorative rather than 
the utilitarian point of view — is a large, kettle in the 
Ilanlev Museum, showing great beauty in its restrained 
form and decoration. Its enrichment consists of a 
frieze of cupids treated in very low relief, which is 
enhanced by simple flutings turned into the piece on 
the lathe. Main other finely designed specimens of 
similar character are to be found in the various 
coif . tions. 

T mplete the types of basaltes produced by 

Wedgwood, it is only necessary to mention the life- 
size busts, the statuettes (one of Mercury, modelled 
by Flaxman about 17S0, is here illustrated), tb 
medallion portraits, the seals anil the intaglios. 

[The illustrations o! basaltes are from examples in 
the museum opened at lururia 111 [906 by M 1 
fosiah Wedgwood .\ Sons. The others are from 
pieces 111 tin- Ilanlev Museum.] 


r,N B. I Bl > MM! RS 


Glasgow's Latest Acquisition 
By Percy Bate 

The picture lovers of Glasgow and the \\ esl 
of Scotland must surely be among the most public- 
spirited of citizens. Year by year the exhibition of 
the Royal Glasgow Institute of the fine Arts is 
distinguished by the inclusion of masterpieces ol all 
kinds lent from private sources, and year by year the 
civic collections are enriched by loans and gifts of the 
most important character. 

Among the works of art which have lately been lent 
to the city may be noted the collection of Captain 
Dennistoun, of Golfhill ; a series of works by our 
native masters of the eighteenth century (including 
Gainsborough, Romney, and Turner), from Sir Edward 
Tennant ; an important group of 1 Hitch pictures ol the 

The Carfrae Alston Collection 

seventeenth century, owned by Mr. Arthur Ka\ ; a 
notable collection, mainly of Italian pictures and 
portraits of the finest period, mad.- by Mr. William 
Beattie; and, by no means least, a unique group ol 
modern works belonging to Mr. Andrew Maxwell, 
among which are to be found a splendid Corot, and 
line examples of Monticelli, Monet, Chalmers, and 

Turning from the loans to the gifts and bequests, 
mention should be made of such individual donations 
as Albert Moore's exquisite Reading Aloud, Sir James 
Guthrie's impressive Highland Funeral, Sir E. Burne 
Jones's beautiful Danae and the Tower of Brass, an 
authentic / h in a -.•<"" \i with St. John, by Bottii i Hi, 

The Connoisseur 

and a fine Virgin and Child Enthroned, by Barto- 

lommeo Montagna (to name no others), each recently 

presented to the citj b) generous Glaswegians; while 

lobler in scope and more important inartistic 

value are such unique benefactions as the Elder 

bequ it, the Reid gift, and the Donald bequest. The 

two I. up i are probably among the most magnificent 

individual contributions made in recent years in any 

British gallery, the Reid gifl comprising one of the 

greatest ( !orots in the world, a tuperb Israels, notable 

works by Constable, Jacque, and othei painters oi a 

md a glorious Turner, a canvas ol the 

1 .n.n . while the 

fort] |n< tun - im ludes 

imp] "' mi h leading Scottish paintei i as 

:i md Pettie, a « II as a long set ies ol 

m i ters as 

fules 1 lupre", I tecamps, Rousseau, 

Daub - modern 


And now, 

f Mr. I larfrae 

tbinet pictures, 

mostly water colours (together with a masterly bronze of 
A Prowling Panther, by J. M. Swan), each work typical 
in mood, method, and subject of the artist represented, 
and all chosen with cultured and fastidious taste. 

This is not the place for an elaborate account of the 
pictures thus added to the permanent collection of 
Glasgow, but a brief note concerning them may be 
desirable. They are singularly even in quality, and 
there is probably no individual work which stands pre- 
eminent amongst them, but there are some grounds 
for naming first among the drawings two by Johannes 
Bosboom. Both are in some ways slight, but each is 
full of distinction; and while the one entitled The 
Interior of a Court J/oi/se is notable for its breadth of 
handling, its happj contrast oi light and shade, and 

the skill with which the artist has used the dark mass: S 
ol his composition, the other (the Church Interior 
hi re reprodui ed) is equally characteristic in its colour- 
n of harmonious browns and its spontaneity ol 
draughtsmanship. Anothei ol the great Dutchmen, 
Amen Mauvi , i - also represented by two drawings, one 
a piei ol put landscape, Clearing after Rain, with 
sand dunes and sparse herbage beneath a beautifully 
felt and subtly tn al d gre) sk) ; the other a landscape 

The Carfrae Alston Collation 


with figures — The Herdivife — charming in design, beau- 
tiful and reticent in colour, and evincing in every one 
of its few square inches the artist's innate appreciation 
of the fundamental qualities of water-colour art. 

By Albert Neuhuys is a low-toned figure subject 
called A Two-Handed Crack (a Scotch phrase happily 
applied to a Dutch drawing), in which are depicted 
two urchins in earnest converse, sitting beside a fire 
whereon a cauldron boils ; while Adolf Art/, is repre- 
sented by Placid Enjoyment—?, mother and her two 
children resting on the grassy shore, the sea blue-grey 
in' the distance beneath the tempered sunlight ot a 
hazy day. In the same ■genre as these two is an 
aquarelle which is probably one of the most beautiful 
things in the collection, the lovely Milkmaid : Morning 
Call, by Bernardus J. Blommers, a drawing al once 
broad and delicate, in which the pale blue of the girl's 
dress and the cool grey of the cottage wall are deftly 
relieved by the happy accent of the blue yoke which 
has slipped from her shoulders, and the deeper hue of 
the pail she has just laid down. 

Sharply contrasting with the dainty art of Blommers, 
the two drawings by J. M. Swan next call for notice, 
and in particular the impressive On the Alert, which 
shows a lioness and her two cubs prowling on tl 

of a precipice, the valley below being tilled with mist. 
Like all of this capable painter's work, the drawing in 
question shows an instinctive sense of power, and 
while it is carried just far enough to be absolutely 
complete, it yet retains all the verve and vigour of a 
first sketch. Finally must be mentioned an atmos- 
pheric rendering of Antwerp, by Jules Lessore, and 
(hanging pendanl to this) South Queens/erry, by 
Robert VV. Allan, a broadly-treated rendering of an old 
Scots village street bathed in the cool sunshine of early 
morning, beneath a clear and pellucid sky. 

Fewer in number than tin- water colours, as has 
been said, the oil paintings are no less distinguish :d 
in quality, and among the first to demand notice arc 
two by fames Maris, The Storm-Cloud ami ./ 'Quiet 
Berth: Morning Glow. The former is a dignified 
and largely seen composition, in which the sensation 
of impending thunder is admirabl) com 
latter, larger in scale, is a sinking canvas, freely and 
broadly handled, and delightful in th luminou qualitj 
oi the sky and the rich green of the gra . both 
di xterously emphasised by the sombre foli; 
trees. Not less spontan ous is th vivaciously treated 
Crail Harbour of R. W. Allan, while in quite another 
mood Alexander Frazer's Barncluith, highly wrought, 


I'.Y D. y. I AMI K< i\ 

The Carfrae .listen Collodion 

completely realised, and sparkling and glowing with 
sunshine, proves Mr. Alston a collector as catholic in 
his taste as he is discriminating in his judgment. 
And if any other e\ idence were needed of his sympathy 
with widely-varying ideals in pictorial art, it would be 
found in the two last canvases to be mentioned, works 
absolutely different in their character from the realism 
Of Frazer or of Mauve. These two pictures (each in 
its way instinct with the note of romance) are D. Y. 
Cameron's Fairy Lilian, painted at a time when this 
truly poetic artist was under the spell of Matthew 
Maris, and Adolphe Monticelli's Garden File, an 
exquisite idyll of the golden age, quite lovely in its 
glamorous colour, its suggestion of idle, languorous 
breezes, and its ardent sunshine. 

It would haw bed, possible to expatiate at much 
length on the beauty and the charm of this 
collection thus generouslj bestowed on the donors 
native city, but enough has been said to -how that 
Mr. Alston's gift is ol the highest artistic importance. 
Admirably chosen. e ai h work has its own i harai 
qualities and its own individual appeal. 1 here is not 

■ which dominates the mind o\ the observe! b) 

■ i its size : not one which seeks to dazzle 

because of its vibrant colour, 01 to allure b) dash or 
Ol paint ; their appeal is ol quiet powi i. 
A certain sweet gravity is the l, ynote ol the collection 
as a whole, and each ol the works included in this 
important benefai tion impresses b\ mi an ol it quii I 
n ticent artistry. 







-£>* <■> 

Some Royal Snuff=boxes 

By W. B. Boulton 

The snuff-box having been always among 
the more intimate possessions of its owner, it follows 
that a good collection of snuff-boxes is often repre- 
sentative of the taste in minor matters of succeeding 
generations of gentlemen, and at times throws interest- 
ing sidelights upon their personalities and the events 
which have agitated their lives. Such considerations 
as these are very obvious in looking over a collection 
like that of Mr. Sloane Stanley, at Paultons, a gentle- 
man who has been kind enough to place his treasures 
at the disposal of the writer. His collection is a large 
one, and although it contains many boxes of very 
costly material, it has been formed upon a design 
which contemplated considerations of more interest 
than mere intrinsic value. It includes, for instance, 
a set of boxes each of which has a direct reference to 
one or other of the monarchs who have occupied the 
throne of England since the 
snuff habit came into vogue. 

It is improbable that a snuff- 
box exists dating from the reign 
of that great enemy to tobacco, 
James the First, but Mr. Sloane 
Stanley has several which com- 
memorate the virtues and mis- 
fortunes of his son. The first 
illustration shows a fine speci- 
men of pierced silver work 
surrounding a medallion por- 
trait of King Charles ; another 
(2), archaically carved in box- 
wood, quaintly records the 
tragedy of January 30th, 1649 ; 
a third (3) is a very good speci- 
men of the early use of tortoise- 
shell and silver in snuff-boxes. (1) charles 

The Stuart tradition is preserved in a very interesting 
fashion in (4), a fine specimen of the memorial box. 
It is of silver and mother-o'pearl, and, as will be 
seen from the photograph, is engraved on the inside 
of the lid with a representation of the escape of King 
Charles the Second in the Boscobel oak. The top 
of the box is carved in low relief with a bust of 
Charles the First surrounded with the emblems of 
his piety and his misfortunes — the book of Common 
Prayer, an axe, and a broken sceptre. It was 
probably long carried by some loyal adherent of the 
family, for the carving is so worn by use as barely to 
shew the design. Mother-o'-pearl was a favourite 
material for the snuff-box in those days, as witness 
the very chaste box (5) of that material and silver in 
which is mounted a medal of William the Third, 
commemorating the glories of the Revolution of 1688. 
The excellent taste of the 
Queen Anne period appears 
very pleasantly in the silver 
box (6) with a moulded horn 
medallion of the queen. The 
mouldings and hinge of this 
box are charming in their pro- 
portions, and the delicate pat- 
tern in inlaid silvei surrounding 
the bust i • quite typii al ol the 
best design of the period. The 
exiled branch of the Stuarts is 
represented in Mi. Sloane 
Stanley's collection by two very 
interesting specimens, 171a 
small silver box with a minia- 
ture Ol lames, the < Mil Preten- 
der, as a young man, forming 
the lid, and covered with the 







Some Royal Snuff-boxes 

Stuart tartan, and (8) a sil- 
ver box lined with mother- 
o'-pearl commemorating the 
memory of Prince Charlie. 
Its attraction for the loyal 
Jacobite was the miniature 
of that Prince, concealed by 
a double lid, clearly shewn 
in the photograph. 

It must be confessed that 
the taste in snuff-boxes 
appears to have suffered a 
gradual decline with the ac- 
cession of the Hanoverians. 
That of George the First (9), 
it is true, is harmless plain 
silver and tortoiseshell, a 
return both in design and 
material to the designs of 
the days of Charles the 
First, but the later boxes 
are more interesting from 
their associations than as 
works of art. George the <-+) charles ii. : 

, , ., MOTHER-O -PE 

Second appears in the gold 

medallion mounted in crystal (10), an arrangement 
which displays no very great taste. Boxes of George 
the Third are very numerous. An interesting one 
is that (11) shewing King George and his Queen as 

young people carved as a 
cameo in onyx, which has 
an added interest as having 
once belonged to the 1 >uki 

ol Ki nt. (121 is a typical 
presentation box ol that 
reign, with a finely painted 
miniature ol the King as an 
older man. The taste in 
boxes certainly declined 
under his son, whose box 
(13), presented to Colonel 
Congreve, contains a heavy- 
gold medallion of the 

Regent, b; 



rounded by flamboyant de- 
sign in gold, and mounted 
in crystal. A similar box 
(14) is that of William the 
Fourth, also by Wyon. The 
reverse of the medal, form- 
ing the inside of the lid, 
commemorates the restora- 
tion of Windsor Castle, 
and the back contains a 
fragment of oak from one of its timbers. An inscrip- 
tion rather naively records that the Castle was built 
by William the Conqueror, and restored by the fourth 
monarch of that name. 

"The Decoration and Furniture of English Mansions during the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," by Francis Lenygon 
Reviewed by Haldane Macfall (Werner Laurie) 

Mr. Lenvcon begins this large volume with 
i modest suggestion that it is written round the famous 
old mansion, No. 31, Old Burlington Street, with 
which he would seem to have business relations, 
but it is lar more than such a book would imply; 
indeed, 1 may say that it makes a valuable companion 
to Mr. M.iri jui n'd's large work on English furniture. 
Its value lies in an ordered study of the rooms of the 
more important homes of England as a whole — it 
breaks ground in this most important field, for we 
have had too many books of late upon the details of 
furniture torn from their surroundings, without any 
hint of their relationship to the rooms for which they 

were made. And until a more important and ex- 
haustive work is written on the subject, Mr. Lenygon's 
volume will be as good a work of reference for the 
collector as any of which I, at any rate, am aware. 

It is perhaps for the reason that the author has 
been bent upon the development of the room as a 
whole, rather than upon the pieces of furniture in it, 
that he is no good guide for furniture. The student 
and collector may be warned at the start that Mr. 
Lenygon goes back to the vicious system of dating 
pieces of furniture as being of " the end of the 
seventeenth century " and the like fatuities. These 
labels are utterly valueless. But we may wholly 


Decoration and Furniture of English Mansions 

disregard his dates and treatment of furniture ; they 
are, when all's said, a very subordinate part of his 
book, and had best be ignored. But when he comes 
to the treatment of rooms the student will find the 
book of considerable value ; and there is much 
excellent reading besides. 

At the same time, and it may account for the 
author's weakness as a guide to furniture, his taste 
is on occasion as questionable as his assertions are 
dogmatic. These assertions of taste must be taken 
with considerable salt. Yet, on the whole, I like 
him for throwing down the gauntlet for Kent. 
This designer and architect of early Georgian years 
has never had justice done to him ; and if Mr. 
Lenygon overrates him, he at least does not overrate 
him as much as he has been 
hitherto underrated. I 
thoroughly agree with the 
author that Kent produced 

much excellent and dignified 
work ; but I am bound to say 

I see no reason to underrate 
the great men that followed 

him, Chippendale and the 

Adams, in order to raise Kent. 

The man's genius cannot be 

compared with the genius of 

either of these others. Nor 

does the fact that Chippendale 

created much mediocre design 

assist Kent's reputation — for 

Kent produced some shock- 
ingly clumsy and vulgar 


There is no greater falsity, 

none that has been a more 

fruitful source of vulgarity, 

than the idea that because a 

piece of furniture was made 

in a certain age that it must 

therefore be good. There is 

not a single period of the 

past that has not produced 

abominable designs and 

hideous craftsmanship. Kent 

and Chippendale both sinned 

many sins. It is, in fact, when 
we begin to look upon works 
of art with the dealer's eye 
instead of with the artist's eve, 
that we place a wrong value 
on all works of art and all 
craftsmanship. And there is 
no better proof of this than 


in Mr. Lenygon's book, where we find him praising 
oi furniture simply because the) are genuine 
. but unable to see thai thi y an absi 
abominations in form and line. This is all the more 
to be regretted, since the author makes no attempt 
to evolve the design of furniture, and, therefore, is not 
in any way compelled to give si vi ral oi the spa imens 
which disfigure m\ otherwise handsomely illustrated 
and sumptuous volume. 

But to get back to Kent. Then: is a large truth in 
Mr. Lenygon's contention that the writers on furniture 
are in the habit of judging isolated pieces designed by 
the early Georgian architect, torn from their sur- 
roundings, and finding them heavy. This is a most 
just attitude. They should be considered solely in 
relation to the palatial rooms 
for which they were intended, 
and of which they were a 
most worthy part. And al- 
most more right is he in his 
contention that many of the 
looms designed by Kent were 
dignified and handsome 
places. They were. 

Mr. Lenygon's book is also 
valuable for the admirable 
series of chimney-places illus- 
trated, and for his able esti- 
mates of their effectiveness as 
well as the history of their 

Some of his examples of the 
art of Kent do not bear out 
his praise ; on the other hand, 
such superb examples as the 
oval mirror with the terminals 
of women's heads and busts 
ending in mermaids' tails in- 
crease one's respect for the 
man's genius. 

Besides the able chapters 
devoted to the evolution of 
the rooms of great houses, the 
author has several valuable 
chapters upon subjects only 
too often dismissed in vague 
generalizations by the writers 
on English furniture. The 

chapters on tapi 

wood-panellings, on plaster 
decoration, on the School of 
Grinling Gibbons, on decora- 
tive paintings, on velvets and 

damasks, on lacqw 


The Connoisseur 

work, on carpets, and on the lighting of rooms, are 
all well worth serious consideration. 

In the treatment of the early Georgian chimney-piece, 
a subject which Mr. Lenygon seems to have made par- 
ticularly his own, and in which his admiration for his 
beloved Kent has full scope, he is most excellent read- 
ing. I cannot say that his admiration is as convincing 
as his information is interesting ; but it is a valuable 
addition to our knowledge of the evolution of the 
English room. It is to be hoped that Mr. Lenygon will 
ouraged to issue a volume in which he wholly 
discards furniture and gives us instead an elaborate 
evolution of the interior of the English home from 
Stage to stage, consistently carried out, and illustrated 
as handsomely as this first essay into the fascinating 
field. The book is badly wanted, as a guide to the 
student of furniture, as a guide to taste in decorating 
ind as an authoritative historical work. He 
seems to shape for the handsome business. And if 
he can he prevailed upon to do it, I would suggest 
that he place his illustrations opposite to his text, 

instead of in the maddening system now and again 
employed by him whereby we have to be ever refer- 
ring backwards and forwards to discover the illus- 
tration to which he refers. This business of placing 
the illustrations away from the text is nothing but 
downright bad bookmaking, wholly without excuse; 
and when, as in this case, the illustrations are such 
fine reproductions as the author gives us, it seems 
almost wicked. 

It must be said, however, that the author has made 
con iderable effort to carry out this essential quality 
of illustration. He would have been more successful 
had he not designed his pages by " bunching " 
together illustrations that, good in themselves, 
destroy each other when flung together without any 
sense of design. But, lest the last word I say upon 
this interesting work should seem to strike the note 
of disparagement, I would add that the volume 
contains much valuable matter all too rarely touched 
upon by the ordinary writer upon old English 

ESSO i . i 



In the possession of Karl Spenc 

The Caricaturist of the Thirties— " HB 

By Egan Mew 

In the early days ot the last century the 
fashion of anonymity was still cultivated with success. 
During those far-off simple times the verse-writer 
with an agreeable pseudonym and the satirist who 
masked his personality, or even the novelist, who 
was merely a "Lady of Title," were supposed to be 
people ot importance or gentlemen who wrote with 
ease, and dropped their names because they desired 
the freedom to be witty. Nowadays the nameless 
are the insignificant ; but times have changed. The 
vogue of the anonymous was one of the factors in 
the enormous success which befell that once famous 
caricaturist of the early nineteenth century " HB." 

But other causes of his popularity were equally potent. 
For example, his portraits were admirable, and he 
possessed a pleasant sense of humour. He was a 
fair, but not a splendid draughtsman ; he wa 
and acute, and, above all, his methods and his 
manners were instinct with the spirit of his period, 
that wonderfully conventional period when all the 
world was young and Queen Victoria reigned in the 
hearts of her subjects. 

After the violent and powerful Gillray, the gay and 
accomplished Rowlandson, the mirthful, but inartistic, 
Bunbury, and others of that time, the art and craft 
oi English political caricature fell upon evil days 



The Connoisseur 

' V 



.mil almost disappeared. But about 1830 a clever 
miniaturist turned his thoughts towards this neglected 
field and soon developed a highly original style. 
"KB" took his first few drawings to Maclean, who 
published them with immediate success; but the 
artist remained a man of absolute mystery for many, 
many years. It lias long been generally known and 
often forgotten that this reformer of satiric political 
was John I loyle, the father of the illustrator 
\ ",vi and designer ol the Punch 

cover, the ono equally famous "Dicky" Doyle. 
How the curious monogram " hB " was arrived at is 
unknown. Some people have thought that the ailist 

ieni il, as .1 w ritei 1 ailed 

1 rowquill " 01 a painter " Mahlstick." It 

ha i also been 1 cplain d thai 1 his lettei ing wa i merely 

an an. hi 11, rni and duplication ol the artist's initials 

villi a line between 


tlniii. thus making KB. This is rathe) elaborate and 

, :, 1 ince more full veral 

iiined in plain 

running lettei II B., bul in any 1 .1 .-■ the reason is 

1 nai ira easy to 

power in the land, although 
. inued in be an inviolable 

secret. In Doyle's earliest work there is a touch of 
the bitterness and acrid personality which was so 
marked a feature in the productions of Gillray and 
his school. But very shortly his point of view softened 
to an urbane wit, and his manner of drawing adjusted 
itself to the lines of the popular lithographic method 
then coming into general use. 

When the first illustration here given was drawn, 
" HB " had been some years before the public, and 
his political sketches were immensely appreciated. 
He had been the amusing artistic commentator on 
the last years of George IV., and when this drawing 
was made he was depicting a closing incident in the 
reign ol William IV. It represents a little affair in 
which l.iird Melbourne played an important part as 
the tempter. Sir John Campbell, of Stratheden, had 

resigned 1 1 office, and bis lady had been made a 

She 1^ seen handing on the apple to her 
\. fun, and leading him back to the tree ol honour, 
ovei which William IV. presides. Such quiet 
humours delighted the public in the thirties, and 
the frequently published sketches ol " HB " were 
handed from one to another and talked about on all 
sides. At that time the libraries lent collections of 
these sketches and othei bonks to hosts who found 
some difficulty in entertaining their guests. There 

The Caricaturist of the Thirties 

seems to have been a considerable effort needed to 
keep society from being bored in that far off time, 
and the somewhat mild wit of " HB " exactly suited 
the situation when everybody was outwardly so highly 
genteel. There remained, however, still something 
of the mad, bad, sad days of George IV. in social 
life, and there were people left who said of that 
passed period, but, "Ah! how it was sweet!" and 
looked about them for rather more pungent wit than 
Doyle supplied. Thackeray, who had as just a fear 
of Mrs. Grundy as anyone in his pusillanimous day, 
found " l-B " a little bit timid by comparison with 
the eighteenth century draughtsmen whose work the 
writer of the Four Georges knew so well. He said 
of John Doyle — " You never hear any laughing at 
' hB ' : his pictures are a great deal too genteel for 
that — polite points of wit which strike one as ex- 
ceedingly clever and pretty, and cause one to smile 
in a quiet, gentlemanlike kind of a way." With the 
passage of time and the utter forgctfulness which so 
soon overwhelms political history, even that quiet 
smile may be lost to the present generation. Hut 
the excellent portraiture remains of lasting value to 
the student, and the very essence of the spirit of 
the period is preserved in these old drawings and 
examples of simple humour. The second cartoon is 

especially good in its portraits oi Melbourne in the 
and Brougham and Wellington, and well 
express.-, the then gem rail) a. < epti d point that 
Brougham would take an action which the Duke 
would consider bad form. 

The life of the coaching road in the thirties 
suggested many pictures to "l-B" — the usual 
aboul those politicians who are in office wishing to 
hold on, and those who are out wanting to come in. 
In a drawin- of this kind Doyle gives one of his 
delicate suggestions of Queen Victoria, who i.s often 
thus slightly indicated in his pictures as though it 
were bad taste to make any direct criticism on her 
conduct of affairs. "l-B" was ever ready to turn 
any popular scene at the play or any fashionable 
picture to the uses of caricature. Morton's farce of 
The Invincibles was immensely popular with our great 
grandfathers in 1839, when the sixth cartoon was 
published. Madame Vestris, Fawcett and Bartley 
gave this piece considerable liveliness and endowed 
it with long life. In the second act two old soldiers, 
Brusque and O'Slash, are routed by a company of 
ladies disguised as soldiers, and " HB " uses the 
incident to tell of a rumoured defeat of the Duke 
of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel at the hands of 
the famous ladies of the bed-chamber. These little 

y (i, 

NO V. READ1 ■■■'■ i in H i O] ' I IOH1 BUD G] 

4U1.TU01 ■.. M'l i 


The Caricaturist of the Thirties 

incidents always amused the public, and when the 
satirist pictures the ladies of the Court he always 
makes them a most effective and agreeable company, 
so that the sympathy of the outsider was generally 
with the palace party. 

Doyle continued his sketches of political life for 
so many years with so uniform a success that he 
became an institution and formed a new race of 
caricaturists. That his work was entirely free from all 
offence and could hardly wound the most susceptible, 
that his portraiture was excellent, and his wit ready, 
piquant and of the moment, were the facts that made 
him so important to his particular branch of art. 
It was thought by critics of his own day that he 
would have been a greater artist had he worked on 
the same material and with the same tools as Gillray, 

the older Cruikshank, and his other predc - 
But this is very doubtful ; the facile graces of the 
chalk on stone suited his particular gifts fa 
than the verities ol engraving. Although " HB 
formed a new school of political caricature his own 
work passed somewhat rapidly into that limbo of 
forgotten humours which awaits even the most 
popular. A crowd of witnesses to his 
followed his style, but his personal drawings were 
almost forgotten when he died in 1868. Bui 
ephemeral as much of his work appeared 
during the last generation, the whirligig of Time is 
already bringing in a revenge or two, and the 
political sketches of " l-B " are taking their proper 
place in the history of our governments and the 
story of our satiric art. 


VS < 1 1 1 ', P] i;i 1 n'Mi D \ 1 1 hi ..111 \' in 

The Mediaeval Ivories in the Liverpool Museum 
By Philip Nelson, M.D. 

Part I. 

'I'm magnificent collection of ivories in the 
possession of the city of Liverpool is, without doubt, 
one of the finest in England, and justly famous 
throughout Europe. This collection was the gift of a 
citizen of Liverpool, one Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A., 
a keen collector, and an eminent authority on all 
branches of the antique. 

The greater portion of the series, which forms the 
subject of this article, was collected by Gabriel 
I ri in wiry, who, upon his decease, bequeathed them 
to Count Pulszky,a Hungarian noble ; but he, having 
suffered owing to the war of the independence, was so 
reduced in circumstances 
i to I"- compelled to 
part with his treasures, 
which thus, in 1856, 
came into I 1 po 
of Mr. Mayi r. 

B F01 passing on to 
the more im 
portant examples which 
the collection contains, it 
would no doubl bi ol 
interest to review, in the 
briefest possible manner, 
*iv and evolution 
of this branch of the 
si ulptor's .in. 

i ipo 

carvings were wrought, was 

derived principally from 

the tusks ol 

both African and Asiatic ; 

tn damp and air and the 
il is nun 

ble, from 
tl probab [.— , .,.,, „ 

also that the mammoth (Elephas primigenius) — which 
still not unfrequently occurs frozen in the swamps of 
Northern Siberia — also yielded some of the material 
for the early workers in ivory. 

Among the Scandinavians, however, the walrus was 
the main source of supply, as also was the case in 
Germany and Britain. 

It is difficult to explain how some of the larger 
ivories which have been preserved to us were pro- 
duced, as some examples measure no less than 15 in. 

in length by 6 
much as .', in. thi 


:i breadth, while they are as 
jossibly the ancients possessed 
a method of bending 
ivory — a secret now lost 
— since no tusks could 
now be found to yield the 
necessary surface for the 
above work. 

The earliest examples 
of carving are to be found 
upon the antlers of deer, 
discovered during re- 
searches into cave life, 
which are r e m a r k a b 1 e 
alike for their excellence 
in execution and their 
fidelity to nature. Ivory 
was largely used both in 
Egypt and Chaldea, and 
it is recorded that the 
buildings of J erusalem 
were ornamented with 
this ma 1 .rial, Solomon 
having a throne of ivory, 
and Aliub an ivory house, 
whilst the phrase " out of 
the ivorj palaces " must 
be familiar to all. 
Among thr Greeks 

Statues ol wood overlaid 
:y with thin plates of ivory 

The Medieval Ivories in the Liverpool Museum 


were not infrequent, and were known as Chrisele- 
phantine ; of such works perhaps the best known 
were the figures of the Athena Parthenos, at Athens, 
and the Olympian Zeus, both of which were from the 
hand of Phidias. 

Among the Romans ivory was not used to any 
very considerable extent — at least tor statuary — though 
we are informed by Pliny that Pasiteles, who nourished 


■So B.C., produced a statue of Jupiter in this material, 
which figure was preserved in the Temple of Metellus. 
Subsequent to this period we have consular diptyches 
up to the sixth century, of which the Mayer collection 
contains no less than three fine examples, out of a 
known total of twenty-one. 

As previously mentioned walrus ivory was employed 
by the Northmen, and of this substance a number of 


The Connoisseur 




oen wen discovered in [831 in the island of 
Lewis, which arc preserved in our national museum. 

1 n date n the tenth century, of 

combs, caskets, and 
other articles carved in ivory for domestic use. 

We will now proceed to describe in some detail 

1 I 1 ollection which, either 

from their antiquity or beauty ol design, meritacloser 

n will endeavoui to 

ological sei ;u< nee 

Upo :af of a diptych, apparently executed in 

i) during the ninth century, is carved a repre 

1 arefully 

. whilst 
from above a] p d hand ol God. 

The companion leal to thi 

now in the 1 1 illi 1 tion at South 
in. by 2| in. 

1 il the tenth 

century, and represents St. Peter removing from the 
mouth of a fish the tribute-money, whilst behind are 
a group of three Apostles and the Saviour ; the whole 
design is surrounded by a plain margin, whilst the 
background is perforated by small squares, producing 
the appearance ol .1 draught-board. It measures 5 in. 
by 4J in. (Xo. ii.) 

The following panel, from the cover of a book, is 
very similar to the preceding one, and like it is ( lerman 
work ol the tenth century. The margin is plain, and 
encloses a picture of Christ blessing the Apostles. 
The background is perforated with a cruciform design, 
'The ivory measures 5 ,'„ in. by ■]': in. (No. hi.) 

The next piece is a rude representation of the 

Nativity executed in Morse ivory, probablj in England, 

and is approximately of the tenth century. The Virgin 

upon a narrow bed which slopes somewhat to 

[0 ph is seated m an attil tide 1 'I 

deep thought. The head of Mary is resting on a 

pillow supported by a female attendant. Beneath the 

aviour in a cradle, whilst above lli s 

The Mediceval Ivories in the Liverpool Museum 


figure are the ox and the ass. This specimen was 
originally in the possession of W. H. Rolfe, Esq., of 
Sandwich. Height 4§ in. by 3! in. (No. iv.) 

A Byzantine triptych, in a remarkable state of 
preservation, which still bears traces of early colouring, 
shows us, on a central panel, beneath an open-work 
canopy, supported upon spirally fluted pillars, the 
crucified figure of Christ, on either side being the 
figures of the Blessed Virgin and St. John. The two 
leaves bear upon them three half-length figures, the 
upper ones representing angels, the middle pair St. Paul 
and St. Peter, whilst beneath are an Emperor and 
his son. Panel, 6£ in. by 5 \ in. : wings, 5,; in. by 
2i in. (No. v.) 

The central panel of a triptych, of Byzantine style, 
is very similar to the previously described piece, but 
has in addition the half-length figures of two angels. 
The canopy surmounting the group — which is now 
much injured — was of considerable beauty. This 
measures 6 in. by 4 in. (No. vi.) 


Following this we have a panel, probably from a 
box of Byzantine work of the eleventh century, which 
is divided horizontally into two portions. In the 
upper section are representations of the Nativity and 
the Adoration, whilst beneath is portrayed the Cruci- 
fixion. Above the whole is an acanthus-leaf border, 
upon which traces of gilding still exist. Size 5 in. by 
4 J in. (No. vii.) 

No. viii. represents in relief the full-length figure of 
St. John the Baptist standing on a platform giving the 
benediction with his right hand, which is, however, but 
slightly raised, whilst in his left hand he bears a roll, 
upon which is written in (Ireek the words : " BEHOl D 


the world." The figure, which is somewhal too tall, 
is habited in a large gown caught in at the waist by a 
girdle, whilst from the shoulders there falls a cloak with 
a richly furred border. This ivory probably belongs to 
the later period of Byzantine work, and is affixed to an 
oblong sheet of ivory, which is modern. 1 [eight 8^ in. 




[The Editor invites the assistance of readers of 
I n Connoisseur Magazine who may be aide to 

impart the information required by Correspondents.'] 

Unidentified Portrait. 
Sir, — I enclose a photograph of a portrait by Sir 
Peter Lely, which has lately come into my possi ssion. 
i '.in you give me any 
information as to whom 
the portrait represents ? 
I am afraid I cannot 
help you very much, as 
I have been unable to 
trace the original source 
whence the picture came, 
but probably from some 
collection in Devon or 
( !ornwall. Noi can 1, on 

ml ol its si/e, well 

send you the original for 
inspi i i mim, 

I'i: frame, evidently 
original, and made lor 
tlv picture, is ol carved 

■a 1. gilt. 1 have lately 

had iln' ;n' nip ' i :aned 
and fra me restored, 
Though unsigned, I 
think there is Sit 1 1 di iubl 

he artist, and in 
niion I am sup- 
ported by friends who 
know I 

and win., aftei 
tlm pii ■ i nined those at 1 [ampton 

Court. The flesh tints are beautiful. The pit ture is 
It i possibl thai tlv portrait ma; 
iri i' i' print .ii in i xistence. 
Thankin ipation, 

(Dr.) 1 VV, 

An Ado 
;. i [-he Second 


rds in my home, a little 


picture of this subject that no connoisseur was able 
to ascribe the painter of, and looking round such 
galleries and collections as I had access to, and 
scanning descriptions of pictures in art journals and 
the catalogues raisonnis, I met with nothing that 
at all answered to the delicate handling, the firm, 
masterly touch, and more than Venetian force of 
brilliant gem-like colour- 
ing, reminding you in 
their purity of rubies and 

Several conclusions, 
accurate and inaccurate, 
I arrived at ; hundreds 
of persons saw it without 
any particular apprecia- 
tion. It was, without 
doubt, something like 
three hundred years old, 
although pictures born 
a few years ago, and 
already sloughing oil or 
cracking, have nothing 
of the everlasting youth 
and vitality which cha- 
racterise it ; then it was 
quite evidently painted 
by a Dutchman, who 
was not the first in a 
long succession of art- 
ists. He had clearly 
spent many years of 
residence and study in 
Italy, and finally to wind 
up those ol my conclusions which proved correct, it 

was almost certain that a visit to an art gallery in 
Amsterdam or Rotterdam would bring me face to 
ith .i\\ example or examples of the work of the 
unknown in 

vo inaccurate i onclusions, namely, that 
the winl. had suffered in two ways, hirst, each of 
the centra] figures, crowned with actually golden 
lone, had pitchball eyes, which, not unnaturally, I 
ii to i tout hing b) a vastl) inferior hand, 
who had. so to speak, carelessly effaced the original 
beaut} ol light and intelligence. Then, in the second 

Notes and Queries 

place, the fingers of the Virgin were, in my opinion, 
too taper; this might have been caused by the artist 
using some transparent glaze for the flesh tints on 
either side of the finger bones, through which the 
strong light shows unobstructed by the denser bone. 
This glaze might easily have been rubbed away by 
generations of strenuous cleaners. 

At length the opportunity occurred of visiting the 
galleries of Holland and Belgium, and in Amsterdam 
and at the Hague I came across work for the first 
time, after a quarter of a century's careful 
which was by the same hand, but by no means of 
equal quality, and the long-sought master proved to 
be Franz Francken the Second, called at various 
periods of his life " der Jonge " or " den Oude," to 
distinguish him, as was necessary, from his father and 
his nephew. Both he and his father were in their 
time Dean of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, as 
was his nephew, I believe. His sister Isabelle was an 
artist, who married Frank Pourbus. No fewer than 
thirty Franckens are chronicled as painters ; it seemed 
to run in the Flemish blood at that time. Only one 
or two attained any real distinction save the Second, 
who bourgeons out and rises most remarkably from 
the dead level to which his relatives safely adhered. 

Nevertheless, nearly all who have dealt with him 
have either confused him with some ignobler relative 
of the same name, or otherwise done him a most 
serious injustice by representing him as a mere 
draftsman of accessories, who stooped to the pour- 
trayal of heraldic devices and mythological trifles, 
or the grotesque inventions of griffins or demons. 
Twenty-five years' reverent study of my one example 
enables me with the utmost confidence to clear his 
memory from this aspersion, and if you feel inclined 
to give your readers a copy of the photograph taken 
by my friend Mr. Ambler, of Manchester, I venture to 
think that any disinterested person will declare that 
so very human a man as the one with whose portrait 
you favoured us in the description of the King of 
the Belgians' collection, and whose work was so 
intensely real and Frank, would be the most unlikely 
to waste his time or talents on a witch's dance or the 
interior of a picture gallery with the most servile 
copies of some inferior artist's work in frames that 
might have been valuable aids to a carver and gilder. 

This man was the intimate friend of Rubens and 
Vandyck, each of whom painted a noble portrait of 
him : and Vandyck etched the one by Rubens, whilst 
his own, which was bought by Lord Dunstanville in 
1.S24 tor the reasonable sum of ^90 15s., was 
by Hendriot and Pierre de J ode. 

My picture is on copper, strongly backed by a close 
network of wood-frame, jointed as by the m 

I i mona violin. It measures approximately 

i( in. bv 11 in. Only one art expert, so fai as 1 
know, has corre< tl> described either him or his work, 

mil that is the unknown writer in 1 .an lUSSe's / n Versa 
Biography, under the article "Franz Irani ken the 
Second." He informs us that he studied in Germany 
and Italy, making the acquaintance of Rubens at 
Rome, and after drawing inspiration from the work 

of the Venetians, he returned to his native town of 
Antwerp — in whose galleries I could find no 
example of his work — where in 1605 he entered the 
Guild of St. Luke, of which body he was made I lean 
in 1614. 

Trusting that these few particulars, to which I have- 
been chiefly incited by your interesting reference and 
portrait, will not be regarded as impertinent by you 
or your readers, 

I am, dear Sir, yi an 3 n spei tfully, 

Edward Neild. 

1' \l\ I ING BV R. l'l- MBERY. 
Dear Sir, — Will you kindly ask the readers of 
The Connoisseur Magazine if they know the 
English landscape painter, R. Pembery? I have 
in my collection of old pictures a most wonderful 
English landscape signed " R. Pembery." No date, 
but the picture is of the time of Lawrence, ( Gains- 
borough, etc. I cannot understand how it is possible 
that Pembery is in no book of painters, for the land- 
scape I have is liner than Hobbema, Ruysdael, and 
anv other of the greatest masters. For the honour 
of the English School, Pembery must be discovered. 
The architecture of the farm and the wooden bridge- 
shows a view in the South of England. I tried main 
photos of the picture, but without success, for it is 
all over so yellowish, and it has never been cleaned 
nor re-lined (rentoilt). Enclosed photo is the " best" 
I got. Nothing of the form is reproduced (a droitt 1. 
My English friends (artists) also never heard of 
Pembery. The most wonderful English landscape 
painter unknown ! No doubt but The < lONNOISSEUR 
\l \c\ . im and its readers will discover him. 
Yours sincerely. 

Edward van Spe s bri n < k. 

Unidentified Portrait (Augi i Ni mber). 
I iear Sir, — In your number of The Conn 
\l\..\ ine for August, Mr. Cont Michiel asks for 
information inidi ntified portrait (No. 1 1. 

1 have no doubt but that it is of Mar) Robinson 
(■■ Perdita"), and though difficult to assign the artist 
from tins photograph, it bears the look ol 1 Gains- 
borough's, or perchance Allan Ramsay's, work, 
ithfully, Harold Mai et, < 

The Connoisseur 

Km igious Prints. 

Dear Sir, — Can you 
assist us to find two 
prints, one Christ Heal- 
ing the Sic/;, and the 
other a religious musi- 
cal picture. They are 
wanted to bind up with 
.1 ipi i ial copy of The 
Imitation of Christ. The 
si/.e is about 6 in. by 
4!, in. It it is impi > 
ble to get this size, we 
should I"- glad to have 
larger pictures, that they 
might be reduc< d b) 

Yours truly, 

J. !■:. Cl \n ■ 

l\ll'l N I II II D 

Col \i M Hoi 
I l| \i: Sir, — The mi- 
ni mtified country house 
n prod need i n T 11 E 
< onnoissi 1 r Maga- 
zine of J uly is the 
" pavilion " at 1 laarK 111 - 
li\ a banker called I lope, 

Holland bought it. tl is 

back view. It was built 
from whom the King ol 
now a museum. 
me, yours truly, 

Vic 1 i>k i.i Stuers. 

William Shayer's 

Dear Sir, — I should 
be glad to know whether 
any of your readers could 
assist me in ascertaining 
if any of the sons of 
William Shaver, artist, 
of Shirley, Southampton, 
are still living, and what 
address would find them. 

And greatly oblige, 
Yours faithfully, 
A Southampton Man. 

German Painter, 

" Leiter." 
Dear Sir. — I think 
F. M. L. is making a mis- 
take in the name. There 
is a German painter 
" Sytei," also called 
"Saiter" (Daniel), who 
painted scriptural and 
mythological subjects. 
Yours truly, 
E. Stun LING. 
Books on Papal Coins, Etc. 
Dear Sir, — What books or magazines have ap- 
leared with descriptive reading on Papal coins"- 1 
Mso books on military badges, buttons. 

Yours faithfully, K. James. 

I .-. ' I ' K. I'l Ml' 

The Picture Sales of 1909 

There seems to be a growing tendency to crowd 
the great picture sales into the narrow space of eight or 
ten weeks, in accordance with a custom which is not 
founded on anything more substantial than tradition : 
proprietors and auctioneers apparently act on the assump- 
tion that pictures sell better in May and June than in 
March and April. There have been numerous instances 
of the fallacy of this theory, but nothing seems to kill it. 
From November to the last week in April there was, in 
London at least, an almost complete blank so far as either 
important collections or fine individual pictures were con- 
cerned. The commercial wisdom of crowding all the big 
sales into the months of May and June may be very 
seriously questioned, for it is obvious that the sudden 
glutting of the market in this manner, if it does not affect 
the great pictures, must tell seriously on those of a lower 
tank i if importance, which indeed form the bulk of every 
year's transactions. As at present arranged, the dealers 
do not recover from one heavy sale before another looms 
in the immediate distance. With purchases amounting 
often from ,£20,000 to £40,000 in a day, even with a 

By W. Roberts 

catalogue well filled with commissions, main- dealers 
must find a difficulty in so arranging that the majority 
of their purchases are "placed" before the next consign- 
ment comes in. But this is a matter for the consideration 
of the auctioneers and dealers rather than the public. 

That the before-mentioned fallacy is real is borne out 
by the fact that the only two important sales held in 
February and March took place in Edinburgh. At 
Dowell's rooms the collections of J. Irvine Smith and 
John Ramsay (February 13th and March 5th and 6th 
respectively), consisting of pictures by Scotch and modern 
Dutch artists, produced exceedingly good prices, some of 
which were record ones, so far as regards auctions in 
England and Scotland. 

The important picture sales in London this season 
have been unusually few in number, and below the 
average. Last year seven sales, with totals of up- 
wards of £10,000 each, produced an aggregate sum of 
£ ;i 1. 1 v. whilst this year five sales alone totalled up to 
the enormous amount of £360,334. These five sales 
may be thus tabulated : — 


Character m cy>i i e< u..\. 

Sir John Day ... 
Sir Cuthbert Quiltei 
E. H. Cuthbertson 
H. Gaskell ... 
Sir 1. I). Milburn 

bail 11/. hi and Dutch 
Ancient and Modern 
Early English and Barbi; 
Modern English 
Early English and Model 


Mm 1 ; 14 . 
My 9 
May 21 

June 10 II. 




N 7 .-Sn 

For the second year in succession the honours of the 
season fell to a work by J. M. W. Turner. Last year 
the beautiful Mortlake in the Holland sale realised 

:,6oo gns. ; this year Mr. Gaskell 

example of the 

artist, The Burning of the Houses oj I 

brought just 100 gns. less, i.e., 12,500 gns. This year, 

as last, a number of examples of Turners 

sale, and the prii es good : 

Pictures and Drawings by I. M. W. Turner. 

Title \ 

l'i 1. a I: 

Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 35 in. by 48 1 
East Cowes Castle, 36 in. by 4S in., 1S35 
Venus and Adonis, 61 in. by 47 in., circa 1S06 
Windermere, 12 in. by IS in., drawing, circa 1835 
Kiisnacht, Lucerne, 12 in. by 19 in., drawing, 184; 


1 htillcr 
I ne II 


The Connoisseur 

Pictures and Drawings by J. M. W. Turner. — Continued. 

Title and Size and Date. 


Price Realised. 

[ngleborough from Hornby Castle, i i '. in. by 16 in., drawing, 1S1S 

Lucerne from the Walls, 12 in. by iS in., drawing, 1842 

Folkestone, Twilight, 18 in. by 26 in., drawing, 1824 

The Devil's Bridge, 31 in. by 24 in., circa 1S15 

April 30 









Curiously enough, this season, as last, the second 
highest price of the year was paid for an example of John 
Constable, the beautiful Arundel Mill and Castle, 27 in. 
by 37 in., which in the Gaskell dispersal brought 
8,400 gns. — a very different sum to the 75 gns. paid for 
it at the artist's sale after his death. Notwithstanding 
the high prices of last year and this, the 8,500 gns. 
paid in 1895 for Mr. Huth's Constable, Stratford Mill, 
remains the record. One other Constable occurred 

for sale, Professor Bertrand's 1 'armouth Jetty, with 
boats, 27 in. by 35 in., offered on April 24th, and 
was considered not to have reached the reserve at 
1,380 gns. 

Although the supply of "old masters" has not been 
abundant — as one would say of a plentiful crop of 
apples— yet one of them ranks third in the scale ot 
prices paid, and so we may group them together in 
one table : — 

N wti. of Artist. 

Title and Size of Picture. 


Reai ised. 



Descent from the Gov,, ss in. by 42 in., 1651... 

July 2 



I111111 .1. nl. He Conception, 74 m. by 53 in. 




Mariana, wife oi Philip I\ ., S s in. by 47 in. ... 



V M L( 5 

: old Lady, 46 in. by 34 in., 1669 

Feb. 2 


V M ■ - 

Portrait oi Lady and Gentleman, 45 in. by 37 in. 

July * 


A. Cuyp 

Town on a River, 41 in. by 52 in 

J"iy 2 



Pallavicino, 02 in. by 47 in 



1. B. Pater 

tie with figures, 10 in. by 13 in. 

Throckmorton ... 


P. Le Sire 

Portraits of Lady and Gentleman, 33 in. by 26 in 

, ">37 ... 



11 ... 

Island near Venice, 36 in. by 43 in 



1. ( >. hterveldt 

1 'he M usic Lesson, 57 in. by 20 in 




Portrail ol a Lady in wdiite, 31 in. by 14 in. 

J«iy 2 


The fourth highest price of the season— 6,400 gns. — 

lid for Sir Cuthbert Quilter's beautiful and 

unusual example of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Venus 

and Cupid. The Early English school of portrait 

painters form an important feature in the sales of the 

past season — important on the threefold score of 
quality, number, and price, six pictures exceeding the 
highest price paid last year ; the pictures which reached 
the necessarily arbitrary limit of .£1,000 being as 
follows : — 

N VME 1 IF ART1 1 . 

1 , , lnd Size oi Picti re. 




| Reynolds 

ind Piping Boy, 50 in. by 39 in. 



Sir H Raeburn 

Sn |ohii Mi'.el.ur. 04 in. by 60 in. 

luly 16 



j 14 in. 



1 .. Romney 

ickburne, 50 in. by 40 in. 




Mi \ ivbery, |0 in. by is in. ... 



Sii 1. Reynolds 

mi do- 11. ■ by 40 in. 



G. Romney 

1 in 



si. II. Raeburn 

i . Blisland, 57 in. by 44 in 

Inly 2 



ej , ji 1 in. bi 25 in. 

Milburn ... 


1 Law rem e 

>. 25 in. 

■ I (.0 in. ... 




July 2 

3ii II. Raeburn 

■ i \l»'vnc, ;o in. bj i' ' in 



G. 1 

by 27 in 

I11W 10 



Portrait of a Lady, 50 in. by 40 in. 

July 2 



1 rompi 1 30 ii ■ ; in 



il .1 Lady, jo in. bj 25 in. 

Inly 7 


Sir II. Raeburn 

Lady Broughton, 35 in. by 27 in. 



s kins, ;o in. by 25 in. ... ... ... 



1 ipwards ol £ 1 
eleven which reached that limit I 10m this 

story of] 

.1 wide step, but we may conveniently regard it here as 
the natural sequence. In the following table of modern 
English u again taken ,£1,000 as the general 

bul a few pictures which have nearly reached 
that limit are also included: — 

/;/ the Sale Room 

Name of Artist. 

Title and Size i >i r 


Sir II. von Herkomer 

The Last Muster, 82 in. by 61 in 

Ouilter ... 

Sir 1. E. Millais 

Murthly Moss, 50 in. by 7z in. 

Quilter ... 
Quiltei .-. 
Quilter ... 
Quilter ... 

F. Walker 

The Bathers, ;6 in. by 84 in 

Holman Hunt 

The Scapegoat, ;i in. by 55 in 

Sir E. Landseer .. 

Midsummer Night's Dream, 12 in. b] 

Lord Leighton 

Cymon and Iphigcm. . 1.1 :: 

Quilter ... 

Cecil La wson 

The Donne Valley, 41 in. by 53 in 

D. G. Rossetti 

La Bella Man-, 62 in. by 46 in. 

Quilter .. 
Gaskell ... 

David Cox 

Flying the Kite, iS in. by 28 in. 

David Cox 

Outskirts ol a Wood, JS in. by (6 in. 

Quilter ... 

B. W. Leader 

Parting Day, 44 in. by 71 in. 

( milter 
July .6 ,.. 

Peter Graham 

Evening : Highland Cattle, 64 in. by 48 in. 

D. Cox 

Washing Day, 17 in. by 25 in. ... 

Gaskell ... 

B. W. Leader 

Green Pastures, 44 in. by 71 in. ... 

Quilter ... 

Sir L. Alma-Tadema 

Rose of all the Roses, 15 in. by in. 

D. Cox 

The River Llugwy, 18 in. by 25 in. 


G. Vincent 

Greenwich Hospital, 28 in. by 36 in. 

Quilter ... 

Sir E. T. Poynter ... 

Under the Sea Wall, 22 in. bv 14 in. 

Quilter ... 

I. Phillip 

Selling Relics, 62 in. by 84 in. .. 

Quilter ... 

Sir Luke Fildes 

Return of the Penitent, 52 in. by 100 in. 

Gaskell ... 

D. Cox 

Counting the Flock, 23 in. by 34 in. 

Gaskell ... 

Sir L. Alma-Tadema 

Spring Time, 34 in. by 20 in. 

Garland . 







The sensational feature of the year's sale has been the 
vogue of pictures of the Barbizon and modern Dutch 
Schools, and even the high prices of the previous two or 
three seasons have been, in most cases, completely 
eclipsed. Curiously enough, and as an illustration of 
the uncertainties of the auction room, neither the highest, 
nor the second, nor even the third or fourth highest 
price of the season fell to a Corot. The honour this year 
has fallen to J. F. Millet. Early in May last one of his 
pictures, DArrive'e an Travail a r.-lurorc, realised 
.£10,000 at an auction in New York, a Corot brutight 
^6,000, and a Troyon upwards of ,£5,000. Our English 
sales cannot show such figures as these; but Sir John 

Day's little Millet picture, The Goose Maiden, heads this 
year's modern French pictures at 5,000 gns., and Mr. 
Cuthbertson's example of Th. Rousseau, Tlic Winding 
Road, comes second at 4,600 gns., both "record'' prii es 
of the respective artists in this country, whilst fresh 
records of nearly every other member of the Barbizon 
and modern Dutch Schools have been established this 
year. The following table contains a list of the pictures 
which fall into this group, and which have either reached 
or nearly reached the limit of four figures. The works of 
each artist are grouped together, and the order is accord- 
ing' to the highest price reached by a particular picture 
of the various painters : — 

Name of Artist. 

Title and Size of Pii turf.. 


Rem ised. 


J. F. Millet 

The Goose Maiden, 13 in. by 10 in. 



T. F. Millet 

Le Falaises, 37 in. by 40 in. 

Milburn ... 


|. F. Millet 

La Cardeuse, 35 in. bv 22 in. 


I. coo 

Th. Rousseau 

The Winding Road, it> in. bv 25 1 



E. Van Marcke 

Cattle in a Storm, 31 in. by 45 in. 

( uthbertson 


M. Maris 

The Four Mills, 9 in. by 12 in 



M. Maris 

Feeding Chickens, 14 in. by S in. 



Ch. Jacque 

Ch. Jacque 

The Flock, 32 in. by 39 in. 

1 111 lib. it son 


La Bergere, 32 in. by 25 in 


'. i. 11 

Ch. lacque ... 

The Shepherdess, 32 in. by 25 111. 

Ch. Jacque 

The Shepherdess, 32 in. by 25 in 

( uthbeltson 

J. B. C. Corot 

Landscape with Pea-ant, 10 in. bv 22 in. 

( uthbertson 


J. B.C. Corot 

Chemin de la Roues, 26 in. by 20 in. 


|. B. C. Corot 

The Ferry, 18 in. by 24 in. 

Da 5 

1. B. C. Corot 

Une Symphonic, 47 in. by 33 in. 


1. B. C. Corot 

Environ- d'Arleux, 25 in. by 17 in. 

Mil 11 

I. B. C. Corot 

Entree au Village de <\.mbou, iS in. h\ • 1 1 

J. B. C. Corot 

Le Coup de Vent, 18 in. by 21 in 

I. B. C. Corot 

Woodcutters, 2; in. by 32 in 

D j 

J. B.C. Corot 

La Chauinieres des I lune-, IS in. bv 22 in. 

1 . 

J. B. C. Corot 

Souvenir de la Villa Pamphili, 15 in. h. 

I. B. C. Corot 

Souvenir d'ltahe, 15 in. by 24 in. 


1. Maris 

View overlooking a Village, 50 in. by 40 in. 

( uthbeitson 

J. Maris 

Near Dordrecht, iS in. by 20 in. 

f. Maris 

Dordrecht Cathedral, 21 111. bv 30 in., drawing 


1. Maris 

Dordrecht, 20 in. by 24 in. 


1. Maris 

j. Maris 

The Bridge, 20 in. by 2.S in., drawini 
Amsterdam, 17 in. by 14 in- 

\ an Alphen 



J. Maris 

Low Tide, 24 in. by 20 in. 


The Connoisseur 

Name ok An i hi. 

Title and Size of Picture. 

I. Maris 
J. Man, 
J. Maris 
Jules Breton 
A. Mauve ... 
A. Mauve ... 
A. Mauve ... 
A. Mauve ... 
A. Mauve 
A. Mauve ... 
\ Mauvi 

'■ " 

J. Dupre ... 
C. Troyon ... 
C. Troyon ... 
C. Trovon ... 
C. Troyon ... 
J. Israels ... 

I. Israel, ... 
J. [sraels ... 

i ',. I . 1 laubign) 
('. 1-. Daubigny 
c. F. Daubigny 
C. 1-'. Daubigny 

I . K Daubignj 

I I. 1 larpignies 

II Harpignies 
II Harpignii 
11. Harpignies 

11. Harpignies 
N'. Diaz . 

N. Diaz ... 
V Di 

Ploughing, 1 6 in. by 29 in. 

nen by a Stream, 22 in. by 15 in. ... 

Scheveningen, 21 in. by 16 in 

Le Goitter, 29 in. by 47 in 

Troupeau de Moutons, 20 in. by 36 in 

1 in 1 de Bois, 22 in. by 30 in. ... 

Road between Two Dykes, 19 in. by 14 in. 
Returning to the Fold, 17 in. by 25 in., drawing 
Shepherdess ami Sheep, 12 in. by 20 in. 
Shepherd and hi- Flock, iS in. by 24 in., drawing 

Return of the Flock, 21 in. by 18 in 

Tannage an Moid du Mare, 19 in. by 29 in. 

La Soulaire, 8 in. by 1 1 in 

Cattle by a River, 32 in. by 45 in 

Cattle in a Pasture, 20 in. by 2S in. 
Shepherd and Sheep, 16 in. by 13 in. ... 

( 'on. Drinking, 10 in. by 22 in 

Washing the Cradle, 30 in. by 24 in 

Bonheur Maternal, 29 in. by 23 in. 
Portrait of a Girl, 27 in. by 21 in. 
Paysage dans l'Eure, 15 in. by 20 in. 

Holds de Riviere, II in. by 10 ill. 

I.a Seine a Nantes, 15 in. by 27 in. 

Les Laveuses, 15 in. by 26 in 

Harvest Moon, 24 in. by 43 in 

I.a Loire pie, source, 57 in. by 65 in. ... 

Solitude, 37 in. by 59 in 

Le Moulin de la Paine, 2S in. by 21 in 

I. a, 1 Days of Summer, 38 in. by 64 in. ... 
The Mediterranean Coast, 32 in. by 25 in. 
Bords de la Cance aux Loups, 24 in. by 32 in. ... 

In the Forest, 30 in. by 38 in 

Three Ladies in Oriental Costume, 16 in. by 13 in. 
The Forest of Fontainebleau, 23 in. by 28 in. ... 


Garland ... 


Van Alphen 

Garland ... 
Garland ... 
Quilter ... 

Van Alphen 

Quilter ... 


Milburn ... 























From the foregoing tables it will be seen that 108 
pictures have this year reached four figures — 16 others 
have fallen a little short of that limit— whilst last year the 
number amounted to only 7-. There have been more 
than the usual illustrations of good investments, ami also 
of bad ones. In the former case, the most striking 
collective example was provided by Sir John Day's 
collection, which is understood to have cost him ^43,850, 
and produced a total of Ai 4. 040. Comparatively few lots 
..III I'u less Mi. 111 Sir John Day had paid for them, and 

■ nearly all went for sums greatly in excess of the original 
cost. In its way this sale is unique. It was formed, for 
the most part, some thirty years ago, when the demand for 
pictures of the Barbizon and modern Dutch Schools was 
exceedingly limited, and when the artists were quitecontent 
with small prices. Some of the more remarkable advances 
have occurred in connection with pictures which have not 
reached the minimum of ,£1,000, and which, therefore, do 
not appear in the foregoing tables. We select a few of the 
most striking advances, and tabulate them as follows : — 

\ ii 01 \ 1 1 1 1 . 

1 1 1 1 1 oi Picture. 

Previous Prk e. 

I. Constall 
I. B. ''. Corot 

I. I:. C. 1 ' < 

II. 1 1 M 1 ii 

I. 1 [oppnei 


M. Maris 

J. F. Mill 


G. Komi . 

1. M. W. Turner ... 

I. M. U ! 

I. M. \\ 

I. M. W. Turner ... 

Mill and ( 'a, tie 

Tin- \\ Icutters 

flu I in 

Fl>ing the Kiu- 



I 1 .11,0 . HI 1 atliedral 

. Mills 

Feeding Chicken, ... 


■ en 

1 ' 


P rliament 


75 gn,. ... 




900 gns. ... 

I soo 


400 gns. ... 


[,350 gns ... 

1 1 80 




/■So ... 

.887, -.20 ... 

1 3.400 ... 






!■!■ "11 . 




Price in 




7, Soo 

, ,0 

« ■ 

■/ -:i , 


National Gallery oj Scotland 

/// the Sale Room 

It is much less pleasant to write of the " falls " than of 
the advances, and so it must suffice to state that [ohn 
Phillip, J. F. Lewis, John Linnell, sen., \V. Collins, 
Erskine Xicol, E. W. Cooke, and Sir E. Landseer, 
are among those artists whose pictures have shown a 
more or less marked downward tendency, but this is 
a fate which has, in two or three instances, overtaken 

even Turner, D. G. Rossetti, and Sir John Millais. It 
ius that the idols of one generation cannol ill 
hipped in that which follows: and no hard and 
fast rule can he laid down with regard to investments in 
pictun .iii> more than with investments in stocks and 
:hare The collector must be content witha fair margin 

"I | M i 'lit mi hi - i olln linn .1 . ,l whole. 

The BooK Sales of 1909 

The auction season, which commenced early in the 
October of last year and closed with the final days of July 
in this, hereafter to be quoted as the season 1908-9, 
owes its importance to the sale of the library of the late 
Lord Amherst of Hackney, held partly in December and 
partly in March, in the miscellaneous sales of December 
17th, March iSth, and July 13th, the fine collection 01 
manuscripts sold on May 6th, the portion of the library 
of Lord Polwarth sold on February 15th, and the library 
of Lord Dormer which, with other properties, was sold 
on May 20th. The whole of these sales were held at 
Sotheby's, and to them must be added the Beaufoy 
Library, the sale ot which commenced on June 7th it 
Christie's, and was continued for several days. The total 
sum obtained for these eight libraries or collections 
amounted to ,£76,722, considerably more than half of the 
grand total of £ 1 29,654, representing the yield for the entire 
season — the product of some 36,000 " lots " scattered over 
fifty-eight sales of the better class, the figures disclosing 
an average of ,£3 1 is. iod., as against £2 13s. id. in 
1907-8, and ,£4 4s. 2d. in 1906-7. Such is the position of 
affairs, and it may be said at once that it is not of a 
wholly satisfactory character. Many high-class and very 
expensive bonks changed hands, at the Amherst sale 
especially, and an enormous mass of volumes was thrown 
on the market from first to last, but in many other 
respects the result of the season's book sales was dis- 
appointing, at least to some. To begin with, Shakespeare 
was almost a negligible quantity. A first folic, with 
three leaves in facsimile and the portrait inlaid, realised 
£800 at the Amherst sale, two copies of the Poems, ot 
1640, ,£91 and ,£310 respectively, a volume of scarce 
tracts containing Pericles, 1635, ,£415, and two volum is 
of a similar character ^345. A fourth folio brought 
£47, and another .£38, but they were not good copies. 
Nor can A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600, 4to, with 
several leaves in facsimile be considered cheap tit ,£25. 
Another and a much better copy sold for ,£65, though 
this does not actually exhaust the Shakespeare list, for 
a second folio, a bad copy, of course, realised ,£15, and 
some other things of shreds and patches similai small 
sums which it is hardly worth while to enumerate. 

The manuscripts were much more important, though 
they were almost all mediaeval service books. One ol 
them, a Graduate Romanian of the thirteenth century, 
for which Lord Amherst had paid ,£60 many j 1 
realised ,£1,650 at his sale, while Wycliffe's original 
version of the New Testament, written about the year 

By J. H. Slater 

1400, made ,£1,210 on the same occasion. The sale of 
May 6th, previously referred to, realised ,{.8,056. although 
there were but 67 entries in the catalogue. The highest 
amount paid was .£790 for a French Horce B.V.M., ad 
//sum Romanum, richly illuminated and said to be the 
work of Geoffrey Tory. Rolle de Hampole's Ye Prike 
of Consciens, with his Treatise written for a Hermit, the 
work of an English scribe on vellum {circa 14051, sold foi 
,{,124, and the D/tz Moraulx des i'////oso/die\\ the original 
French version of the Dictes and Sayinges, written in 
'473. ,£240. To these must be added the MS. of Burns's 
poem, Ay Waukin " 0," dedicated "to Miss Craig with 
the dutiful regards of Robert Burns," £1 10 ; a number ot 
MS. essays and prefaces in the handwriting of Sir Walter 
Scott, 123 leaves in all, ,£250 ; and his original corres- 
pondence with C. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, consisting of 67 
letters covering 116 pages, .£155. We can in a measure 
imagine the appearance of such manuscripts as these, 
and readily judge of their importance, but it is far other- 
wise with illuminated service books, which are really 
works of art depending for their interest and consequent 
value upon a variety of circumstances which even photo- 
graphic reproductions often fail to present satisfactorily. 
To say, for instance, that a Missale i/d i/si/i// Roman/////, 
22, leaves of vellum with musical notes, an illuminated 
diptych and three small miniatures, realised £285, is 
to convey no clear impression of its appearance, even 
although the size (8£ in. by ji in.) is added to the 
description, and we tire also told that it is commemora- 
tive of the Cornish Saint Winwallow. ^Such a manu- 
script must be seen before it can be appreciated, foi the 
peculiar style, as well as the quality of the dei orations, 
is of paramount importance, and the same remarks 
apply to every illuminated service book which exists. 
Many such manuscripts were sold during the season, 
and all claim lengthy descriptions followed by actual 
inspection before they can be, as it wen-, grasped and 
made to live in the mind's eye. Such manuscripts must 
therefore be passed over of neces it> in favour of printed 
books, for these are in .1 measure reflected in other 
1 opies. 

Coming, then, to the printed bonks we no 

of the tn t edition of Walton's Compleat 
Angler, which on March 18th realised £1,085 .1 high 
but unt .1 record price, foi the Van Antwerp copy sold 
foi as much as ,£1,29 0. It is 

;trange that a little bonk published at eigh 
and at one time ( paratively common, should have 

The Connoisseur 

such a hold on book-lovers of to-day ; but so it is. The 
Amherst sale was productive of the highest prices, 
as may be readily conceived. One volume of the 
Ma:, nine Bible, so called, though circumspect and very 
precise bibliographers scout the title, sold for .£2,050, 
and a block book, the Apoca/ypsis S. Johannis, printed 
in Holland about the year 1455, /2,00c Other Amherst 
treasures included five leaves (only) of the same block 
book, ,£150; Aristotle's Ethica, the second book printed 
ii 1 '.lord, 1479, small 4to, £150 (several leaves in 
facsimile); St. Augustine's De Arte Predicandi, printed 
by Johan Fust in 1466, small folio, ,£102 ; Balbus de 
Janua's Catholicon, Johan Gutenberg (?), 1460, folio, 
^530; Dame Juliana Berners's Booke oj St. Albans, 
printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1496, £600; Coverdale's 
Bible, imperfect as usual, no complete copy being 
known, £385; Matthew's Version oi the Bible, 1537. 
folio, £150; The Great Bible of April, 1540, /405, 
defective though it was ; and King Charles the First's 
own copy of the Bible of 1638, bound in red velvet, 
with the Royal Arms, as much as .£1,000. These are 
large amounts, but the list is not nearly exhausted. 
The editio princeps of Cicero's De Officiis, 1465, made 
,£700, and the 1466 edition of the same work, .£290; 
the first edition of Foxe's Acts and Monuments, 1562-3, 
title and two leaves in facsimile, and another copy, very 
imperfect, ,£120 the two ; the first edition of the Imitatio 
Christi, printed by Gunther Zainer about 1471, ,£200 ; and 
the first edition of the Opera of Laetantius, 1465, ,£350. 
At the Amherst sale forty-seven books realised ,£100 
each and over, and to a very great extent monopolised 
the list of rarities. 

At Mr. Cowan's sale on November 2nd last year, a 
collection of 54 volumes, all original editions of Dickens's 

sold for .£215 (morocco extra), and Dr. John 
Newton has some good books, including a copy of the 
fii 1 edition ol the Hypnerotomachia, 1499, in old French 

u n, £1 59, and Paradise Lost, with Lowndes's second 

title-page, [667, £115, and the same remark applies, 
though with greater force, to Lord Polwarth's selection 
sold on February 15th and following day, In this 
ii e espei iallj notii eable, viz. : 
■ ii/la/i/e, [651, sin. 410, 
,£245; The Atlantit A'eptune, 2 vols., folio, 1780-I, 
a work containing 120 large coloured charts of the 

.11 Nova Si otia and tin gull rivers of the 

St. Lawrence foi the usi ol tin Royal Navy, .£116; 

printed by Caxton in 1490, £330 (7S 

01 ly, hi mil be 8 1 ; / ■ of the 

oj I ondon, 122 vol . \\a, ■ i< 14 (cf. and 

hf. cf. ) ; .t ii> i the Mercurim Politicus, in 11 vols., 410, 

1650-60, .£140. The most important work in this list 

mi, though the amount paid foi 

it is insignificant when compared with the cost of I 1 

different works bound together, which realised £2,600 

on May 2ist. Thesi b Ca ton, and 

( ,il binding ni more than four hundred 

years ago. A third Caxton, sold immediately after- 
wards, is represented by the Royal Booke or Book for 
a King, 1487-8, and for that ,£300 was obtained, although 
sixteen leaves were in facsimile, and five had been 
mended. Lord Dormer's library, or rather the portion 
of it sold on May 20th, was remarkable for a series 
of twenty-one volumes, all bound in red, olive, or citron 
morocco by Clovis Eve, a craftsman whose work is not 
often seen nowadays. These twenty-one vols, realised 
^390, being sold together in one lot, though they were 
catalogued separately. It is necessary also to mention 
the Mozarabic Missal and Breviary, printed at the 
private press of Cardinal Ximenes at Toledo, 2 vols., 
1500-2, which realised the large sum of .£1,250. It is 
said that only twenty-five copies were produced for use 
in the Mozarabic Chapel in Toledo Cathedral. 

Books of the class named make such a brave appearance 
that it might be supposed that the result of the season's 
book sales was satisfactory in the highest degree, but as 
previously stated, that is very far from being the case. 
They have been purposely selected from among the 
mass, for, naturally, every season has something out of 
the ordinary to show. The list might indeed be very 
considerably extended without in any way straining the 
position it occupies, and if it were it would be seen that 
these expensive volumes came almost wholly from the 
eight libraries and collections of which we have spoken. 
All the rest— fifty or more— were productive of very little 
from the particular point of view from which the subject, 
as a whole, is being regarded. It generally happens 
that one special class of book dominates the sales of a 
season, but this time no such feature is observable. 
Works of a high class relating to the fine arts were con- 
spicuously absent ; not many old plays, for which there is 
such a great demand, are observable in the records. 
Shakespeareana and Americana are both attenuated to a 
degree ; while prices generally show a distinct decline, 
when once we get away from early examples of typo- 
graphy, early illustrated books, bindings by celebrated 
craftsmen, and what we may perhaps be permitted to call 
fashionable books, made valuable by reason of their 
extreme scarcity. It is some solace to reflect, however, 
that such works as these really appeal to the very few, and 
that they do not enter into the paradise of the ordinary 
bookman, however much they may be present in his 
dreams. His way, at any rate, is clear, and during the 
season which has passed he had the opportunity to 
acquire, were he so minded, thousands of volumes which. 
when everything is said, form the real backbone of 
English and other literatures, for it is ,1 mistake in 
i dition ol almost any work which 
might be named is nece tril) the scara I < Mi the 
contrary, tin very reverse is nearl) always the case, foi 
the "111 maxim still holds good in this war of prices 
the I" it books are tin- cheapest, made so by the law 
0! supply and demand which never fails to keep the 
ialanci n eq ■ 

It was Madame Hortense Montifiore who, within 

a few days of her death, presented this remarkable 
piece of lace to the Musee du 

, Cinquantenaire in Brussels. Measur- 

Kemarkable , , , . 

Piece of Lace ln § r * y ards b >' l l >' alds > ll waS 
probably made as a covering for a 
bed of state or for a cloth on the occasion of the 
marriage of Albert Archduke of Austria with Isabella 
of Spain. Their arms and initials appear in the 
design, as well as the clasped hands which are so 

frequently seen in lace and i mbroideries specially 
designed for wedding gifts. The Archduke governed 
the Netherlands from 159S to 1621, so that in this 
example we see one of the earliest bobbin-made pieces 
of very elaborate pattern. 

There are 120 squares, which picture with varying 
elaboration stories from the Jewish records, from the 
Xew Testament, from lives of the saints, and old 
legendary history of the Netherlands. Amongst these 
latter the four suns of Aymon perched on one horse. 

The ( 'onnoisseur 


; p :ar in the first and last rows. 

Several times Adam and Eve, with the tree of life 
b I ' n thi in. are shown, while still more elaborate 
groups ol foui .mil five figures are depicted with 
telling effect in the tin) squat Hoi :es richly 

1 tparisoned, elephants, lions, monkeys, birds, the 
pelican in her piety, and other emblematic or heraldic 
animals are to be found. 

II' bordi i is ol extraordinary beauty, and is no 

I ' haracteristic vandyked edge of 

tin- period is formed by means ol standing figures, 

n point ol the scollop. 

d kings with sceptre and regal robes are 

worked ai each - orn r, and ;uperbl) dres i d figun s, 

"'' different, make a i onl ou : proi ession 

round the cover; smaller symbolic figures, such as 

v ■ t crowned heart, lit trophy, stand 

Mi i I . \. J \, 


and in 

mug h< 

■in ns ol I ow ion i inn.,, 

i with int Testing surprises, 

is direi tion th< bell hapi d 

it is well kno 


on th lit Coa 

i ,.i. , cora 

i.l Bow. 

opied, but instances ol 

cil any kind are very rare, and are generally found in 
underglaze blue on pieces having underglaze blue 
decoration in conjunction with enamel colours. The 
pattern ol the mug possibl} is not of Plymouth origin, 
as similar shapes were made at other factories, but 
that it was copied from a Plymouth mug is quite 
evident, as it bears a copy of what is known as thi 
"two four" mark in red overglaze, and the colouring 
of the decoration is bright and pleasing, especially the 
plumage of the birds, a feature noticeable in many 
examples of Plymouth porcelain. The gilding round 
the rim is well executed and ol good quality, and the 
potting ol the mug all that could be desired. The 
paste is soft, and the glaze, which is quite characteristic 
of the Lowestoft factory, is. in places where it has 
thickly settled, of a clear pale blue colour. The mug 
i a > i\ interesting specimen and well worthy of the 
best traditions of a factory the productions of which, 
at one time, were the cause of so much dispute. 
It is in the collection of Mr. W. C. Woollard. 

On the opposite page is a full-sized illustration 
(taken from the advertisement of the lottery) of one of 
a pair of fine diamond earrings included 
in a lottery by a well-known London 
jeweller, James Cox, of Spring Gardens 
—a lottery which had Keen sanctioned by Act of 
Parliament to take place in 1773. They had been 
intended, as the following note from the inventory 
will explain, for Catherine II. of Russia, together 
with her bust by the sculptor Nollekens. 


rinii marl 

I 01 1 ' .\A I 1 -1 1 


"These Earrings are to ai company 

a bust of Her Imperial Majesty the 
Empress of Russia, and were intended 
to have been sent to St. Petersburg. 
They are by far the most capital pan 
now on sale in Europe, weighing 
44 carats and r a 6 ths and set trans- 
parent. The drops alone were several 
years in matching, which they do 
with the utmost exactness. They are 
of the first water, finest form, ex- 
cellent proportion and most beautiful 
lustre, and with the bust of the 
Empress constitute one of the prizes 
in the Lottery for the disposal of the 
museum in Spring ( hardens. 

"N.B. — There are in the Lottery 


two tickets of every number, for 
instance, No. iA, No. iB, and so on to 60,000, thus 
by duplicate numbers there will be duplicate prizes ; 
every number therefore which is a prize in class A 
will, of course, be a prize in class B, and Mr. Cox 
particularly stipulates for the two numbers entitled 
to the earrings and their fellow prize, that if the 
possessor or possessors of one or both shall be 
inclined to dispose of them, they for each shall 
receive five thousand pounds, or ten thousand pounds 
for the two, from Mr. Cox or his representative." 

The earrings and the bust are glowingly described 
in the advertisement thus: — "A bust of her Imperial 
Majesty the Empress of Russia, with brilliant orna- 
ments, constituting one prize, for which the fortunate 
adventurer, if inclined to sell, may receive five 
thousand pounds from Mr. Cox or his representatives. 
This bust of her Imperial Majesty Catherine I 
present Empress of all 
the Russians, was 
modell'd for Mr. Cox by 
that celebrated English 
artist Mr. Nollekins, 
from an original portrait 
in the possession of his 
Excellency Mon. Mou- 
schkin Pouschkin, the 
Imperial Russian Am- 
bassador at this court, 
and is esteem'd a strik- 
ing likeness of that great 
princess. The brilliant 
ornaments that accom- 
pany the bust are a pair 
of the richest earrings 
that have f o r man y 
years been seen in this 

kingdom, and are by far the most 
capital now on sale in Europe; they 
weigh 1 1 1 aral ^th . and 
transparently ; the drops alone were 

1 years mati hin 
time when the diamond 
poured in upon us more abundantly 
than they ever did, or probi b 

will again. They are as incomparably 
fellowed as il cut from one divided 
thi j are of the first and purest 
christaline wati r, 
the nicest proportion and the most 
I" autiful lustre : and when an 
tagi mis 01 casion offers for the sale 
ol such a pair, will entitle the 
iRRING possessor (it disposed to part with 

them) to a price far exceeding the 
present estimation of them, tho' they are now 
estimated at ^5,000.'' 

No explanation is given why they were not sent to 
Catherine II. Nollekens appears to have executed 
the bust of the Empress by her direct command, a 
well as no fewer than twelve marble busts ol the 
English statesman, Charles James Fox, to givi awa) 
as presents. Such was her admiration of his great 
abilities that the bust sent to St. Petersbui 
placed between the busts of Cicero and Demosthenes. 
We havi failed to find any reference to the bust of 
the Empress, done by Nollekens to thi order ol 
James Fox, in the well known work, Nollekens and 
his Times, by J. T. Smith. E. Alfred I 

on .,,1 English Delfi 
in, and in date aboul 

7S4, IS the \ , ,,: Ol 

alloon^ Then ire two 

figures in 

ih. cai 
in quaint 
eighteenth century cos- 

liiuie, and the I'nion 
Jack is shown as living 
from 1 li c i';i r. In 
printed ware ol 
the same date, ii is fre- 
quently noticeable that 
1 has chosen 
his medium to 1 
curi nt events likel) 

A. Ball 

The Connoisseur 

SS. Gic 

e Paolo, Venice 

mutters, such as the Iron Bridge over the Wear on the 
Newcastle and Sunderland mugs and jugs, and great 
naval and military victories, as in the series of Nelson 
jugs and in the Worcester King of Prussia mugs ; but 
in Delft ware he usually confined himself 
to decorative subjects, largel) dependent ^ 

on Chinese motifs, so that a plate such ._';•-> 

as we illustrate isexi eptionally interesting 
on account of its attempt to compete 
with the transfer printer.— A. H. 

Iiu great Gothic church of SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo contains in its great lectern 
a very beautiful and per- 
The Eagle of fectly un j que example 
of chinch furniture. The 
church was nearly, if 
nut quite, completed b) the < lose of the 
fourteenth century, when the tombs of 
the Doges Mil hele Morosini ami Vernier 
wen- si i u)), ami this lei tern may perhaps 
belong to that date. It has been assumed, 
perhaps too hastily, that on account of 
the ile-,k being supported by a double- 
headed eagle, the cognizance of tin- ( lerman emperors, 
the lectern is of German manufacture. It is true the 
details of the pedestal might very well accord with 
this theory, and there is an utter absence of any 
Renaissance feeling in the work such as might have 
been expected in a purely Italian design of tint period ; 
but the Venetians were nut sufficiently in love with 
German emperors thus to exalt their emblem in one 
of their great churches, even it a presentiment of what 
was in store for them in future ages had nut prevented 
such an accident. The idea 
ol the two-headed Venetian 
: . derived from the 

same source .1 i I hal "I ill 

1 ri 1 man one it was in 
typify their lord- 
hip o\ r the empires of the 

w • ;t, foi aft 1 ili 

1 mm /.mi inopl 

is, with the a is 

he \ enetians, the 

Do timed i monj hi 

other titles, " I .mil of a 

quart i anil half a quarter 
of th- Rum, in Empire." 
11 which this lec- 
tern was probabl 
synchronized with 

towards th I I i 


miMikliivjs , 

A French 

m : 

1386, only six years after its successful emergence 
from its death struggle with ( >enoa, Corfu was annexed 
to Venice. The eagle is well modelled, and all the 
id decorative details are delicately worked; 
und as the whole desk stands 7 feet in 
height it forms a remarkable feature in 
the church. — J. TavENOR-PekRY. 

It is difficult to appreciate the causes 
at work which have made it possible for 
so much beautiful wood- 
work from the churches 
of the north of France, 
possessing little or no intrinsic value, to 
have drilted into collections and museums 
outside that country. The Victoria and 
Albert Museum obtained, by purchase, 
a large quantity of such woodwork in 
t,S()4, which had been gathered together 
by the late iM. Peyre. It is unfortunate, 
however, and detracts much from the 
value of such a collection, although per- 
haps consequent on the manner in which 
such works are often obtained, that there 
is no record of the building or place from whence 
the object was removed, or indeed any facts in refer- 
ence to it which would so much add to its historical 
interest. This is particularly to be deplored in the 
1 ase of the small chasse or reliquary which we illus- 
trate, which is not only an exceedingly good specimen 
of the simpler wood and metal work of the period 
to which it belongs, but, judging from the remains 
of the paintings with which it was decorated, at 
one time contained important relics. It is of oak 
with iron doors at each 

end and simple iron crest- 
ing, ami is in a rather 
knocked-about condition. 
Each side of the top has 
the remains of a painting, 
the one showing in our 
illustration being assumed 
to represent a visit of 
St. Anthony the Abbot 
to St. Paul the Hermit 
in the desert, who is being 
led by a raven. Its 
dimensions are almost 
diminutive, being only 
1 j in. by I)' in. and 1 7 in. 
high ; it is assigned to the 
1 ml oi the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and was pun h ISed foi 
i IT. P. 


THE painting by Goya reproduced measures 6 ft. 5 in. 
by 3 ft. 9 in. It is a life-size whole figure of the duchess, 
who is attired in a pale-rose robe of silk, 
at the bottom a garland of roses. She is 

A Goya 


if blue silk 
with gilt wool frame ; 
on h e r shoulders a 
white silk shawl. Her 
hair is of a dark brown 
colour. She holds in 
her lap her little 
daughter, about one 
year old. The baby 
is entirely in white 
silk, and has seized 
some of the flowers 
which her mother 
holds in her right 
hand. The baby's 
hair is of a light 
blonde. The por- 
traits are beautifully 
expressive, and the 
colours are very har- 
moniously distributed 
all over this remark- 
able masterpiece. 

The picture has been 
in the possession of 
Marquis de Corvera, 
in Madrid, from whom 
it passed into the 
collection of Count de 
Pastre, in Paris; now 
it is owned by Mr. F. 
Kleinberger, in Paris. 

On the bottom ot 
the picture is the full 
name of the duchess 
and of her daughter, 
as seen in the repro- 
duction, and the date 
of birth of the baby. 
From the latter it 
can be concluded that 
Goya painted this 
beautiful picture in 

It is described in 
Valerian von Loga's 

Rarely within our knowledge has a collection of 
such surpassing interest appeared in London as that ot 
, r „ . the ancient Chimu pottery recently 

A Collect.on of excayated b Mr T Hewiu M ; ng 
Lhimu Pottery , , , , , 

in Peru. The vessels are probabl) 

the most antique in existence — 5000 B.C. being generally 
accepted as their date. Some are beautiful and some 

grotesque, but the whole collection of modelled and 
painted figures, animals, birds, deities, and ini idi nl 
give the observer more than a mere idea of the habits 
toms of an interesting prehistoric race. The 
modelling is wondei 
fill, the (hawing is firm 
and unhesitating, the 
colours harmonious. 
The collection num- 
bers between ;■ •• < and 
ind bowl ;. 
Some of the latter 
have false bottoms, 
and contain in the 
hollow space silver 
and copper money. 
WhiUt all the metals, 
excepting gold, which 
01 caMonalh decorated 
the vessels, have 
entirel) 1 orroded, the 
earthenware with its 
thick glazing is fresh 
and uni hanged. The 
1 olli 1 tion is more than 
wonderful, and must 
be seen to be appre- 
ciated. Sir Clements 
Markham is right 
when he says, in his 
recent letter to the 
Standard, that the 
I Bl itish Museum is its 


" The Romance 
of Fra Filippo 
Lippi," by 
A. J. Anderson 
(Stanley, Paul & 

I n this "new ver 

I of the lot e 1 1 

I the friar-artist and the 

I nun Lucre 

I enthusiastic admirerof 

mk ;;t"""" 1k 

e and yet intensely 

REZ DE TOLEDO AND HER human alt ol Fra 

.a Filippo Lippi applies 

to the gayfriai that process of whitewashing which is 
the unavoidable fate of all great persons in history 
whose weaknesses of character have left a stain upon 
theii traditional image. 

itely Mr. Anderson, in endeavouring to pre- 
sent history in the form of romance, or to 
romance from historical tacts, falls thl 

stools ami gives us neither facl nor fiction. His whole 
,11 what detinue knowledge we have 

of the life of Fra Fi 

ia Buti. I 

The Connoisseur 

facts he tries to trace his hero's 
psychology and the motives for 
his actions. He also tries to 
create a background of fifteenth 
century Italian colour. But to 
accomplish the difficult task 
of making the dead past live 
before our eyes, he lacks the 
marvellous knowledge and 
power displayed by the Russian 
Merejkowski, who has treated 
the life of Lionardo da Vinci 
from a similar point of view in 
In, Forerunne) : or, more re- 
cently, of Mr. Fred Manning, 
who in his Scenes and Portraits 
mind ba< k upon 
past civilisations with analmost 
visionary powei of realisation. 
Mr. Anderson remains hope- 
lessly twentieth-century. His 
t.ilks cm art are of the kind that 
may he heard at any moment 
in the studios of Chelsea and 
Si. [ohn's Win ill ; noi i in we 
i thetii indgment of 
a critic who see- m Mr. Walter 
Crane and Mr. Arthur Rack- 
ham the lineal descendants of 

i- ilippo i.ippi : 


lace gi 

"Lacis" ' 

ByCari,a Filet Brode 1 

(S. Low, " Ul l, "" i ' 

Marston & Co. '"' ,l " n,n - "■' m ' L "icgi-eat 

tren th and 

durability ol I. u is.and the fact 

tli ii repi ated washings in no 

way diminish its beauty, must 

ctors in ii i popu 

larity, which remains undimin- 

• ■ the Middle \ ■- 

In ' 1 I, ".« toute Dames et 

I . brought to- 
facts which throw ., light on the 
antiquity ol netting. In Chaldoca, whi re th« re wa \ an 
ol !■ ypt,m i pa 

on Babylonian and 

I i 11 I ., 

1 known 
ulptured robes, 
the netted In .; 


I I I'M ll 

was considered as a symbol that 
guarded the soul. According 
to Professor Petrie,the net pat- 
tern is found in Egypt during 
the I2th dynasty, which corres- 
ponds to 130 B.C., and it became 
more general in the iSth 
dynasty. Altogether Lacis is a 
hook which will interest those 
women who wish to master 
the technicalities of one of the 
oldest forms of lace-making, 
and who also take a delight in 
the history ol a handicraft. 





K . 




w h 






norial R 










, es- 

pecially on 
armorial china, may be sup- 
posed to know just what his 
public needs. Otherwise one 
must own that his latest book, 
Memorial Rings, Charles II. 
to William I V . (privately 
printed), 1 50 1 opus onlj . ap- 
pears almost as a work of 
supererogation. Perhaps,how] 
ever, there remain 1 ;o persons 
interested in this lugubrious 
subject. 1 ) eath a ml bank- 
ruptcy are things which, alas! 
often befall one's friends ; but 
society does not consider them 
very good form, and a ring 
which would commemorate 
either e\ents woul il not 1> 
much liked nowadays. Her 
Majesty the late Queen m.i\ be 
said to have been the last great 
exponent of the mortuary cult. 
"lacis" !>\ i\i-rr\ But of recent years more philo- 

soph) is shown. The ring .is 
a reminder of death, which may be said to have begun 
herewith Richard 11.'- bequests, and was most popular 
aftei the death ol Charles I., has passed away. 

Mi^t people remember that among the Ii faci 0] 
indmothei were dozens ol quite in< upensive and 
unattractive memorial ring which had come down from 
the eighteenth century. Ii is with such purelj 
inn es thai Mi ' 1 p deal very largely, for In - 1 ol- 
il important or earl) specimens does not appear 
extensive. It is tun- thai his elaborate 1 atalo ;ui 

-"in.- ie . sample ;, ami that he 

on iome well-known rings, 

.11 .,1 In I',, icess Mm :lia, 01 the si holar Hody, 

or Simon Frazer, 01 Lord Lovat. But notwithstand- 

linstal n labour, which reproduc es all 


the inscriptions on the rings verbatim, and the 
notes, which include abstracts from registers of burial, 
monumental descriptions, abstracts ot" wills and bio- 
graphical memoirs and so forth, it does not seem 
probable that collectors of to-day who are -aided by 
cheery and aesthetic reasons will become attached to the 
branch of connoisseurship to which this bulky and hand- 
some volume is devoted. 

M.Arnold GO) i in has steeped himself in Franciscan 

lore. He has not only studied the Fioretti oi the 
Poverello, the Speculum perfectionis, 
"St. Francis an( j a i| t | le literature bearing upon 

in Italian the 5U bject, he has not only made 

Legend and himself personally acquainted with 

. r ' . . ^ rr tne vast succession of frescoes and 

Arnold Goffin . . , 

,_ _ . altar-pieces from pre-diottesque days 

(G. van Oest and , , ,. . , .- , , 

„ „ . . to the declining davs ot the 

Co., Brussels) , , - , , 

sance that have been inspired by the 

veneration of that most humble and lovable of all saints, 

but he has followed St. Francis's footsteps from his 

parental home in Assisi to Perugia, where he was kept a 

prisoner of war, to Foligno, where he sold his father's 

horse to aid the poor priest of St. Damian, to the rugged 

heights of the Apennine, to La Verna where he received 

the Stigmata ; and he has painted a fitting background 

for the picturesque figure who, together with Dante, 

exercised the most powerful influence upon mediaeval 


St. Francis has done far more for art than merely 

supply generations of painters with fascinating subjects 

for the exercise of their skill. It is not too much to say — 

and M. Goffin lays great stress upon this point— that 

his teaching, his regeneration of the Christian ideal, his 

substitution of action for the word or formula, his intense 

human emotionalism, created a new art : he turned the 

painter's mind towards Nature. It Cimabue and Giotto 

broke away from Byzantine hierarchic stiffness and laid 

the foundations for modern art, this must to a great 

extent be ascribed to the influence exercised upon their 

mind by the teaching of i lie Poverello. 

An important catalogue is in preparation by Mr. 
Rudolph Lepke, Berlin, of the print collection of 
the Freiherr Adalbert von Latin, of 
Prague, which was sold this season 
in Stuttgart. The catalogue will have 
a preface by the Director of the Berlin Kunstgewerbe 
Museum, Prof. Dr. von Falke, and will contain about 
eight hundred reproductions in phototype. 

The portrait of Mrs. Allan Ramsay, by Allan 
Ramsay, in the National Gallery, Edinburgh, is 
generally ai < epti d .is the inn si ol the 
many able portraits painted by the 
artist. Though Ramsa) never reached the highest 
rank in bis profession, the most casual examination 
of his work will show that he possessed no slighl 
knowledge of brushwork and draughtsmanship. As 

Art Catalogue 

Our Plates 

i ordin n\ to < leorge 111. he painted many 
Royal portraits, those of the King and Queen 
Charlotte in the National Gallerj being amongst the 
iwn. The son ol Allan Rams tj , the aul hoi > il 
The Gentle Shepherd, he inherited a taste for writing, 
and was also an accomplished linguist and con- 
versationalist. 01 him Dr. Johnson said : " You will 
noi find a man in whosi conversation there is more 
instruction, more information, or more elegance than 

The portrait of John Charles. Viscount Althorp, by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, is amongst the most plea 
of the many line portraits l>\ Reynolds in the 
possession of Earl Spencer, amongsl which are 
included such well-known canvases as Georgiana 
Duchess of Devonshire, Lady Camden, l.avinia 
Countess Spencer, and the Hon. Miss Anne Bingham. 

A painter new to the pages of THE C0NN0ISSE1 R 

Magazine is J. F. A. Tischbein, whose portrait of 
Princess Frederic ka Sophie ll'ilhe/mina in the Rijks 
Museum at Amsterdam we reproduce in this number. 

I'lns.' aie no fewer than six painters of this nam.' 
recorded, all of whom are related, and almost all of 
whom owed much ol their ability to J. H. Tischbein, 
the uncle of the painter of the portrait reproduced. 
There are numerous examples of the work of the 
Tischbein family on the Continent, notably at 

\m i rdam, Berlin, Brunswick, Frankfort, and Leipsic. 

Our special presentation plate, Marie Antoinette, 
alter the painting by Madame \ igce Le Brun at 
Versailles, is generallj considered the finest portrait of 
the unfortunate French queen, who, "radiant and 
blind beneath the symbolic Hood of ostrich plumes, 
awaits destiny." 

The plate on the cover of the present numb i is a 
portrait of Jane Countess of Westmoreland, daughter 
oi K. Saunders, Esq., and niece and co-heiress ol 
Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, R.C.B.', who married, 
.is In-, second wife, John, tenth Earl ol Westmoreland, 
in i.Soo. The original is in the possession ol th 
Rt. Hon. Sir Spencer Ponsonby Fane, p.C. 

Boohs Received 

Book Prices Current, Pari III.. [909, 2s. net ; B 

Fonts in /•■•■■. :'■■:. bj Cecil II. Eden. 1 Una Stock.) 
Chart q] Pa • ■ II & D iwdi m II, Ltd.) 

The Masterpi . oj Gainsborough, 6d. nel 
. 6d. net ; The Masttrpie 
6 I. net. (I lowan S ' 
Rubens, by Edward Dillon, 25s. net. (Methiien & Co.) 

. Pari \\\. b) P. G. Konody, M. \V. 
I, md I . W. Lippmann, is. net. (T C. and 
I I 

, Vol. III., bj 
IV r. Dr. I In.!, fm. me and Prol Dr. Fel B 
(Wilhelm Engelmann.) 


ByAM SWAW /90 


Special Notice 

Enquiries should be made upon the coupon 
which will be found in the advertisement pages. While, 
owing to our enormous correspondence and the fact 
that every number of The Connoisseur Magazine 
is printed a month in advance, it is impossible for us 
to guarantee in every case a prompt reply in these 
columns, an immediate reply will be sent by post to 
all readers who desire it, upon payment of a nominal 
fee. Expert opinions and valuations can be supplied 
when objects are sent to our offices for inspection, 
and, where necessary, arrangements can be made for 
an expert to examine single objects and collections 
in the country, and give advice, the fee in all cases 
to be arranged beforehand. Objects sent to us may 
he insured whilst they are in our possession, at a 
moderate cost. All communications and goods should 
be addressed to the " Manager of Enquiry Dept, 
Tin Connoisseur Magazine, 95, Temple Chambers, 

Tempi Avenue, E.C." 


'Books. The Times, 1805.— At, 168 (Middleton).— 
new pa] - 1 are noi very valuable. 
w I,,.',, reprinlso lition. 


Cosmographle," 1660. Ai,i52(Ashton un 
1 this 1 '■ isnot 1 

" Waverley Novels," icS2i, 25 vols., calf.— Ai, 105 

: alue of this edition ■ ■; ■ ■ 1 \ 
more than £ I. Your two volume ol 'he Genii, 

vorth only .1 1 • a twenty- 

m £2 to ,£4 or £5, a 1 idil 

"Oliver Twist," by Charles Dickens, 1st edit., 

1838, 3 vols. At, it 1.1" 1I1 limn 1 dition of 

It trie cancelled " Fireside " plate, may be 

. to, according to tin- condition ami 

EngraVingS. — " The lock" and "Hie Corn 
field," by I). Lucas, after Constable. \i • iS (Bristol). 

1,1 hey are 
worth upwards of £$0 the pair. 

Mid-Victorian Engravings. - A 1,297 (Bradford).— 

Prints of this class are of little value. 

"Helena, second Wife of Rubens," by O. Maile, 
after Rubens. -Ai,3l6 (Lichfield).— Your engraving is worth 
from 30s. to £2. 

" London Cries," by W. C. Lee.— At, 329 (Delgany).— 
Your set ol London 1 'ries is ol little value. 

"Master Lambton," by Cousins.— Ai, 333 (Exeter). 

—There are many "states" of this print differing widely in 
value. The last and most common has the title "Boyhood's 
Reverie"; and if this is the one you possess, it is worth about 
£2 or £}. Some early states realise high prices. 

Rembrandt, by C. Turner.— Ai, 232 (Inverness, N.B.). 
—The value of this mezzotint portrait is about £$. 

"The Horse Feeder," by J. R. Smith, after Q. 
Morland. A1.23S (Slough). — Your print should fetch £10 
to £i$, according to condition. 

Furniture.— Window Seat.— Ai. 349 (Castle Pull- 
ingham). — From the rough sketch you enclose it is difficult 
to give a propel opinion regarding your old window seat, but 
11 is evidently an early nineteenth century piece. Its value is 
probably not more than 3 or 4 guiro is. 

Mahogany and Oak Chest of Drawers.— Ai, 350 
(Ambleside).— Unless the object you describe has any special 
history, we do not think it would letch very much. To value 
il definitely, we must have a photograph and further particulars. 

Carved Oak Sideboard.- A 1. 31 3 (Weston-super-Mare). 

— It is practically impossible to judge 1 arvi d oak from a photo- 

["he piece has a foreign appearance, and, as near a-. 

iventeenth century Flemish origin. Its 

lie \ due we do no judge to be more than £2$ to £30 ; but 
this opinion needs confirmation by inspection of the piece. 

1 ighteenth Century Chairs. \1.2so (Stoke Newing- 
ton.N 1. 1 In- four chairs of which you send photograph are 

e iX:h century. We presume they are of 
acks are original, the utmost 

Old English Chair.— Ai, 314 (St. Osythl.— We presume 

youi than is tit walnut 01 mahogany. It is apparently oi 

■ century I nglish workmanship, and its value is aboul 

Lace.— Crochet Flounce.— Ai, 1 14 (Kidderminster| 

the oil itograph 1, youi flounce 

crochet, and to be worth £6 tos. or so. 



■ : i I '. 
/„ the /■• of Hurl Spencer, K.G. 

N'OVIMl.HK, I9O9. 




-fflF fewn/ 

Part I. 

Written and Illustrated by Leonard Willoughby 

That Portsmouth owes its present importance 
as a town to its geographical position is very obvious. 
The rise of most of our cities and towns to any sort 
of importance has, in fact, been due to the con- 
formation of the ground and the nature of either 
its seaboard or river-side. Of the many bays which 
abound on the south coast of England, such as 
Plymouth, Weymouth, Swanage, Poole, Christchurch, 
Portsmouth, Langstone, Chichester, Pagham, and 

Dover, there are only two which meet the necessary 
requisites of a great naval port. These are Ports- 
mouth and Plymouth. Portsmouth undo 
meets all requirements, and is also central for the 
command of the Channel. 

Curiously enough, however, neither of these places 
was recognised to be of the importance they 
now are until the eighteenth century, and althou'gh 
Portsmouth had from earliest days been a I .■. . 


Vol. XXV.— No. 99.— i 

The Connoisseur 

place for embarkation and the gathering of ships, 
still the real naval stations, such as they were, were 
the principal ports of trade — London and Bristol. 
Nevertheless, from very early days Portsmouth had 
to bear the brunt of invasion and battle, and it 
was from here that Alfred sent out his fleet to 
engage the Danes. William I. was opposed by the 
fleet which Harold collected at Portsmouth— the 
mvenient place for gathering together a large 
assembly of ships. In still earlier days the Romans 

surrounding country which 1'orth held in vassal- 
age of Cerdic. In S38 -Ethelelm, governor of 
Dorsetshire, routed a band of Danes which had 
disembarked at Portsmouth from a fleet of thirty 
sail. In 1086 William I. raised a fleet here, and 
embarked for Normandy : while in iroi Robert, 
Duke of Normandy, claiming the Crown of England, 
landed in Portsmouth without opposition. In 1139 
the Empress Matilda, with the Earl of Gloucester 
and only one hundred and forty men, landed at 

5TLE, ON rilK 

had a camp at the head of the harbour, which was 
cue ..I the strongest of the surviving forts. This 
iva Portchestei Castle on the main road connecting 
Portus Magnus as Pot then known — 

and Winchester. As to whether Portchestei was evei 
a really convenient place ol settlement is open to 
doubt, as it was shut in by hill and forest. In course 
of time it grew less convenient as a landing-place 
It is therefore probable thai the inhabitants moved 
the mouth ol the harbour, and that this 
was the 1 it h as a settle- 

ment and lib tequenl town. 

In 501 a ol Saxons landed here from two 
■ ;lleys under the command ol I'oiih and his 
1, and defeated the B 
killed tli-:' commander, and took possession oi the 

Portsmouth without opposition. Henry II., previous 
to his departure to act as umpire between Philip of 
France and Philip, Earl of Flanders, made his will at 
Portsmouth, near the sea-side. One copy he put into 
his own treasury, one in the Church of Canterbury, 
and a third in the treasury of Winchester. Richard 1. 
embarked at Portsmouth for Barfleur with one hundred 
large ships in 1194. It was this monarch who 
granted the Corporation ol Portsmouth a chatter, 
dated May 2, int.}, three months after his return 
iptivity. It is thought that this chatter was 
granted in return foi a substantial contribution to the 
Royal Treasury. The charter granted leave to hold 
a fair or mart for fifteen days, a weekly market on 
Thursdays, and immunities. This was the chartei 
toi ■■ I lee Marl Ian." which continued until 1S46. 

The Town of Portsmouth 

The immunities alluded 
to were that during the 
fair the town was " to 
be Free to all people, 
natives and foreigners, 
free from tolls, duties, 
impositions, and no one 
to be arrested for debt, 
or oppressed in any way 
during its continuance." 
This fair was directed to 
be held on the festival 
of St. Peter de Yincula, 
viz., the ist of August 
in the Roman Catholic 
calendar. The fair, 
which was originally of 
great service as a market 
and for commercial 
rendezvous, gradually, 
as the population in- 
creased, degenerated 
into such scenes of 
drunkenness and vul- 
garity that an Act of 
Parliament was passed 
to discontinue it. In 
1 200 King John granted 
to the borough a charter, embodying the same 
privileges enjoyed under Richard's charter. 

Henry III., in 1221, assembled at Portsmouth one 
oi the finest armies ever raised, and in 1230 he 
embarked for St. Malo. This same year he confirmed 
the preceding charters of Richard and John, and in 
1242, together with his C'ueen, Prince Richard, three 
hundred knights with thirty hogsheads of silver, sailed 
from Spithead for'Gascony. Fourteen years later he 
granted to "our 
honoured men of 
Portsmouth " a 
"Guild of Mer- 
chants " and other 
privileges, which 
shows that the town 
was so far advan- 
cing in importance 
as to claim equal 
privileges with such 
places as York, 
Hereford, and 
Lincoln, which had 
already their Mer- 
chants' Guild. 
These guilds were 


] itr -sSU-oet, C«)mciou6 1 ovncamx/r, ^ or 




'^LQLa^, , 



■ p& . 

W OrUlUOulty ' 

si . 

" j 

endowed with consider- 
able powers for the regu- 
lation of trade, so that 
there is no doubt that 
there must have been by 
then a fair amount of 
trade existing in Ports- 
mouth. In 1336 the town 
was burnt by the French. 
In [346 Edward III. 
assembled a fleet here 
of 1,600 ships, and set 
sail from St. Helens, 
and in 1372 he 1 irdered 
all maritime towns in the 
kingdom to fit out vessels 
and to assemble them 
before the ist of May at 
Portsmouth. Five years 
after, the French again 
attacked Portsmouth 
and burnt it, but they 
were driven back to their 
ships by the inhabitants 
with great slaughter. 
In 1386 the Duke of 
Lancaster assembled an 
army of 28,000 men for 
Spain, and took with him his wife, Constantina of 
Castile, and two daughters. Richard II. and his Queen 
accompanied them to Portsmouth and presented 
them with two golden crowns. The English fleet was 
blockaded by the French in 14 16 at Portsmouth. 
In 14 1 7 Henry V. embarked for Normandy, while in 
1445 Margaret of Anjou landed here and proceeded 
to the Priory of Southwick, where she was married 
to Henry VI. In 1 549 Adam de Moleyns, Bishop 
1 he King's 

I > 1 i v y seal, was 
1 lut of the 

" I >omus I >ei " and 
cruelly mi' 

Edward IV. re- 

, .000 men 
on South 

mon in 1 175, and 
granted in 1 I'm .1 
charier wl 

II r ill si: 

II .. Ed . 


K g 5 5 

K a 

-j : _ z « 
a h :'r 8 £ 


"Hflfr ' '■■ i #^8K i^. 1 

The Town of Portsmouth 


Elizabeth granted the Corpora- 
tion the power of electing jus- 
tices of the peace, and gave the 
title of " mayor and burgesses." 
Charles I. granted a charter in 
1629, which was important, as 
it gave the borough privileges 
and immunities which it did not 
possess before. Charles II. 's 
charter of 16S3 became void 
owing to the borough following 
the example of many others in 
the kingdom, which surrendered 
the charter of Charles I., and 
accepted another from Charles 
II., under which they acted till 
the abdication of James II. in 
168S. It was then discovered 
that the charter of Charles I. 
was in the hands of a Mr. 
(liogne, and on application was 
by him duly surrendered, by 

which means the charter of Charles II. became void. 
The recovery of Charles I.'s charter was highly 
favourable to the freedom of this borough, since by 
that of his successor the mayor, aldermen, recorder, 
justices, burgesses, and town clerk were rem 
from time to time at the will of the Crown. 

III., in 1485, 

the subse- 

also confirm- 

quent items 

ed preceding 
charters, and 

hi importance 
in connection 

Henry VII. 

with the his- 

granted one 

tory of Ports- 

in 1 4S9. 

mouth, 1 may 

Henry VIII. 
also granted 

mention that 

a charter in 

Castle was 

1511, as did 
Edward VI. 

built in 1539. 
In 1552 

in 1551. In 

Edward VI. 

1600 Queen 

visited Ports- 

mouth, and in 1591 Q 
Elizabeth came here. Charles 1., 
as Prince of Wales, landed here 
on his return from France and 
Spain in 1023. The Duke of 
Buckingham sailed from 
head with 100 ships and 7,000 
land forces in 1627 to 
Rochelle. In 1628 the Duke 
was assassinated in Poi I 

on. I n 1 '• 1 2 Ports- 
mouth « 

In 1660 
Princess Henrietta, fall 1 
of the measles while under sail 
in the " London," which was 
nearly lost upon the I 
shoal, put into Portsmouth 

Charles II. married Catherine 
of Braganza on May 22nd. 
1662, and in 1664 he came to 
Portsmouth to view Prince Rupert's squadron. The 
Uuke of Berwick was mail [687, and in 

16SS Judge Jeffrej ol England, 

was elected Recorder. In [689 William 111. dined 
on board the " Elizabeth," and gave the seamen 10s. 
for their servio ; in Bantry Bay. ' oming to 


NDER- o: 

The Connoisseur 


later times, in 1803 Lord 
Nelson hoisted his flag on 
board the "Victory," and 
in 1805 embarked from 
Portsmouth for the last 
time. The same year 
— barely three months later 
— the " Victory " arrived at 
with the mortal 
remains of this most gallant 
sailor on board. Kings, 
queens, emperors, ruling 
princes, presidents, and 
governors have continually 
visited this great maritime 
town, and he who would 
know more of its interest- 
ing history, told in most 
readable form, should study 
The Annals of Portsmouth, 
written by Mr. W. 11 . 
Saunders, Portsmouth's 
antiquarian and curator of 
its museum. This work, 
together with Mr. William 
' rati History of Ports- 
mouth, gives in detail the 
many historical matters w 
Portsmouth and Southsea. 

The property of the C01 
day, such as the insignia, charters, seals, and plate, 
is of a niosi intere ting di ;cription, and is safely 
lodged in the princely Town Hall, of which there 
is no linn specimen in the kingdom. Other objects 
ol very great historic value are kept in the museum 
in High Streel a building which was once the old 
guildhall. The contents 
of this highly-iii' 

m, which include 

dl 1 wings, 

a copy 

:i Independ- 

! lizabethan 

of all th 

;h are connected with 

ihich exists to- 

Mr. Saunders's indefatig- 
able labours — are more 
than sufficient to induce 
the authorities of Ports- 
mouth to greatly extend the 

My only regret is that in 
a short article I am quite 
unable to give a detailed 
description of some of the 
most interesting subjects in 
the museum. The object 
of the curator has, however, 
been, with the means at his 
disposal, to show as much 
as possible of the historic 
matter relating to the old 
town of Portsmouth. A 
large portion of the exhibits 
belongs to the curator, who 
has made a life-long study 
of antiquarian matters. 
Certainly a delightful and 
instructive hour may be 
spent line. 

The insignia, documents, 

BY THE MAYOR , , , \ , . ., 

and plate belonging to the 
Corporation are of singular interest, the plate itself 
being the second most valuable collection of Cor- 
poration plate in the kingdom. It is claimed 
that Portsmouth has the distinction of being one 
of the towns to which the largest number of 
charters has been granted, these ranging from that of 
Richard I. in 1194 down to 1835, when the municipal 
Reform Bill was passed. In 1600 Queen Elizabeth 
granted the first charter of definite incorporation 
to Portsmouth. The 
privileges then granted 
were that the tow n 
should be governed by 
a mayor and burgesses, 
who might hold lands 
and have a common 
seal. According to the 
records in the Corpora- 
tion muniments, the 
first mayor of Ports- 
mouth was elected in 
1 5 3 1 , and was one 
Thomas Carpenter, 
who, according to 
Leland, built the first 
Town Hall. This stood 
in the middle ol 11 mh 

The Town of Portsmouth 

Street, and was built at his own ex- 
pense. The seal attached to Elizabeth's 
charter is an exceedingly fine one, and 
in good preservation. The earliest 
common seal was pointed oval in shape, 
3 in. in length. This wasthirteenth cen- 
tury, and showed a single-masted ves- 
sel on the waves, with furled mainsail 
with the moon and star above. Only 
an imperfect and undated impression 
of this remains. The present com- 
mon seal is double, and is late thir- 
teenth century. Itiscircular.measuring 
3 in. in diameter, the obverse bearing 
the figure of a single-masted vessel on 
the waves, with two men on the yard 
furling sail. The reverse represents 
a Gothic shrine, and is purely eccle- 
siastical. It has a gabled-roofed 
building, in the centre of which, under 
a niche, is a crowned figure of the 
Virgin holding the infant Saviour. 
At the east end of the building is a 
niche containing a figure of a bishop — 
on the left St. Thomas of Canterbury, 
and on the right St. Nicholas, both 
with mitres, episcopally robed, and 
having croziers in their hands. The 
legend translated runs : " This Port O 
Virgin Assist ! O St. Nicholas cherish 
it ! O St. Thomas pray for it ! " St. Nicholas was ap 

pealed to as the special protector of sailors, and St 

Thomas the patron saint of Portsmouth Parish Church 
The provost's seal is circular, \\ in. in diametei 

and bears the 

device a cres- 

c e n t s u r- 

m ount ed b y 

an eight-rayed 

star. The 

crescent and 

star is the old 

accepted arms 

of the borough, 

the date of its 

introduc tion 

being uncer- 

generally sup- 
posed that the 
crescent was 
adopted during 

the Crusades, COFFER OF T „, time 01 

and the star of the borough of poe 

mariners. The mayor's seal now in 
use is a copy in silver of the old 

provost^. It was in use in 1692, and 










The great mace is of silver-gilt, and 
is 48 in. in length. It bears the 
i:l. W. II., and is said to 
have been given to the town by Sir 
Josiah Child in 1678. It is, however, 
probable that he gave it during the 
year of lus mayoralty in 16 
greater part of it is of Commonwealth 
period, and was only converted into 
11011. The 
shall is certainly original, and the 
lengths are chased with a running 
pattern of acorns and oak leaves en- 
circled by a ribbon. The brackets 
beneath the mace head are v 
tiful, while the foot knop is chased 
with oval medallions. Alterations 
have been made to the m 

th devices 
have been replaced by the rose, 
fleur-de-lys and harp, all crowned, 
between the initials C. R. The 
coronet on the head dates from 
the Restoration, but the 1 crown are 

peculiar, and certainly non-regal. These support an 
orb and cross, and beneath these latter on the flat 

of the crown are the royal arms 


long, is ol sil- 

kno]>s into four 



The Connoisseur 


\j?jic umntimoit* ^i-dftratton 

and of silver par- 
cel gilt. Its head 
is hemispherical, 
with a coronet of 
lleurs-de-lys and 
. There- 
are fivi open 
flanges on the 
grip of thi J; tii, 
which is divided 
into lour sec- 
tions. The plate 
on the top has 
the royal arms of 
i lharles II. with- 
in the garter. 
This in 

thirty-fivi years 
ago, when t he- 
plate was found 
to beai on the 
id the 
ilth. At 
the time ol the 
Restoration this HHfS 

plate had he-en 
imply rt\ 
and! lharl 
arms engraved 

on it. Om this DEC] VR .. { , , ,- sU K1 , 1N INDi PEN i 

., being i " M;i ' * RE " xl v ' i '»• THESE D0C 

was made to screw off if desired for 

examination. For many years the mace was lost, 

but was found in 1.N75 amongst some lumber in the 

borough gaol ! The mayor's chain and badge are 

ind were bought by public subscription in 

["hechaini oni and back, 

ledallions representing the old 

il a double chain 
of Hat and round links with 

mouth. 1 1 

flat links 
with the 

front pari 


sets of six round 
twisted links, 
divided by three 
medallions. The 
central one 
has the crest 
of Henry Ford, 
Esq., Mayor, 
when the chain 
was bought. Over 
this was added 
in 1887, by A. S. 
Blake, Esq., the 
ex-mayor, an im- 
perial crown of 
gold with jewel- 
led circlet, and 
beneath it a rib- 
bon : jubilee v. 
1887. k. Y 1 \ i\ 
Two curious 
water bailiffs' 
ed by a royal 
crown, are inter- 
esting. These 
are Georgian, 
and were used 
by officers in 
the execution of 
their duty. The 
curious part of 
these staves is 
ms existing, of which his is one that when an 
officer's duty took him aboard a vessel to arrest a 
person, it was first of all necessary to unscrew the 
bottom of the staff. Inside the shaft is an oar, which 
when removed screws on to the end of the shaft. This 
oar was obliged to be shown when boarding a vessel, 
otherwise no arrest could be effected. The cofter 
used until the reign of Elizabeth for the keeping of 
the charters is an oblong box with an arched lid. 
It measures only 13^ in. 
in length, 8 in. in breadth, 
and Sh in. in height. It 
is of wood, covered with 
red leather, and banded 
w i t h s t r i p s of fluted 

In a later issue I will 
give a description and 
full illustrations of the 
magnificent collection of 
plate belonging to the 

1 Rl >N 

IN 1 111 ■ 1! 

HERE 1 1 

II \ U 

111 1 11 

THE Kl> 


V^ T M£s 

Henry Walton, Artist 

By Edmund Farrer, F.S.A. 


In Bryan's Dictionary o) Painlen and 

Engravers, under the name of Henry Walton, appears 
the following: — "An English subject and portrait 
painter, was born about 1720. He was a member 
of the Society of Artists, where he exhibited, as well 
as at the Royal Academy, from 177 1 to 1779, 
subjects were usually 
portraits in small or 
domestic incidents. 
Several of his pictures 
have been engraved. 
His death took place 
about 1790. Two of 
his pictures were exhib- 
ited at the Grosvenor 
Gallery in 1889." A 
very similar account of 
him is given in Red- 
grave's Dictionary o) 
Artists of the English 
School, where we have : 
" Portrait painter, was 
born about 1720. His 
portraits, usually of small 
size, are tolerably drawn 
and tenderly painted, 
with some attempt at 
expression. He also 
painted domestic inci- 
dents, in which he in- 
troduced portraits, and 
exhibited some of this 
class at the Royal 

Academy in 1777-7S and 1779. He was 
member of the Society of Artists. Died about 1795. 
Several of his works have been engraved." 
In Waagen's Treasures of Art in G> a 
circa 1S54-57 — though the author seems to have had 
access to the great collections in England — no 
mention is made of a 
pi< mre by this artist, 
nor do I know any 
further account of him 
in print whatsoever. 

The catalogue ol the 
Grosvenoi Gall 
the exhibition ol 1889 
is not in the library at 
the Victoria and Albert 
Museum ; but I think 
it probable that the 
pictures mentioned in 
Bryan's work as exhib- 
ited thru- were by an 
i! name, 
who was then living. 
About the year 1S90, 

at Rickinghall, 
folk, of an old 
by the name ■> 
iham. who « 
over nni 

within a radius 

The Connoisseur 

same spot ; and lie often spoke to me of an 
artist by the name of Walton (the Christian name 
he could not remember), who, when he, the 
narrator, was a boy, resided at a farmhouse (now 
called the Oak Tree Farm) in Burgate, on the 
n , a in r0 ole and Bury St. Edmunds. 

I thought little of it at the time; but some years 
later, when I had partly accomplished my visitation 
of Suffolk houses, which resulted in a volume on 
its, this story of old Gooderham's came 
me, and 1 determined to try and connect 
this local artist with the man recorded by both 
and Redgrave. It naturally struck me the 
former might well be the son of a man who had 
died between 1790 and 171)5. 

This was the fixed idea in my mind when I first 
sought the connection, and it was a long while ere I 
saw reason to alter it. It seemed to me incredible 
that the man who painted The Fruit Barrow, engraved 
by 1. K. Smith in 1780, and the Portrait of Edward 
GMon,the historian, in the National Portrait Gallery. 
could, even had he lived beyond 1790 or 1795, nave 
painted in 1806 that of Lord Henry Petty, afterwards 
third Marquess of Lansdowne, purchased by the 
trustees of the same institution in 1S64— the style 
is so different. 

I soon found out that the Burgate artist had, 
between 1795 and 1810, left many specimens of his 
handicraft in the immediate neighbourhood ot his 
residence. At Thomham Hall, near Eye, belonging 
to Lord Henniker, there are four portraits, exactly 
to that "l Lord Lansdowne, painted 
■ and in ill-' lower corner of one 
en, placed there by the artist, in 
tde, " W alton . Burgate." 
At Thelnetham Rectory, in the possession of the 
Rev. fohn Sikrs Sawbridge, inherited from his 
Mi Edward Bridgman, ol < !onej Weston 
Hall, who married a Miss Walton, I 
a relationship 

■. ing on the 

three of the pictures aftei 

J. R. Smith ; hen', ton, were 

<! m similar 

the portrait 

iiiled in the 

d, "Henry 

11 ■ and the 

nothing to prove conclusively that the Henry Walton 
of the memorial ring was an artist at all. 

It is to my friend Prince Frederick Duleep Singh 
that I am chiefly indebted for the elucidation of the 
mystery; he it was who discovered in the early part 
of 1908 the family history of " Henry Walton, Artist," 
thus enabling me to state the facts which this article 
records. It will be necessary to enter rather minutely 
into genealogical details to prove that the Henry 
Walton of Bryan and Redgrave lived on after 1790 
and 1795, that he was the Burgate artist, and that 
he died on 19th May, 1S13, aged 67. The infor- 
mation here collected to prove these facts is taken 
from a family prayer-book, the parish registers of 
Dickleburgh, Norfolk, the Suffolk collections of Davy 
in the British Museum, and the will of Henry Walton 
of Burgate, proved September 4th, 1S13. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century there was 
living at Dickleburgh a certain Samuel Walton, born 
in 1 7 to; he was the son of William Walton, who 
was living in 1720; and in the possession of this 
latter gentleman was the aforesaid prayer-book, 
printed in 1691, "given to me in 1700, by my mother, 
as my father's book." In this little treasure-house 
lies hid a good deal of the earlier portion of the 
family history, and that same book is now in the 
possession of a collateral descendant, Mrs. Walton, 
of Bedford. Samuel Walton, of Dickleburgh, had a 
wife whose Christian name was Anne ; by her he had 
three children. The elder was Samuel Walton, jun. 
(so-called in the prayer-book, in the parish registers, 
and on his tombstone at Dickleburgh) ; he was born 
in 1 741, and died in 1783, aged 42. Of him we 
need record no more than that he had several 
children, that he received the prayer-book from his 
uncle, William Walton, of Norwich, and handed it 
on to a third Samuel, who died unmarried ; he be- 
queathed it to his brother Thomas Newstead Walton, 
from whom it came in direct descent to the husband 
of its present owner at Bedford. Samuel Walton, sen., 
had beside^ another son and daughter; the latter 
was Elizabeth Walton, born 111 1752. who married at 
Dickleburgh in 1771 Edward Bridgman. of Coney 
Weston and 1'-';'' dale; she died in 1843, her hus- 
band having predeceased her in 181 7, aged (17. The 
11 -a, is Henr) Walton, the artist, born (though 
1 know not where) in [746, and who is recorded in 
the Davy MS. to have "died at Mrs. Fraser's, New- 
Bond Street, in 1813, aged 67," tin very date of 
the memorial rings. In the will tin- artisl bequeaths 
■■ 10 in\ 1 ieth Brid man one hundred and 

fifty pou my brother-in-law Edward 

I'.iidgiuan ' .1 similai sum. Furthermore, members 
mI the fa uel Walton, jun., were painted 

by the artist. The portrait said to be Robert 
Rayner, who married one of the daughters, in 
a shooting costume characteristic of the period 
(c. 1790), carrying a gun, is still in the possession 
of his grandson, Mr. Cooper, of Ashen Hall, Essex. 
Mr. Rayner's first wile, who was Frances Walton, 
was painted seated at her spinning wheel ; but 
the picture being used as a fire-screen was des- 
troyed. Many other members of the family, 
painted by the artist in miniature, are in the 
possession of Mrs. Walton, of Bedford, who also 

owns proof copies of The Fruit Barrow, and yet a 

third memorial ring. 

Thus there can be no doubt but that the 
artist was connected by family tics with the Bridgmans 
of Coney Weston, in the possession of which family 
and their descendants were, and still are, pii 
engravings by and after the Henry WaltOl 
and Redgrave. He was not born in 1720, but in 
1746; he was therefore 25 years old 'and not 51) 
when he exhibited his first picture at the 
Artists; but why he ceased to exhibit abo 


The Connoisseur 

unknown, seeing that he painted after that so many 
portraits of celebrated people. 

There is in the possession of Mr. Harvey Mason, 
of Necton Hall, near Swaffham, Norfolk, a picture 
painted by Walton, with a verified record on the 
back, which gives one valuable piece of additional 
information concerning the artist's early career, the 
truth of which will be very evident to anyone who 
carefully studies the style and technique displayed 
in the pictures painted prior to 17S0. It has well 
been described as " Cricket at Harrow in 1772, with 
portraits of William ami John Mason and their tutor, 
Mr. Ambrose Humphreys." The centre figure in it 

IDs lllll.'l) 

ij (William Ma on) holding in Ins hand an 

ed curved cricket bat; the youngei boy 

is partly kneeling on the ground, on 

th picture. The 1 istume is 

■• nig, as it does, what was worn 

at Harrow about that period — loose 

, and tight wrist- 

1 oats, with gold buttons ; 

having gold buttons at the knees ; 

similar buttons, is on the ground, 
the sinister 
-presents a 

• hi lattei 

is not an artistic production at all. On the back is 
an inscription written later by William Mason, the 
elder of the two boys, " The picture was painted by 
Walton, of Faunham (sic), near Bury. It represents 
his patron, and my most estimable friend, Ambrose 
Humphreys, Esq., myself and my brother John 
Mason, playing at Ciicket at Harrow, where we were 
then at school under Dr. Summer . . . now Dr. Parr, 
assistant. It was about the year 1772. Walton was 
placed by Mr. Humphreys under Zoffany." Indeed, 
the figure of the tutor might well have been painted 
by Johann Zoffany. One further point connected 
with this picture may be of interest. William and 
John Mason were the sons of William Mason, Esq., 
of Necton Hall, by his wife Elizabeth, the daughter 
and co-heir of the Rev. Francis Blomefield, rector of 
Fersfield, the well-known antiquary and historian of 

Two other paintings exhibiting Walton's earlier 
(Zoffany) style are illustrated in this article. The one 
is in the possession of Dr. Crowfoot, of Blyburgate 
House, Beccles, and represents three young men in 
the costume of the period (1770) with a boat alongside 
the bank of the river Waveney, between Beccles and 
Yarmouth. The centre one of the group is William 
Crowfoot, an ancestor of the owner; the two otheis 
were his college friends, sons of Mr. Burroughes, of 
Long Stratton, in Norfolk. In Blyburgate House 
there are many portraits by Walton, some painted 
thirty years later than this, and Dr. Crowfoot believes 
that the artist often resided for a while in Beccles. 
No doubt, like others of the profession, he shifted 
about to find work for his brush. 

The second portrait represents a cleric, of an ancient 
Suffolk name, the Rev. Charles Tyrell, rector of 
Thurston. He died in 181 1, aged 70. The picture 
was painted probably about 1790, or even earlier. It 
is now in the possession of a descendant, Commander 
Browne, R.N., of Rougham, near Bury St. Edmunds. 
Through the kindness of Mr. J. S. Earle, of Ken- 
sington, I am enabled to give a list of the pictures 
ol Walton which have been exhibited at the Society 
of Artists and at the Royal Academy. The following 
is from The Society of Artists of Great Britain, by 
Algernon Graves, 1007 : — 

■• Henry Walton, painter, Great Chandois {sic) Street, Covent 

1771.- 198. A Family. 

1 7 7 1 . 199, Portrait of a Nobleman, small, whole length. 
1771. (El nz., Fellow of the Society of Artists, 

leen street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
1772. — 359. A Family of Children, small, whole length. 
1772. — 360. A Portrait ol a Nobleman, small, whole length. 

1. A Portrait of a Gentleman, small, whole length. 
1772. — v Gentleman, small, whole length. 




I Colour Print in the possession of 

H. Pri, 



Henry Walton, Artist 

1772.— (Director F.S.A.) 

'773-— 4°3- A whole length of an Office.. 

1773- — 469- A Conversation. 

I773- — Hill St.eet, Berkley {sic) Square (F.S.A. ). 

I 77 6 -— Ij 1 - A Oirl plucking a Turkey. 

From The koml Academy of Arts, by Algernon 
Graves, 1906, we have Henry Walton, painter, Hill 
Street, Berkeley Square. 

I777-— j6o. A Market Girl. 

I77S. — 322. A Girl Buying a Ballad. 

I779—338- A Scene in the Spanish Barber, Act I., sc. i. 

1779- -339- A Group of Figures and a Fruit Barrow. 

In Smith's Brilisli Mezzotint Portraits four are 
recorded as being "after Henry Walton " : 

(1) Mrs. Cur/is, engraved by Henry Hudson. 
Bromley mentions 17S9 as the date of this print. It 
represents a lady seated on a sofa. There is a copy 
exhibited in the Cheylesmore collection at the 
British Museum. 

(2) Walton Family, tin- Fruit Barrow, mezzotint 
by J. R. Smith, published March 6th, 17S0. Accord- 
ing to Bromley, it represents the children of the 
artist. According to Brande's catalogue tin. youn 
lady is Miss Carr. the boys the nephews, and the 
little girl the niece of Walton. It is evidently 
No. 330 of the Royal Academy in 17711. 

(3) Life ami Works of J. R. Smith, by Julia 
Frankau, 1002. Plucking the Turkey (Walton) 
W.L. A woman sitting directed nearly in profile to 
left ; cap, crossbarred gown, apron ; pulling feathers 
off large turkey, supported on edge of hamper before 
her. Under : Painted by H. Walton, engrav'd by 
J. R. Smith. Pluckmg the Turkey. Pubhsh'd as the 
Act directs, Jan. 26, 1777, by J. R. Smith, No. 10, 
Bateman's Buildings, Soho Square, and W. Darling, 
(Ireat Newport Street. Price is. (id. H. 14, Sub. 13, 
W. 9^. (I.) Engraver's proof before any letters; 
(II.) As described. This is undoubtedly the picture 
exhibited at the Society of Artists in 1 776. 

(4) The Silver Age. Mezzotint by J. R. Smith. 
Published January 30th, 177S, by Boydell — a com- 
panion to The Golden Age, painted by P.. West, 
and engraved by Valentine Green. 

In the work just previously i]tioted by Julia 
Frankau, 1902, a description is given of an engraving 
after Walton, called The Pretty Maid Buying a Love 
Song. It was printed for, and sold by Carington 
Bowles, at his "Map and Print Warehouse, No. 69, 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, London ' M,iss Frankau 
describes it as " a street scene, on tin.- left a young 
woman in hat and undercap, dainty dress ol sniped 
material, heart-shaped pincushion hanging al sidi , 
standing and in the act of taking a ballad 

number of others suspended on strings along a wall 
at the back of their owner, an old man seated on a 
box, hat in hand on knee, walking stick betwei 
waistcoat tied together with string, broom 1 
left." This picture is identical with one of which 
Mr. Sawbridge owns a copy (illustrated here), called 
The Young Maid and the Old Sailor. Painted by 
H. Walton, prepared by I. Walker, and finisl 
F. Bartolozzi. Published Feb. 1, 17 s, by R. Willman. 
No. 53, Cornhill. The title has six verses under] 
This print in bistre fetched T:2 is. fid. in [902 

Ilit.- portraits only have, as far as I km 
engraved : — 

(1) In mezzotint. The Right Hon The Earl of 

Orford,vtt. 83, [806, Henry Walton, pinx'-,C. Tinner. 
scttlpsit, and the print is dedicated by psrn 
" Rt. Hon. Pad;, Catherine Walpol 
very humble servant, Henry Walton, I on ' 
lished Ma\ 1, tSo6, for the proprietor, by R. Cribb, 
I, Holborn." 
(2) In mezzotint. Lord Henry Petty . 
bom 17.S0, died [863. Chancelloi 
1806-7 ! succeeded as 3rd 
[809. Henrj Walton, pin 
1 . in cribed, "The Rt. H Lord 1 

prinl is with permission 
(sic) to Ins brother, The mosi 
ib d " 

ton.' Publishi 

The Connoisseur 

prints are recorded in 
Mezzotints by Charles 
Turner, by Alfred Whit- 
man, 1907. 

(3) In dot and stipple. 
2 id Earl and 
1 ft \l irquis Cornwallis, 
A'.i ,'.. I lovernor-General 
of Bengal. Horn Dee. 
21, 1738, died Oct. s, 
1805. It represents the 
headand shoulders only, 
in uniform, with the rib- 
bon of the Garter over 
the left shoulder, and 
m the left breast. 
It is inscribed, "Marquis 
( 'onnvallis. 1 1. Walton, 
pinx 1 , J. Osborne, sculp' . 
Published as the Act 
directs, July 1, 17115. 
No. 5, Curzon Street." 
The original of this pic- 
ture is painted on cop 
per. in oils, and is in 

the pi «se ol 1 .ad) 

Buxton, of 32, Cadogan 

stipple, and coloun d, w en 

111 dot and 
to be seen in 
From a bill 

a few ni the country houses in Suffolk. 

:: it may be inferred that Walton touched 

upthi: colouring himself, as the charge, yj is., for so 

iving would, a hundred years ago, have 

ive price. ( )ne of these 

prim ■ 1 - in tin- possessii m ol I'rince Frederick 

1 'uleep Singh, and it has 
been illustrated in this 
article. None (in 
colour) exists at the 
British Museum. 

After 1S10, and just 
previous to the artist's 
death, we find him once 
again devoting himself to 
domestic incidents, tak- 
ing the material for such 
from around his country 
home. The piece of 
pasture land between his 
house and the road is still 
called by the men who 

JWm work on the farm " the 

*•«■ painter's meadow." Just 

then as thirty years be- 
fore he took his models 
and his details from the 
city streets, so now it is 
country folk, the plough 
boy, and the village maid 
that he depicts, and the 
scenery and the sur- 
by 11 walton roundings those of 

everyday life. 
We 1 annot help noticing in these, the artist's latest 
productions, a certain similarity to the work turned 
out a little earlier by George Morland (whom Henry 
Walton may well have known), though it must be 
confessed it is a similarity of subject more than of 
style or technique. 

One such picture is in the possession of Mr. Frere, 
of Roydon Hall, which in treatment, workmanship 


Hairv U'allou, Artist 

and colouring is superior 
to any work of Morland's, 
which, more often than 
not, • are slovenly and 
coarse. It is called The 
Barn Girl. The figures 
are portraits of the wife 
of Edward Dykes, of Eye, 
and of a man named Flat- 
man, then of Eye, and 
afterwards of Roydon. It 
was painted in iSin, and 
was not paid for till after 
his death. 

Another picture at Roy- 
don Hall remains still un- 
finished : the artist was 
engaged on it when he 
died. It represents a cot- 
tage interior, with portraits 
of John Trew, an old ser- 
vant of Mr. John Frere, of 
Roydon Hall, with his 
grand-daughter. A letter 
was written to J. H. Frere, on the i;r 

Esq., Roydon, from Bur- 
gate, by the widow of the arti-t, on (1 
which encloses a bill ; both of these d 
interesting and worthy of reproduction. 

" Friday morn* Mrs. Walton presents her com- 
pliments to Mr. Frere. As it is her desire to bring 
all her pecuniary affairs into a settled state, and 
having nearly accomplished her wishes, she sends the 
account of the Pictures painted for his Family, with 
their respective prices annexed. The two unfinished 
pieces, one of the late Mrs. Frere, the other of the 
old servant (both which Mr. Frere took home with 
him the last time he favoured me with a visit), 
Mrs. W. has not affixed any price to, leaving it to 

Mr. f. to put a value 
upon them him 

The bill gives the price 
of the little oval p 

of a subject pic- 
ture, and the price of a 

cord how much was 
paid for I 

d ami shoulders, 
like the portraii 
Lansdowne and those at 
Thornham Hall. 

I mallovall/'io IO o 

\ 1 ■ 1 if M 

5 s 
A Portraii ol I 

(small square) ... 5 5 o 
A Portraii ol Mr. I 1 re 

5 5° 
Two hints ol I 

the K; 
A Min 

(Lady Orde 


\k beccles With regard to the 

miniatures which Walton 
executed, they are not very line: the greal 
them are still in the possession of the family ai B& 

It will be inferred from the letter printed, and tin- 
bill from the widow to Mr. Frere, that though the 
artist died in London he was then living at Burgate. 
Such was evidently the case. In his will I 
his wife, Elizabeth Walton. exei uti \, and to her 
he bequeaths the farm where they lived. SI 
daughter of Mr. Rust, of Wortham Hall, the village 
of that name adjoining Bu 
the cause of the locality of their Suffolk 
and hence the quantity of the artist's work which 
remains still around. 

0] D R( 


\RDEN, E.C. 

The Years of Mahogany 
Chippendales, 1730 to 1740 

I i i'1-.ATKn, in the last article, of the "Lion 
Mahogany," 1720 to 1730; and of the complete 
domination of Kent during those " Lion Mahogan) 
years; and pointed out the struggle for supre,'\ 
that set in during the next decade of 1730 to 1740 
between certain French influences towards a more 
graceful style as against the heavier style of Rent, 
who still had a wide influence. This struggle lor 
lighter and more graceful proportions brought forth 
as its chief craftsmen tin- Chippendales. The dei ade 
of 1730-40, which succeeded the "Lion Mahogany" 
years, out of which it was born, I have called the 

Part VIII. The Rise of the 

By Haldane Macfall 

years of the Rise of the Chippendal 
features in the development ol the 1 hair were the 
<upid's bow cresting with th 1 all foot, 

which held the fashion from 1730 to 1750. 

Now lei 11- gel .1 I1r.11 grip 1 
give as illustration to this article, by the courtesy of 
Mr. Perceval Griffiths, a superb and typical exan 
'a walnut double seat made in the " Lion Maho 
years of 17 jo to 1730. This is one of the purest 
types of about the middf' of the deca " Lion 

Mahogany " craftsmanship, wh n Geo 
was king over us. And as companion pi< 

The Connoisseur 


•:e of Tilt 

n «iil id, b) the kindness oi the same owner, to show 

ili- mgh also made in 

as was much ol the best furniture still, and 

\ r\ interesting as showing the gadrooned edging to 

th und i frame ol the table, which was also employed 

■ 'ii rails ol i luiis in the like manner. Mr. 

enables me to illustrate the last phase ol the 

•■ Lion Mai i rnp] ol an 

I i hair in which the seat-rail is 

completed by the handsomely-carved convex bulging 

form of which I spok i in th i lasi artii le. Here, on 

the uprights of th i . the verj beautiful 

■ ■ n ;r; f i arving ivhii h 

le of i 7,50-40 with 
the Kenl 

1 in I Ihippi xriAi 1 s, 1730-40. 

he Chippen 

end with 


nakers. In the 


decade the lion's foot passes out of the fashion, and 
even the graceful Chippendale bed-posts reject it for 
their bases, and take on more graceful forms. 

The year 1733 saw Walpole remove the duty from 
imported timber ; mahogany was thenceforth shipped 
in very large cargoes from the West Indies. Its warm 
and rich colour, its greater lightness than that of oak, 
lis greater adaptability for carving, all brought the 
new wood at one- into wide favour. 

Now, whosoever chiefly affected the London de- 
signs, the fact remains that the early seventeen-thirties 
saw the heav) "Lion Mahogan) " designs of Kent 
being a sailed bj Frenchified tendencies towards 
grace ; we know that from the tunc the elder Chip- 
p ndale ere to town with his brilliant son and 
op n d Ins workshops at the end of the "Lion" 
decade a marked movement towards the French 
grac ifuln b gan to set in. The top rail of the 
chair chans d from th ■ hoop to the squareness of the 
"cupid's bow," and the splat was pierced into slats. 

I showed, in the lasi article, these graceful qualities 

ippli :d to the Kentish " Lion Mahogan) " 

di ;ign and th la .1 illustration was a superb doubl 1 

Mr. Pen eval Griffiths, in whii h the 

111 lull possession, and the 

The Years of Mahogany 






. 11 1 









1- A t ] 





11. 1 Mil R 

F S 1 ' 



splats are beautifully pierced in upright slats. That 
settee is an undoubted Chippendale piece, and is the 
finest example I have ever seen of those years when 
Chippendale brought his genius to the craftsman- 
ship and the designs of the past decade, and stood 
revealed as a cabinet-maker, the consummate English 
craftsman of his age. 

Now this Chippendale double-seat gives us the 
work of an absolutely new genius ; it is born out of 
the "Lion Mahogany," but there is over all a sense 
of style, of elegance, of grace wholly foreign to its 
parentage. If we set down its birth to the middle 
year of this decade that followed the "Lion Mahoganj 
years and say it was made in 1735, we shall be but 
a few months out either way. This would make the 
younger Chippendale, born about 170(1, about twent; 
six at its designing. His is clearly the master-mind 
in his great father's designing rooms, and he is in the 
full vigour of manhood, impressionable, forthright, 
and deeply imbued with his lather's skill in 
the fashions and adapting them to hi 
We, unfortunately, do not know ivh 
Chippendale died. But' whether a 
rade, or alone, Chippendale was now 

full strength of his career, and rapidl) forcing himself 
to iii" front. 

Now let us note another fact.. It is about this 

time that a wide fashion sets in for the d 1 

sweeps and curves. What is known as tL "Mari 
Antoinette " Chippendale chair is of this time. Marie 
Antoinette was not yet born, but the chain 
1 ■ 
are still in the 1 " i >st ol th ■ 

suite n turn d to England in afti r year; Hen \ 

see the rapi 

ol the decoration which s t in und r 

chairs. ..night from . 

The Connoisseur 


RECTOR YEARS, 1 7 3 ? - I 7 3 

and the lighter forms rapidlj developed. The decora- 
tion "i Mi Km I. ol the i hail tool? on those curved 
■■ flat stra] ad of the upright slats in the 

thus.' strapping which we associate with Chip- 
: arl istrj and whii h wi re lati i on to develop 
' i "ribbon-backs." These "strappings" 
n rally found to be kept within the original 
ol the old vasi shaped splat, bul oo asionally, 
as in the " Mane Antoinette," ( )hippendale carried 
ross the whole bai k. There is no 
happiest when clinging to the 

of the ordinary type i 'I 

iiii Idle 'lass home, a 

from the I ime i >l 

mid-i entury. 

; i hippendale " chairs show the 

rapping that cam 

I it applied 
■ i cl naturall) 
h 'ii in I ondon. 


\ wood, anil must 

th, as 1 shall 


during these ten years of the rise of the Chippendales, 
the chair had become more graceful and elegant in 
general design — the back had become squared, topped 
liv the "cupid's bow toprail" — the heavy lien's paw- 
had given way again to the "claw and ball" foot — 
the knee of the cabriole leg had shed its heavy masks 
and lion's heads, and was carved in low relief with 
the acanthus and the like — the splat, first split into 
upright slats, became strapped with curved flat 

We now come to the famous "Bury settee," which 
is an historic piece made by the Chippendales for the 
Bury family. It must not be confused with the Early 
( Jeorgian settee that went with the Bury chair, to which 
1 have ahead) called attention — also made by the 
firm ol i hippendale foi the Bury family. The confu- 
sion amongst writers upon this subject has, I fancy, 
b en larj i lj due to the fact ol these two suites having 
bi i n male for the Bury family. Family tradition has 
it thai the Bury suite was made for that family by the 
eldei Chippendale "before he went to London." 
This is exceedingly likely to be correct about the suite 
ol which I have already written; it is certainly not 

true about the Bury settee, which I am here about to 
illustrate. This four-backed Bury settee could not 

The Years of Mahogany 


have been made before 1735 ; and was more likely 
not made until 1740, when the Chippendales had 
risen to a supreme position amongst the London 
craftsmen of the day. Nor is there any likelihood that 
a county family like the Burys would cease to get 
their furniture from the Chippendales because they 
were becoming a famous London house— indeed, they 
would be proud to support the old man ami his 
brilliant son. At any rate, the four-backed Bury settee 

shows the Chippendale strapping am 


top-rail ; and 1 
of this period. 

quiet but tine example of their work 


The next ten years, to the mid-century, saw the 
Chippendales supreme. Walpole fell from power in 
174-', and Kent was to pass away in 174S; during 
tins decade Chippendale led the design in English 
furniture, to all purposes without an equal to rival hi ti 
and keenly desirous to hold the leadership ami main- 
tain it. It is the period of his most solid achievement 
—rid of all Queen Anne influences inn 1 
father. Unfortunately, but little is i 10 
until near the end of the decade, when he was 1 
sound a financial position that he married in 

and took .1 shop in 1740. emploj in 

stafl of workmen. But he was soon to gr\ 

to the world, in the form ol a book, which 1 nables us 

in some measure to recon 

these ten years previous to its publication ; for he 

would be little likely to risk the enormous exp 

such an undertaking anl h « re an authorit) and 

had an assured po i 

Oi these fore Direetoi years w 


marked h\ greati r perfection ol carving, gi 

;m ,l general tendency towards lightm s. 11 

rapidly towards the Frem h i< ' • adapting 

be almost defined as the pui 

Po Mr. 1 '■■a. eval Griffiths 1 am 

' Chippen- 
whicb are v rj showing the 

cupid's bow top-rail, the. 
the gadrooi 


The Connoisseur 



174". SHC 

carved frill to the under part of the top-rail that 
generally ends in a rose on the splat. This "fringe 
and tassels " decoration seems to have had i onsidi rable 
\ ogue during tliis decade. 

The other chair, though in walnut, also gives a good 

idea "i ill- develo] ml ol the chair during this 

decade. By 1750, Chippendale had rejected the claw- 

and-ball loot .is going out ol the fashion, ami he was 

about tn create the light ami graceful and slender 

styles that an recorded for us in his famous book of 

The Director a new style that formed a marked 

innovation, hut which di velop :d naturally enough out 

el ili e solid years ol design, of which I have spoken 

, : Dirti tor decade. I nany causes 

vvhii h Id up to this new development, and 1 will show 

1 ind the results upon the 

furniture ol ihe English home. Hut I think suffii ient 

t\ idence in the evolution ol the 1 hair from the " I. ion 

n\ '" has been sel forth to pro vi thai Thi Unas 

po itii 'ii .cm mgsl 1 ,1 mdon 

befoi 1 1 gave forth his book 

of The Director to his subscribers; and 1 trusl 1 

ai tlj that 

ii was. 

n i nt died in 17 l8. I Ins was 

Chip "and himself so firmly 

h d 111 liis busim tl ti he married, and in the 

for his business. 

There is one point that should always be kept in view- 
in considering the Chippendale years, whether we admit 
his vast influence before the printing of The Director 
or not. It is true that Thomas Chippendale claimed 
the rank of artist, but he never forgot that he was a 
tradesman, and, as a tradesman, it was his fust business 
to supply people with wdiat they wanted : what they 
required was the fashion of the day. But what 
Chippendale did, and was chiefly proud to do, was 
to claim that he could "improve and refine present 
taste." It was all in that " present taste." He did 
not pretend to . reate it ; indeed he knew full well he 
could not ; but he essayed to lead it — and he achieved 
it astounding well. Chippendale was not above pub- 
lishing poor designs ; he did so sin. But wheresoever 
lie controlled the making of English furniture he 
wrought his work with a master hand that brought 
distinction to all he did : and when we compare his 
treatment ol thi vagaries of his da) with the treatment 
of them by his fellows, we at once realise how he 
stood head and shoulders above them all. For this 
reason we oughl to label the work of his age with his 
name. We have the additional evidence of his 
upremaC) in the attacks made upon him in the 
tcci isors. 

( hasping this point that Chippendale, from youth 

lo death, was not s, , much a creator as. in adaplei and 
pmiiiei ol vogues, we come to another point which 

The )'cars of Mahogany 

cannot be too keenly insisted upon — the far too great 
weight placed upon the evidence of books of design 
that began to be published about the mid-century, of 
which The Director, by Chippendale, that we are 
about to discuss, is the most famous, but, contrary to 
the generally accepted idea, by no means the first. It 
should never be forgotten that these expensive books 
were nothing more than glorified trade catalogues ; 
and that they contained by no means the most normal 
and characteristic types of the furnishments designed 
or made by the authors or issuers. When we come to 
Chippendale's Director in the next article we shall find 
no hint of the claw-and-ball foot, for which soni 
finest chairs are so famous; and though this probablj 
shows that he looked upon this foot to the chair-leg as 
having belonged to his past designs of the fore Director 
period, we must not conclude from that fact that he 
wholly discarded it — for we shall find him employing 
it upon the legs of his "ribbon-back" chairs, which he 
was about to give to the seventeen-fifties and seventeen 

William Jones had published in 1739 The Gentle- 
man's or Builder's Companion, \\\ whii 
pseudo-French furniture is displayed, showing 
any rate the coming French vogue, and in 

year of 1740 The City and Country Builder's and 

Workman's Treasury of Designs di 

what criidc- designs of Hatty Langley .hi 

Langlej " foi the u ;e ol a orkmen I 

I angle) 1 1 mtempl ol thi cabin t-mal 1 of the day, 

as poured forth in his preface — (th ! 

inflict prefai es upon mm 

bear ii ing wi 

the fashion in tin fore-ZV; 
prove thai < hipp n 
men of hi; in it 

book is thai amon 

pression 1 01 me is thai 

French ideas were crudel) ntly joined 

to the hi avy 1 


us rivals to hind r 

The Connoisseur 

No. XI.- 


p riod whi« h the i ourtesy ol Mr. Perceval Griffiths lias 
enabled me to put before the student and collector, 
were wrought by their hands or under their guidance. 
And before coming to The Director, let me again 
wain the student onlj to rely on these elaborate trade- 
catalogues Ol tin- nival i raftsmen in the must i autious 
way. They haw their value ; but ii is by no means 
a high value. I?hej are most misleading unless they 
are treat :d with the utmost i aution. They give but 

i [ impress i the full achievement oi theii 

authors. The Director is barren ol the great claw- 
and-ball designs which are th supreme masterpieces 
of Chippendale; just as the Adams should not be 
b) theii printed works, or we should be mis- 
led into the id a that no single piece i >l main iganj 
furniture owed its origin to them. It would be a 
but i" Heppl whit it we onlj judged his 
I iv his published designs. And Shi raton 
would n i\ i have reached to his « ide fame it his 
only witn word. 

Nothing, fi ore misleai ling 

than the impression prodm d bj ? 'it Dire, tor that 
Chippem i 1.1 

n far i [ualitii than gilding, 

i , i m 1 1 r of fai reatl employ. 

We must now enter more carefully into Chippen- 
dale's life and position. First of all as regards his 
position. Born in the middle years of Queen Anne's 
reign— about iyog — he came oi a lather who was 
already famous in Worcestershire as a gilder, a carver, 
and joiner, and particularly famous for his carved gilt 
picture-frames. Tt will be found that 
signs his name as a " joiner " ; and as a " joiner " he 
is spoken of in all the earlier records of him. A 
" : i mi < " u.i i oi superior rank to " cabinet-makei ' ; 

it was a status jealously guarded. One cannot read 

these eighteenth-century works on furniture without 
earlj realising this fact. Some writers have been at 
pains to ii \ and explain awaj his title ol "joiner." As a 
mattei ol fact, like his father before him, he was a 
tine gilder as well as carver; but neither ol these 
,e tiviti - would have made him what he became. He 
was a creative craftsman; he had many workmen 
under him to carry out his instructions in carving 
or in gilding ; he had none who could en at tyl 
and design as he did. "Joiner" was a word which 
has sim e largi lj i hanged plai es with " cabinet- 
maker" whereas Chippendale would have been 
mortallj off rid d had anyone so changed the titles 
in his d, 

BY RALPH WOOD (175O-I772) 

(In the Stoner Collection) 

Pottery and 


The George Stoner Collection of Figures and Groups by the 
Ralph Woods of Staffordshire Part I. By FranK FalKner 

The nation owes a debt ol gratitude to th 
late Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, K.C.I!., for Ins 
presentation, amongst other valuable treasures, ol a 
small collection of figures modelled by the Ralph 

At the time of the gift very little had heen written 
upon our production in this particular school of 
earthenware figures, and the labels attached to the 
interesting little objects, deposited in the < 
section of the British Museum, bore dates which have 
been altered in accordance with more recent know- 
ledge ; the generous donor no doubt recognised an 
excellence in these statuettes which caused them to 
stand out in prominence' from the vast number ol 
ordinary so-called Staffordshire figures. 

The family of Wood, connected in tin • arl 

of the eighteenth century with a tri 
the Wedgwoods ol Bursle n, bee ne 
"Big House" Wedgwoods, inheriting not only por- 
tions ol tii' ir valuable estates, but, in the p rsons of 
the two Ralph Woods, father and 
tradition in the an < I i ■> >< h 11 in.u • 
( Ine distinguished memb i i i ily in the 

■ ntury was Aaron >'■ 
block cutter, who designed most i >l 
whii ii tli • o\ :ted " s ilt gl; 

: I lels and pitcher blocks still retrain 

in the possession ol one o 

Mr. John Badd( ley-Woo ! : Hall, Ludlow. 

Another member was Enoch Wood, known as " the 
Father ol the Potteries," who became an able sculptor. 
He, as a young man of twenty- two, wasai corded sittings 

Nos. I. to V. 

The Coiuioisseiir 

by John Wesley, then in the seventy- 
eighth vcar of his age, the result 
achieved being the well-known 
Wesley bust, pronounced by the 
great divine to be the best portrait 
ever taken of himself. 

It may here be noted that from 
original correspondence kindly 
placed at the disposal of the writer 
b\ .1 member of the family, a direct descendant of 
the Enoch Wood branch, the exact date and details 
of this notable piece of work have 1" come established. 

Beautiful as are the salt-glaze moulds of Aaron Wood 
and the skilfully modelled busts of Enoch Wood, the 
early figures anil groups of the two Ralph Woods, 
decorated in their delicately coloured glazes, maybe 
cited as being the' most artistic and original produc- 
tions in earthenware- figures of any of our great 
English potters, with the one exception of that extra- 
ordinary genius John Dwight, of Fulham, of whose 
work, in an entirely different school, so very few 
examples are known to remain. 

Ralph Wood, born 29th January, 1715, died De- 
cember, 1772, son of Ralph Wood, born 1676, married 
\1,![\ Wedgwood. He was the tenant and protege of 
Thomas and John Wedgwood, of the "Big House," 
who were uncles of his wife. Josiah Wedgwood also 


Jr"^ married one < if their nieces, and these 

two young potters were allowed at 
that period to occupy portions of 
the workshops as they became 
relinquished by Thomas and John 
Wedgwood, whose wealth had by 
then sufficiently accumulated to 
justify their almost complete retire- 
ment from the pottery business. 
Three brothers of the Wood family, viz., Ralph. 
Aaron, and Moses, were at different periods tenants 
of the "Big House" Wedgwoods. The first-named, 
no doubt, was associated with them until 1766, or 
even later. His sons, John, born 1746, died 1797, 
and Ralph, born 174K. died 1705, set up in business 
for themselves, but were obliged to close down in 
1773. Financed afterwards by their uncles, they 
both eventually became successful potters, John at 
Brownhills, near Tunstall, and Ralph, the figure 
modeller, at Burslem, opposite to Mitchell's Hill Top 
works, north of Fountain Place. 

There is a family tradition to the effect that in 
1772 Ralph Wood, senior, had then been for some 
time in partnership with his son John, and later 
John and his brother Ralph carried on the same- 
works, where for a short period, about 17S6, Ralph, 
junior, was joined by his cousin, Enoch Wood, who 


<|<!I. I , IMi 



■' V " X ' 

The Connoisseur 

eventually built, and occupied 

for many years, the celebrated 

Fountain Place works in Burs- 

lem. Mr. George Stoner has 

for some time patiently gathered 

together many examples of the 

work of the Ralph Woods, and 

more particularly is his coll i tiori 

rich in spei imens decorated with 

coloured glazes. 

Without going too much into 

technical details, fully set forth 

by our recognised writers upon 

ceramics, it should be explained 

that the Staffordshire- potters have 

adopted on broad lines two 

distinctly different methods of 

i L ' oral ing their coloured figures, 

the early process being that of 

colouring their Lead glazi s with 

metallic oxides and applying 

them with a brush or pencil, 

and the other by glazing first, 

then applying enamel colours 

upon the glazed and fired surface, 

and again firing the object in a 

No XI' 
muffle kiln at a low temperature. 

In the former method the beautifully subdued 
coloured glazes having been thus applied, a certain 
amounl of irregularity is discernible, and here and 
there spaces upon the surface of many specimens 
where the brush has missed have accidentally been 
Left quite unglazed. 

These differently coloun <1 glazes blend or merge into 
eaeh other with very artistically soft effect, and have 
b n termed " flown " colours by some writers. This 
definition is, however, also applied by the working 
potters tu results entirely different and consequent 
upi 'ii if I. i tive firing. In i 750 
the popular term used in describ- 
ing similar product ions was that 

of " mottled " or "cloudy" ware-. 

I he marking w ilh tie ir nann s 

"i j ml'": In. ill. potters upon 

their wares has been a fas< inating 

tO students 

a\v\ collectors hi ' 1 ramii s, and n 

would appeal as though 

rules w : 1 adopted 

ol Staffordshire. W hile 

find if" seveni -nil] century 

mill! 1 1 1 . ■ 1 i 

called " slip -1 'Tofi 1, \,,s. \\ 

those of the early eighteenth 
century only occasionally marked 
their productions, and in the case 
of Thomas Whieldon, who was 
working in 1740. and who Lived 
till 179S (and was made the 
High Shi r, if 1.1 Staffordshire), we 
have not left to us one single 
example bearing his horn Hired 

The Ralph Woods not only 

adopted occasionally two distinct 

marks, viz., " R. WOOD" and 

" Ra. Win id, Burslem," but in 

addition we find a series of 

mould numbers, to be referred 

to in a subsequent article, and 

these-, like their names, they 

clearly impressed into the paste. 

As the mark " R. WOOD" in 

capital letters has only been so 

tar found upon examples dei 0- 

rated in the earlier manner, it is 

natural to assume that this was 

adopted by tin- father, ami the 

mark " Ra. Wood, Burslem" 

(capitals and lower-case letters), 

found upon objects both with the early coloured glazes, 

as well as those coloured with enamels, would appear 

to have been in all probability used by the- son. 

Until comparatively recent days the earthenware 
figures of Staffordshire have- been described as having 
frequently been imitations or copies of the china ones 
manufactured at the Chelsea or Derby factories. 
This accusation, however, cannot truthfully be brought 
against the Ralph Woods, as a distinctly original 
character both of design and decoration is observable 
m the work of the two potters under discussion; 
indeed, Mr. Stoner informs us 
that, so far, he has not yel seen 
any ( Ihelsea, I >erby, or other 
1 hin a group copied in the models 
ol the Ralph Woo.N. 

Nor are their designs limited 
to an h as mighl please only the 
inhabitants ol the cottage. The 
dignified group of Hudibras 
mounted upon his wearj 1 ild 
steed (s.e coloun d illustration 
plate ), ami man) ol the mori 
la iii figures, would have suil ■ 
ably adorned the mam Lpi 
and • abinets ol less humble folk. 
This remark might also apply to 

The George Stoner Collection 

many of the 
s tatuettes 
made b) oth i 
and later pot- 
ters. The fai 
of Hudibras 
s h o w s great 
p o w e r o I 
m o d e 11 i n g, 
and the whole 
conception is 


n 1 1 

clever. The 
mould num- 
ber Of this 
piece is 42. 

To revert to 
the effects pro- 
duced by the No. XIX.— SHEPHERDESS No. XXI. 
two different 

methods of decoration, those of the coloured glaze 
school are much more subdued in their tints l>\ 
reason of the somewhat limited range of chromatic 
scheme appropriate i>> the proc :ss : thus the faces and 
hands could not be represented in true flesh-tints. 
Moreover, it is hardly possible by the camera or any 
other means to do justice in reprodui ing objects thus 
decorated. Afterwards, when the enamelling method 

was developed, more positive colours in all 

became attainable, with the result that the schem ol 

decoration was frequently 

crude and garish. 

Mr. Stoner's enthusi- 
astic appreciation of the 

Ralph Woods' work has 

resulted in an important 

collection of nearly three 

hundred examples, and 

we are enabled to illus- 
trate a characteristic 

selection t herefrom. 

When a number of these 

figures and groups are 

assembled together, 

their beauty of colouring 

and vigorous originality 

of modelling may at 

once be recognised, and 

there runs through the 

collection a harmonious 

scheme of subdued 

colouring quite peculiar 

to this particular si hool, 

uch to 

M i 

in the 
full - 
treat m 

Such i 

nee in 

the « l 

these men and 

helostsheef Xo.xx. shepherd bearing either 

marks, lor onl) occasionally are specimens 
found with thi- names or mould numb - 

Although research up to th pr senl 
revealed chiefly figures and groups as having 
the products of the Ralph Woods, sufficient evidence 
exists to prow that other objei I 
lb. -ii l.i' tor) 

A sel ol three obelisks, marked wit] I 
"Ra. Wood, Burslem," and the mould number 84, 
are known, and until recently wen- supposed to have 
as candle- 

top sue,-, sling the idea 
in. This is now i 

with Mr. Stoner's kind 

The Connoisseur 

whole mounted upon a square pedestal with oval 
medallions upon each of the four panelled sides. 
The top and botto n borders of the pedestal, moulded 
with acanthus leaves, are also decorated with early 
gilding, and the addition of the urn gives a remarkable 
finish to the design. 

Xos. i., ii., hi., iv., and v. represent a set of five 
\ases, somewhat rococo in design, and bearing evident 
characteristics of the work of the Ralph Woods. The 
decoration of these interesting specimens is of a most 
beautiful deep green glaze. 

The sauceboat (No. vi.) is a clever but dubious 
conception, consisting of a fox's head and a swan 
combined, the neck of the swan forming the handle, 
and the dish anoth'-r swan, with its neck designed as 
the handle. It is a striking composition, and examples 
exist oi the sa subject decorated in enamel colours. 

A pair of flower-holders of dolphin design and a 
well-proportioned vase (Xos. vii., viii., and ix.), and 

other objects known to collectors, bear testimony to 
the fact that the efforts of the Ralph Woods were not 
alone confined to the production of figures; indeed, 
time may probably prove that not a [\:\v specimens 
decorated with coloured glazes, and hitherto attri- 
buted to Thomas Whieldon, may in reality have been 
their workmanship. 

With regard to their models of groups, a proaiinent 
place must be accorded to the well-known subject of 
"The Vicar and Moses in the Pulpit" (Xo. x.), 
certain examples of which bear the name "R.i, Wood. 
Burslem," and the mould number 62 clearly impressed 
upon the base. Quite probably this clever production 
was. as to its design, the work of Aaron Wood, 
brother to Ralph Wood, senior, for we have a record 
to the effect that though "he never drank wine or 
ale, smoked or whistled, vet he was the merriest man 
in the country." 

Xo doubt both the Vicar and Moses, his clerk, were 




Mo. XXX. i>i 


The George SI oner Collection 


£ ^ 


;[•:]■ i'KK 

intended to represent actual individuals — hitting ofi 
the rollicking parson of the period. One has here, 
in the early col. mred glazed examples, with the ex- 
quisite throbbing brown manganese upon the pulpit, 
a fine instance ot vigorous modelling; an opinion 
may be expressed that, as in the case ol all other 
marked examples of this group that have come under 
the writer's notice, the specimen 
in the British Museum might be 
described as bearing the name of 
" Ra. Wood, Burslem," for the 
"a," though not visible, has been 
allowed for in spacing the lettering, 
and doubtless has beco tie brol n 
off the little hand-stamp or die in 
course of usage. In the genuine 
examples the pulpit is lettered 
The portrait statu :tte of Aid r- 
man Beckford (No. xi.) show-, thai 
Ralph Wood was an exponent of 


han 1 

if mo 



by K 

he u 


n the 




,ii ■ nli| :cts. It is, an 
in miniature, tal i luildhall 

f. Moo pi 

author of /a Vathek 

The solt i , i upon this 

I ,11011 in 
a most artistii . : 


l.lin (No. 

1 in this 


The Connoisseur 

decorated both in the coloured glazes and in enamels, 
and the mould number thereof is 43. 

The group ol "St.< leorge. and the Dragon" (No. xiii.), 
although possibly not quite so satisfactory as to its 
modelling in certain details, is a fine piece ol Staf- 
fordshire figure-work, rich in colouring and spirited 
in design. As in the ease of the.' " Vicar and Moses," 
tins group has been copied and re-copied by later 
potters, always gradually losing- its original charm and 
merit, until comparison between ,1 modern example 
and a genuine early specimen produces an effect oi 
absolute dissatisfaction. The mould number ol this 
group is 23, and the mark " Ra. Wood, Burslem." 

The model of the old man with a crutch and stick 
(No. \iv.), mould number 54, is a charming portrayal 
of placid decrepitude, lb- has lot a companion an 
old woman (mould number 55). She does not 
happen to be' in this collection at present. The)' 
are an excellently modelled pair, and examples are 
marked " R. WOOD." They are known as the 
" Old Age " figures. 

The mark " R. WOOD" is found upon another pair 
of figures of haymakers (Nos. xv. and xvi.). Instances 
of these bearing any mould numbers have not yet 
been revealed. Their workmanship, however, is ol a 
very high order of merit. 

Two fine groups of pastoral subjects, "The flute 
Player" and "The Bird-cage" (Nos. xvii. and xviii.), 
constitute a beautiful pair. These are known bearing 
the mark " Ra. Wood, Burslem," and the mould 
numbers 88 and 89, and in many res] nets are as 
delightful as they would have been had they been 
made in the popular paste of Chelsea or Derby, and 
are probably more rare. They are, how :ver, entirely 
original models, and are characterised b) most refined 
colouring. Later examples at'- known of this pan 
considerably deteriorated in general effect, and deco- 
rated in enamel colours, also in plain uncoloured 
1 ram ware. 

\ delightful pair ol statuettes are Nos. m\. and 
xv, "Shepherdess" and "Shepherd," equally as 
h. am, ml a-, -aie li subjects made ,1, the 1 hina fa< tori. s. 

and infinitely more difficult of discovery. In the 
middle of this pair is shown No. xxi., a charming 
rendering of the " Lost Sheep," decorated with a 
slight amount of early gilding and with the mould 
number 9. This figure is a very attractive example of 
careful modelling. The delicate colouring of the 
glazes upon these three objects is most remarkable. 
This "Lost Sheep" figure is known decorated in 
enamels, also in the uncoloured cream ware. A 
variant of the same subject is a figure of the shepherd 
earning the sheep under his arm, excellently modelled 
and in the uncoloured cream ware. 

Nos. xxii. and xxiii. represent another pair of 
Shepherdess and Shepherd. 

A set ol three figures of musicians or troubadours 
are worthy of note (Nos. xxiv., xxw, and xxvi.). 
Xo. xxv. bears the mould number 7 1, and possibly his 
companions may lie found numbered 70 and 72. As, 
however, the mould numbers do not appear always 
to run consecutively, it is not quite safe to assume 
that such is the case. 

"(.'upid ridmg upon a Lion " and the companion 
"Cupid upon a Lioness'' (Nos. xxvii. and xxviii.) are 
a dignified pair of groups with slight early gilding, a 
form of decoration found occasionally upon this class 
of figures. These are numbered 45 and 46 respec- 
tively, and they gain in effect by reason of the 
pedestals upon which each is mounted. These 
pedestals are a particularly important feature of the 
Ralph Wood school, and are generally without glaze 
underneath when the object is decorated in coloured 
glazes. In this connection Hud ibras (coloured plate), 
the elephant (No. xxix.). the seated stag (No. xxx.), 
tlie lion (No. xxxi.), mould number 32, the gamekeeper 
(No. xxxii.), mould number 36, and Van Tromp 
(No. xxxiii.), mould numb 1 37, ma) bi pointed out, 
also the setter dog (No. xxxiv.). He is one of a pair, 
and has lor companion oni ol lie- old fashioni d pointer 
dogs, who also sits upon a dignified pedestal or plinth 
with a cushion of tasselled corners, and, let us hope. 
some >\.\\ will cone io ibis collection and fulfil his 



The Armourers of Italy 

Part II. 

By Charles ffoulKes 

Where the Missaglia.s relied entirely on the 
sound construction of their work and the grace ol 
line without further ornament, the Negrolis, on the 
o t h e r hand, 
though ex- 
perts in 
tional work, 
forth into 
This outburst 
of ornament 
which marked 
the period of 
the late Re- 
naissance was 
partly due to 
the e xtra va- 
gance and os- 
tentation of 
the patron, 
and partly to 
desire of the 
craftsman, by 
this time per- 
fect in his 
technique, of 
still further 
showing off 
his skill. As 
a natural 

NO. X. — ARMOUR OF CHARLES V., short t ]' 111 ■' 


negroli, 1539 art 

and the so-called decoration, although marvellous in 
its minute execution, became meaningless, out of 


place, and therefore without part or lol I 
Hi craftsmanship. 

At the beginning ol this art i. It- we noticed the 
rules that governed the work ol the am 
I,., referring t<> the illustrations ol N 
see how he broke them one by one, de 
utilit) "i the armour, imitatii the human form in 

hearing a I 

ng an and natui 

The Connoisseur 

They never went to such extremes as Pfeffenhauser 
of Augsburg, or as their compatriot Picinino ; but 
they certainly led the way on the downward path 
in true craftsmanship. The Negrolis were employed 
frequently by Charles V., and also by Philip II. of 
Spain, who gave large orders to the Colman family 
of Augsburg. So keen was the rivalry between 
the two families that we find on a pageant shield 
(No. 241, Madrid) 1 )esiderius Colman introduced 
the figure of a bull, supposed to typify himself, 
goring a Roman soldier, on whose shield is engraved 
the word " Negrol." Whatever we may think of 
the decorations of the Negrolis and their school, 
the misapplication of which must surely, in some 
cases at any rate, be admitted, we can have nothing 
but unstinted praise for the masterly technique and 
the exquisite detail which invariably mark their 

Bartolomeo Campi, another maker of enriched 
armour, was bom at Pesaro early in the sixteenth 
century. He began his career as a craftsman by 
engraving metals and goldsmiths' work. Angelucci, 
in his Documenti inediti per la storia delle armi da 
fmii, 1 italiane, gives extracts from Campi's biography 



The Connoisseur 

written by Pro- 
mis. In 1547 
C a m p i w a s 
court armourer 
to Charles V., 
and directed 
the fetes at 
Pesaro in hon- 
our of the mar- 
riage of Guido- 
baldo II. and 
Vittoria Far- 
nese. Resides 
being an artist 
in metal-work, 
he was an en- 
gineer, and was 
retained by the 
Republic of 
Siena and 
Venice. He 
directed opera- 
t i o n s at the 
siege of Calais, 
and served 
under the Duke 
of Alba in 
F 1 a n d e r s in 
156S. The 
Duke wrote of 
him in a letter 
dated | uncord, 
1569: "He is 
the best man 
I have met with 
since 1 have 
known men. 1 

di : say only 

engineers, but 
men of any sort 
— very steady 
and pleasant in 
ins work." He N " xvnl decorated suit 


was killed by 

• hi arquebus shot at the siege of Haarlem on 
March 7th, 1575. His masterpiece is a suit of 
pseudo-Roman pageant armour in the Madrid col- 
lection, made foi < Varies V. of Spam. The 1 
a marvellous example ol metal-work, is modelled 
on the human torse decorated with Medusa's head 
and -olden scro . laliers an modelled 

in the form of two lion masks in blackened sled 

with golden eyes. The bui lei is light and graci 

ful in d teel, with gold 

The cuirass 
bears the 
inscription : 
1 N Ii I G I l: A I 

is strange that 
a m a n w h o 
merits the 
Duke of Alba's 
high esteem as 
an engineer, 
and who could 
produce the 
pageant suit at 
Madrid, is not 
to be found 
among the list 
of Milanese- 
Possibly this 
list records 
only the actual 
makers of 
a r m o u r, a n d 
Campi was but 
a decorator, 
a n d as sui Ii 
not admitted 
into the same 

The da mas 
c e n i n g of 
metals an d 
enriching of 
armour was also practised by 1'ietro Giovanni 
Figino, who seems to hue introduced inlay-work 
into the decoration. Benvenuto Cellini, Donatello, 
and Pollajuolo also worked as designers ol decorative 
armour. To the pencil of Giulio Romano are 
ascribed some ol tin oxer-ornate suits, helmets, and 
shields of this period. In these we can trace the 
painter's hand, for the designs an often entirely 
unsuited for hammered metal-work, and represent 
battle scenes with such minuteness that the <renenil 

■si [■: n All III 1 Mill 

The Armourers of Italv 





OF OR SAN Mil 111:1.1:. 

effect is confused and valueless even when viewed 
from only a short distance. The suit attributed to 
this artist in the Musee d'Artillerie, Paris, is a very 
good example of the merits and faults of the decoration 
of armour under the late Renaissance. The work- 
manship is perfect in technique, and could hardly 
be surpassed. But when we come to the design 
and its suitability we realise its demerits. There is 
no repose or dignity of design and composition, and 
the figures mean nothing, but simply serve to show 
off the craftsman's dexterity. The very surfaces, 
which should be smooth and plain, are overloaded 
with projectings, undercut and prominent, which 
would retain rather than deflect a weapon. Kven 
if we consider this armour as solely for ceremonial 
use, we find its convenience impaired by the em- 
bossing of the overlapping thigh-pieces and defences 
of the upper arm which should slide easily one over 
the other, but which, on account of their ornamenta- 
tion, must either fail to do this, or, if they do, must 
certainly scratch and injure the under-surface. In a 
word, it is the design and workmanship of a gold or 
silver smith applied to an unsuitable material in such 
a way as to impair the utility of the object decorated. 
Perhaps the worst offender of the decorative 
armourers was Lucio Picinino, 1550-70. Theburgonet 
made by him in the Madrid collection (A. 292) 
sufficiently shows the style of the whole suit. The 
elaborate and intricate work suggests jewel! 
not armour; and reference to the burgonet will show 
the disregard of those laws of the craft whii h we 
have before insisted upon. The leg armoui i 
a sure sisjn of the skill of the craftsman, and 

suit, although entirely covered with so-called decora- 
tion, the grace and symmetry of the work of the 
earlier masters is entirely lacking. 

But little now remains of records of the important 
gilds of the armourers and swordmakers. Their 
badges are to be seen on the west and north sides of 
the Or San Michele in Flon (.11 a house 

in the Spaderia in Venice. In the /< 
Lombardo is given the account of an exhibition of 
armour arranged by the Milanese Gild ol Armourers 
on the occasion of the marriage of I. ode-; 
and Beatrice D'Este on Jan. 22, 1491. The whole 
length of the Via degli Armorari was lined with a 
double row of figures mounted and on foot, so well 
arranged as to give the appearance of a regiment on 
parade. The gilds were under the protection of three 
saints — S. 1 

blacksmiths, and S. Paul for the swordsmiths. These 
latter kept the festival of their patron bj 
procession to the Church of S. Main Beltrade, to 
which the attendance of all men 
was obligatory under penall L'he Craft 

of the Italian armourers still found 
development in the manul 
firearms and 

the tradit: 
craftsmanship ol which 

industry that it holds il 

The Connoisseur 

Cambridge College Bookplates 


the different colleges of our 
is extremely interesting, not 
libris, but to those who 
ha\ e spent their younger 
days in and around the 
university towns, and are 
familiar with the old col- 
leges, and have possibly, 
at one time or other, 
frequented the libraries 
attached to them. The 
literar} element was very 
.strong at Cambridge in 
the old days, and the 
c olleges i li e i e are es 
penally rich in ancient 
MSS. and ponderous 
folio volumes, main ol 
which contain book- 
plates engraved in the 
early years of the eight- 
eenth century. Some of 
the books contain dona- 
tive plates, indicating the 
source from which they 
were derived. One of the p 
kind of bookplate is found in 
which ( George I. presented 
about 30,000 volumes. To 
commemorate the gift, the 
authorities caused plates 
to be engraved by J. Pine. 
Thej are remarkable for 
ih 11 magnificence and the 
peculiai design which had 
n fen nee to the gift, and, 

On an base, 

showed a portrait medal- 
lion of the King, the in 
scription on the scroll 
reading, " Munificentia 
rcgia." The plate, whi h 
was dated 1715. although 
it was not actualK' en- 
graved until 1737, bears 
thi arm ol thi Univei 
sity on an oval hi Id, 
supported b) Minerva and 
Apollo ; behind them bein 
1 '. tin rising through the 

the bookplates used 
1 hief seats of learnin 
1 collectors of e. 


rincipal examples of this of books and MSS. m.n 

the University library, to 1575. The oldest plat 

By Fred W. Burgess 

louds. The University library was founded as earl) 
onsisted of about fifty-two volumes; 
he building, which was sufficient to hold 
the library until 1755, 
was erected by Thomas 
Scott, Archbishop of 
York. The plate in 
general use in the library 
to-day is a simple 
armorial ; but many of 
the older books have 
Jacobean plates, on all 
of which the University 
arms figure. Among 
the numerous colleges 
some have special claim 
in consequence of the 
literary merits and anti- 
quarian value of the 
books they contain. 
Clare College library 
contains Italian and 
Spanish plates. The 
library of Corpus Christi 
< !ollege first became not- 
able through the bequest 
bj An hbishop Parker in 

is .1 cue early Jacobean 

armorial, insci ibed " Col- 
legium ( Corporis < "hristi 
& B. Virginis Mariae in 
Universitate Canta- 


"olWium Emmanm 

Cantabrigiae. \ 

No. i. Gonville 
and Cams College is a 
very old foundation, a 
curious old pictoi ial 1 ata- 
logue of its .MSS. having 
been published in 1849. 

The oldest bookplate ,,1 

the college, which is also 
Jacobean armorial, is 

somewhat scarce. The 

MSS. a | King's ( ollege 
are mostly ( >i iental, chiefly 
Persian and Arabii . Per 
haps the most interesting 
librar) is that of Magda- 
I- m . founded bv Pepys, 



Cambridge College Bookplates 

of early English ballads. In this 
been no change in the arrangenn nl 
years, most of them and 
their contents are just as 
Pepys left them. The 
plates are armorial, with 
supporters on a bracket. 
The oldest library in 
Cambridge is that of Peter- 
house, where there are al >< lut 
700 volumes dating from 
1418. In some of these an 
old name label is found. 
Queens' College has 
30,000 volumes, mostly 
modern. The early plate, 
dated 1700, in some of 
them is anonymous and 
rare. The plates of Em- 
manuel College are very 
singular, the earlier one 
being Jacobean, similar in 
style to the University 
library plate, and was en- 
graved about 1700. A 
later plate, see No. ii., 
was engraved by Stephens 
in 1737, and it is some- 
what rare and difficult to 
obtain. A donative plate, a 
badly engraved Jacobean, 
inscribed " Ex dono Rev- 
erendius in Christo Patris 
Will. Sancr.A.C," is scarce. 
The shadedjacobean book- 
plate of Christ's College, 
shown in No. iii., is of 
quite a different type, 
similar, however, to the 
one of the early plates 
used at Eton College. The 
older plates of the college 
of St. John the Evangelist 
are found in two si/es ; 
they have also shaded 
backgrounds, but the 
shield of arms is flanked 
by two supporters. There 
are some old books in 
K-sus College containing 


plate i- used. 
Trinity < !ollege library is 
'i a hall built 
istopher Wren. 
and includes maj 
volumes and \i S 
The magnificent plateillus- 
trated in No. iv. is pic- 
Chi ppendale, and 
si phens. 
There is a 

similar plate not unlike it 

in design, 

miniature littl : Chippen- 

plate found in 


Divinity School was built 

-v^ fund, and nov 

'\ . Bishop Lightfooi 


n eluding 
N'ewnham for women. 
which Was founded in 

to its present site in 1873. 
wishful to make 
their coll 

•er ; the 






French Illustrated BooRs 

On the 24th of last April, at the Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, the six volumes by M. Bret of Les 
CEavres de Moliere, as printed in 1773 par la Com- 
pagnie des Libraires Associds, sold by auction for the 
extraordinary and indeed unheard of amount — for a 
book — of 177,500 francs, or about ,£7,100 of our 
money. I cannot commit myself to a franc more or 
less when making this quotation, nor is it necessary 
to be precise. All that is intended to be conveyed 
is that the six volumes in question) realised the 
equivalent of about ,£"7,000, the largest amount ever 
paid by auction in 
France, or indeed in 
any other country, for 
a single printed work, 
no matter how many 
volumes may be com- 
prised in it. Half a 
dozen ( laxtons with the 
first four folios of 
Shakespeare's Comedies, 
Jfistories, and Tragedies 
added might cost no 
more, and when we come 
to consider the very 
large and i 111 port ant 
library which might be 
"erected," as Naudajus 
has it, for much less, the 
imagination oversteps 
the bounds of com- 
parative analysis and 
seems to revel in figures 
which are a law unto 
I he prii es 
whii h book . reali 1 al 
aui tion 01 elsewhere are 
m it ni ci ..hi! v indicative 
1 il theii intrin: ii 
but they are n 

importance foi 
the time being in this 

By J. Herbert Slater 

work-a-day world, and for that reason are commonly 
quoted as terms or factors capable of disclosing the 
actual position of affairs with a more convincing 
degree of accuracy than adjectives have it in their 
power to express. We may conclude, therefore, that 
from a mere monetary standpoint, this particular copy 
of the works of Moliere was fortified by very special 
circumstances or that it never would have realised the 
large sum in question, or any sum at all approaching 
it, and this was actually the case. In addition to the 
portrait of Moliere, after Mignard, the six neurons on 
the titles, by and after 


Moreau, th 
head and ta 
after Pa pill on and others, 
the etcetera, and the 
thirty-three plates, it 
had — and here is the 
point — the whole thirty- 
three original drawings 
in sepia, by Moreau, 
from which these plates 
were engraved by Duclos, 
De 1 .uinay, Masquelier, 
and other masters of the 
period. These original 
drawings were at one 
time in the Soleinne 
copy, but M. le Vicomte 
Frederic d e J a n z e 
acquired them some 
forty or fifty years ago 
for an amount which 
would now be considered 
trilling, and having had 
them inserted in his 
own copy of the work — 
the one which recently 
sold for the large sum 
mentioned — became 
■ losely identified with 
them in the knowledge 

French Illustrated Booki 

of everyone who had anything to do with French 
illustrated books of the best period of the eighteenth 
century, which may be taken to extend from the year 
1718 to about 1790. 

Collectors of works of this class need a special 
training which it would be mere affectation to des- 
cribe as anything less than arduous, for acting upon 
the perfectly sound principle that early copies are 
necessarily more desirable than later ones, the illus- 
trations in the former being naturally better, and 
therefore more desirable in every way, it becomes 
necessary to know how to identify the earliest issues, 
and this can only be done by strict attention to 
detail, unless, indeed, the general appearance of the 
plates themselves is made the criterion of their 
excellence, at least to the fullest extent possible, for 
to say that it is wholly possible would be to convey 
an utterly erroneous impression, different copies of 
the very same book often showing many important 
variations, for the most part intimately associated 
with the " states " of the plates and their number, no 
less than with their quality. In this article I propose 
to mention a few of the more important French 
illustrated works of the eighteenth century, and to 
point out their chief peculiarities. It will then be 
seen that the scope of the collector is of immense 
extent, and that he might, had he the time, money. 
and opportunity, fill the walls of a library with 
hundreds of volumes belonging to the special class 
of which I have spoken, many of them being at the 
first glance mere duplicates, but all substantially 
different notwithstanding. Should he seek to confine 
himself to the very best and most complete copy of 
each particular work, rejecting all others which do 
not attain to the standard of excellence he has set 
up, this would be a different matter ; but in practice 
he would find that he would not be able to do this, 
except by the extremely dangerous process of taking 
to pieces several examples of the same work and 
making one glorified copy of such portions of them 
as he decided to retain. 

I will first take the works of Moliere, by M. Bret, 
in six volumes, Svo, 1773, previously mentioned. 
This is a fine edition, remarkable for the beauty of 
its type and illustrations. It must be observed that 
two of the plates, " L'Avare " and " Le Misanthrope," 
are almost always of inferior quality, though they do 
exist as good impressions, and should, of course, be 
procured in that state if possible. Copies which 
do not contain the starred or double leaves LXVI.- 
LXVII. and I. XXX. -I. XXXI. in the first vo 
inferior. All the plates, the portrait, and the fleurons 
should be in proof state without text, and 
containing them in this state should be b 

ts he was the first to seek for 
and bind these proof copies. There are el< h 
all these plates, but only two or three full series are 
known. The plate called " Le Sicilien, 
Moreau himself, after his own design, should have 
his signature as distinct as possible. The accom- 
panying illustration gives a repnn 
Moreau being seen at his easel. Finally, CO] 
this work, as ol all others, should be "uncut," that 
is to say, not cut down by the binder, and they 
should be in old French morocco by such craftsmen 
as Bozerian, before named, or, failing him. (ape 01 
Derome. It will be seen from this recital that to 
obtain an ideal set of the six volumes satisfying all 
these requirements, for only two or three sets are 
known, would be rather more than merely difficult. 
Another and even finer illustrated edition of Moliere 
appeared at Paris in 1734, and this also is in six 
volumes, though they are royal .ito in size. Boucher, 
who was a pupil of Watteau, designed thirty-three 
elegant plates for this work, and there are in additii in a 
portrait of Moliere, by Lepicie, after Coy pel, a fleuron 
on each title, and 198 head and tail pi 
Boucher and others. Mdme. de Pompadour had a 
set of these volumes on large hutch 
was the fashion to relate, but it is doubtful, to sad- 
dle least, whether any such . printed, and, 
moreover, hers, which is still in existeni 
to be of the ordinary size in these more 
of rule of thumb. The collector who places his 
affections upon this edition of Moliere has need of 
patience, for there are two distinct issues of it, the 
first and best having the word' " comte 
"comtesse") in volume . line 12. 
Furthermore, in the fourth volume there should be 

illustrated leaves forming pa 
(which are consequently in duplicate) containing 
head-pieces and a different ornamental initial. Then, 
again, according to Mr. Lewine, in volume i. in 
L'Etourdi, page 8 should contain twenty-nine lines 
of text, while in the second issui 
have been carried ti 

ind as un- 
finished proof etchings, and also as finished proots. 
As in all ti 
■■ ideal," no mail. I 

an old Freni h mi 
is called his "ma 

The Connoisseur 


an example of the complications which may arise 

,vhi n l n ni h illu it rati 'I books of the fashionable 

I extrai t a desi ription ol this 

■ from .1 rei ent sale i atalogue. 

o volum rcali ifling sum 

tsted with \\ rabeau's copj in old red 

ced some few al j, i francs, 

and doubtli - "i greatei value now. The description 
as drawn bj an experienced cataloguer is as follows: 
■■ i ] ivres, the series ol portraits" (some must have 
been added, for only one portrait was engraved for 
the work), " and thirty-three plates from the designs 
by Boucher, spei ial cop) on grand papier de Hol- 
lands (?) with the portrait " {i.e , the portrait ol 

French Illustrated Books 

Moliere after Coypel), "and seven of the 
artist's proof before all letters, without the designer's 
and engraver's names, 6 vols, in the old wrappers, 
Paris, 1734, 4to. The plates as 'Epreuves d'artiste 
avant toute lettre' are 'Le Misanthrope,' 'Le E 
ou l'amour Peintre,' 'Le De"pit Amoureux,' ' Les 
Pre"cieuses Ridicules,' ' Le Medecin Malgre lui,' 
' L'Etourdi,' and ' Les Fourberies de Scapin,' the 
last one bearing the signature ' Chedel, A. J.' 
Contemporary manuscript 
descriptions added. The 
' Prologue d'Amphitryon 
has been substituted by the 
plate bearing the inscrip- 
tion, 'Personam Capili 
detrahat i lie tuo, Mart, 
with C. Natoire delineavil . 
L. Cars, sculp.' " The de- 
scription is lengthy, as will 
be seen, yet it was necessary 
even in this simple case. 

Scores of French illus- 
trated books of the best 
period of the eighteenth 
century might be critically 
analysed at length in the 
same minute way, and in 
each case it would be 
found that the plates are 
met with in a variety of 
''states," or that some 
copies of the same book 
contain one or more extra 
plates, or plates w hi c h 
were prepared only to be 
rejected as not coming up 
to the standard of excel- 
lence which the editors con- 
sidered indispensable. The 

celebrated Fermiers-( leneraux edition of the Conies et 
Nouvelles en vers of La Fontaine, published in two post 
Svo vols., 1762, affords an excellent and well-known 
instance of a variety of eccentricities occurring in one 
and the same work. All the eight) plates in tins 
edition are after the designs of Eisen, and six ol th m 
are to be had " decouveites," the best known being 
Le Cas de Conscience and Le Diable de Papefiguiire. 
These two are often met with, but not so the remain- 
ing four known as Les Lunettes, Le /•'<//, Le A 
and Richard Minutolo. These are very seldom seen, 
Le Bat especially, and it is quite an exception; 
rence to find all the six decouverte plates repn 
Then again, there are twenty-live other plates, usuall) 
of smaller size, which were rejected by tli 

d'Amateurs as being eithi ficiently 

, and an ideal copy of the work 
should have these bound up in their propi 
It is not necessary to enlarge upon the titles 
rejected plates, though it may just be mentioned that 
one of them, Le Faucon, seems to have been 
looked — assuming it was really prepared foi 
edition — by several of the authorities who make I 
illustrated books their special study. I 

course, an exceptionally 
gifted artist, and the plates 
in these two volumes 
elevate them to a level of 
' ellencc whirli 
has seldom or n 

n I 
an) worl <> a imilar kind. 
;ood idea of the 
artist's style « i 
tained from the 1 
Le Gast on, ,\ n pi 
of which is given, its 
effective simplicity and 
refinement being distinctly 
characteristic of the man 
and his art. The touch of 
Eisen is seen again in 
man) othi 1 works ol the 
peril "I. 1 le, with ( iravelot 
and others, illusti 

nerone of 
1 - 5 7 , in 
work which, though valued 

for itseli al 
with much greal 
when it contain ' 
plates on fine paper known 
iTv™s N " ! vols t-6 as the Estampes Galantts. 

this edition, one in Italian and the othei in French, 
and both were published in the 
volumes and at the same time and place. 

On,- of the earliest ol the Fn iv b ill isti 
of the kind nunc particularly undi 
Amours Pastorales de Daphnis et < 
facques Amyot from the > 
printed in 1718, 


The Connoisseur 

as many extra plates as possible ; to procure, in 
fact, a copy which contains more than most others. 
Considered on general principles, this would be an 
excellent rule to follow, but there are exceptions to it, 
and one of them is intimately associated with this 
edition of Les Amours Pastorales. So far as the 
edition of 17 iS is concerned, the presence of the extra 
plate of the Petits Pieds 
is by no means an un- 
mixed blessing, for more 
often than not it is 
found in the later issues, 
and for this reason the 
practice has grown up of 

describing a choice copy 

of the work in some 

such terms as " one of 

the very earliest issues 

before the plate of the 

Petits Pieds, by Caylus, 

was added." This plate 

may certainly be found 

in even a very early 

issue of the book, but 

in that case it will 

necessarily have been 

inserted at a later period, 

just as any other extra 

plate may be, and often 

is, added to complete 

or, let us say, to render 

even more noteworthy 

any illustrated book 

upon which consider- 
able store is set. The 

accompanying illustra- 
tion, entitled Vope, r( sic) 

de Daphnis et de Chloi, 

disclosing a primitive 

and partly open hall 

festooned with garlands, 

the revellers reclining in Roman fashion, gives a very 

he artistic style of Philippe d'Orleans, 

[i ing the minority of Louis XV., 

and an amateur artist ol very considerable ability. 
As Les Am wrs Pastorales is one of the earliest of 

the French illustrated books which comes within the 
hi artii !<-. 1 have tl ghl it advi :able to 

mention it al length, though the date of its publica- 
oincide with the best period. Such 

a work as Man Contes Iforaux, published in 

1 76 iretty plates after 

Gravelot, by such engravers as Baquoy, de 1 

almost as well known, i . in"! 

1 1 

I |.s IM M llHH i \ 11 I 

typical of the period of which I have spoken, though 
perhaps it is not of the same importance. An illus- 
tration taken from this — " Le Philosophe soi disant " 
— by de Longueil, discloses a very different style, 
though it falls into its place naturally with the rest, 
as do the designs of Cochin, Fragonard, and many 
more, not forgetting those of the Marquise de Pompa- 
._ , dour, an artist who, like 

Philippe d'Orleans, 
contributed not a little 
as an amateur to the 
artistic activity of the 

Needless to say, it 
would not be possible to 
critically analyse many 
of these French illus- 
trated books within the 
compass of a short 
article, nor, even were 
it possible, would it be- 
altogether satisfactory to 
do so, as the subject 
generally is of great 
complexity, and needs to 
be handled in a practical 
and matter-of-fact way, 
with every little detail 
and point of difference 
set down for the benefit 
of those collectors who 
make a study of books 
of the kind. They have 
their text-books, such. 
for example, as Cohen's 
Guide de I'A ma ten r 
de Livres a Gravities 
du XVI IP Siicle, a 
fifth edition of which 
appeared in 1886, and 
iORAUX," 3 vols., 8vo, 1765 M] . Lewine's excellent 

Bibliography of Eighteenth Century Art and Illus- 
trated Hooks, published in London in 189S. In the 
margins of these they will often add the discoveries 
which are continuall) being made; for these French 
illustrated works have no finality, nor is it certain, 
however improbable it may he, that the best known 
copy of any one of them may not at any moment 
be supplanted by a belter. 

There 1 an be Utile doubt that collectors who have 
1 natural appreciation, >•<> u> speak, ol finely illu itrati d 
works of the particular kind under discussion are, as 
a .las-., deterred from having much to do with them 
on account of what they conceive to be then great 

French Illustrated Books 

Nopccs de Daplims ct de Chloc 


\ \V " KS ['ASTORAt 

cost, for the belief that such books are exceedingly 
expensive to buy has become so widely disseminated 
as to have passed almost into a proverb. It is 
true that the sums occasionally paid for particular 
copies of these books are arbitrary and fanciful, but 
large amounts should be quoted not as though they 
were of universal application, but rather as being 
highly exceptional for all the following reasons in 
combination, or on account of any one or more of 
them. A book of the kind, even though not of great 
importance in itself, may become so, (a) if it is 
bound in contemporary, or at any rate old French 
morocco, and is in a good state of preservation, and 
this is accentuated (b) if it is bound by a celebrated 
craftsman : (c) if the book has at one time belonged 
to some historic or highly esteemed collector, and 
this is also accentuated (d) if it has his arms or some 
other distinguishing device on the covers ; (e) if il 
contain added plates, often consisting of proof 
etchings, these representing an evolutionary stage in 
the preparation of the plates ; (/) if the plates, 
vignettes, and other embellishments are in unlettered 

proof state or in some " state " out of the ordinary : 
(g) if the book contain starred or additii 
found only in a few copies ; (h) if it 
paper or on paper or other material of an unusual 
kind, as, for instance, vellum, Dutch paper, vellum 
paper, and so forth : (i) if then- arc bound up all or 
any of the original drawings from which the plates 
were engraved. Even if but one . 
happens to be present, it will add mati I 
importance and consequent value of any French illus- 
trated book of the eighteenth century ; and when the 
book happens to be of meat interest in its 
or the majority of these fa< tors it is readily 

conceivable that there is hardly any limit lo the 
fanciful price which may be obtained foi it. The 
point is that the vast majority of these illustrated 

not essentially valuable, but that they may 
in individual cases by reason of the labour or care 
which has been lavished upon them in the ; 

they ma; 

The Connoisseur 

Notes and Queries 

[The Editor invites the assistance of readers of 

The Connoisseur Magazine who may be able to 

impart the information required by Correspondents.] 

Unidentified Portrait. 

Dl \i: SIR, — Would you kindly insert in THE CON- 
NOISSEUR MAGAZINE a reproduction of the enclosed 
photo., with a view to 
ascertain the subject 
and artist, if possible ? 
The picture is supposed 
to represent one of the 
wives of Henry VIII., 
King of England, and 
to be painted by 
Holbein. The size is 
about 10 in. high by 

Thankfully yours, 


Portrait Gri h p, 
Dear Sir, — I should 
be glad if you would 
insert the painting of 
a family group in The 
Connoisseur Maga- 
zine, with a view to 
ascertaining the artist 
a rid family. 1 a 1 so 
wish to know who the 
artist was who used the 
initials I. S. V., 1S55. 
Yours faithfully, 
e. s. i i nnings. 

Book on 

rOBACi 1 

in vk Sir, 

1 should be 

ateful if 

iuld tell 

me the name of 

printed matter, 

about antique 
tobacco pipes 
of all kinds, 

in. in bowls m 
1 In 11 .1 . carved 

<>r other kinds. 

Also of any collection of pipes that could be s 
(such as the Wallace). I should like to know wl 
such a book could be either bought, or seen, if ii 

Yours truly, A. MALCOLM Bodki> 

Australian Picture. 
a dim recollection of a picture called 
Australia's First 
Contribution to English 
Literature. Would you 
kindly tell me whether 
such a picture has been 
hung in any London 
Art Gallery during the 
last three or four 
years ? My enquiries 
in Australia have failed 
to elicit any clear or 
satisfactory answer. 

Yours, etc., 

Book on Road 
Waggons, etc. 
Dear Sir,— Can you 
tell a subscriber from 
the first of any work 
containing illustrations 
of road waggons, 
carriers' coaches, or 
stage coaches to Lon- 
don in use from, say, 
1S00 to 1850? Your 
kind reply will be 

Yours truly, 
(,l orge 

Dear Sir,— 
Thesword illus- 
trat e d in the 
S e p t e m ber 
N u m b e r of 
I'm. CONN01S 

seur Maga- 
zine is about 
1649, and may 
be described 
as .1 mortuary 
sw r d , a n d 

quite .1 1 

^ ours very 
I'lin IP \i 

SON, M.l'. 

At Versailles 



his Catalogue Raisonne, re- 
produced without acknowledgmenl 

lustration to 

The very fine portrait of Lady Hamilton reprodui i d 
in The Connoisseur Magazine for February, 1909, 

was, as Mr. Roberts has pointed 
A Note on the 
Portrait of Lady 
Hamilton, by 

Romney, recently by Stothard 
reproduced in the sixth 

"The Connois- an( j su b- 
seur Magazine" 

B sequent 

editions of Hay ley's 
Tri 11 m phs of Te mp e r 

(178S). Serena in the Boat 
of Apathy forms a singular 
contrast to the heroine .is 
she appears in the fronds-, 
piece, nor is it surprising 
when we find that this 
frontispiece is a repro- 
duction (again without 
acknowledgment) of Rom- 
ney's portrait of Miss 
Honora Sneyd, well known 
from the smaller version 
in the South Kensington 
Museum, and the mezzo- 
tint of 77 Lady Reading, 
by J. R. Smith. Such 
details did not trouble 
Stothard, but the) open 
up a field ol curious en- 
quiry .is r o Romney's 
various portraits ol' ll.11 
ley's heroine. We learn 
from the ( 'atalogue Rai- 
sonne that " Romney 
painted four pictures of 
Serena, three representing 
her reading by candlelight 
in different attitudes, and 
the fourth in the Boat 

of Apathy 1 f. Rev. J. Roniro y's Memoirs of his 

Father, p. 180). All the portraits of Serena I 
were studies of Miss Sneyd. 

Miss Seward, in a letter dated Nov. 25th, 171;-', 
and quoted D) Mi. Rol iteOlls 

print of Romney's Serena, which is exactly ak 

■ II''' 
at sixti en." ■ ■■ 
cannot 11; 

s Serena at the 

since the poem did not 

appear t 1 

Life of Romney 1 p. 94) 

that the series of drawings 
for the Triumphs o/ 


. within 
two or tic 

of the pii 


The Connoisseur 

when she was sixteen — and adapted at the instance 
of Hayley for the Triumphs of Temper. Miss 
Seward's "beauteous print," with its "entire and 
perfect resemblance" to Hi mora Sneyd, was, it may 
be conjectured, the well-known mezzotint by J. R. 
Smith, after Romney, already mentioned, dated 
Sept. 28th, 1782. 

Three of the four pictures of Miss Sneyd above 
referred to were ex- 
hibited at the Grafton _: 

(lallery in 1000 ; the 
fourth belongs to the 
Duke of Sutherland. 
( Ca talogue Raiso n n e , 
pp. 46-7.) 

Now, Romney painted 
Emma Hart thirteen 
times in 1782, and was 
constantly at Eartham 
with Hayley, so that we 
cannot be sure when he 
painted her as Serena. 
In a letter elated August, 
1786, he writes : "The 
Bacanalian picture is in 

statu quo, also the Serena 
and the Cibele, and the 
Medea," on which Mr. 
Roberts notes, "nothing 
more is k no wn of the 
last three pictures, which 
were probably among 
those that perished (or 
were stolen) at I [amp- 
stead. It is interesting 
to find Emma Hart, 
as well as I lonora Sneyd, 
sal foi Serena Hayley's 
heroim Mr, Roberts 

further notes what we 


li.c .lie ,nK pointed out, 

thai Hi' 10 ail ol Miss Sneyd as The Lady 

Reading was copied bj Stothard and engraved by 

Sharp, and four tin engraved frontispiece to the 

si\ih edition ol the Triumph of Temper; In- aj 

ami (it the third oi the series Serena in the 

Apathy — which, as w< have ;een, is a 

ol 1 11!' Hamilton, Have w nut here .1 

key to the Serena which Mr. Roberts believes to be 

d is not tin- picture reproduced in Tin 1 !on- 

work to which Romney 

his I iii 1 11, 1 ; 86, win 11 1:, wa 1 on itantl) 

in familial intercourse 


Old Italian 

l.*Un. nM.//,.,/ 4/ftfyi, 

■ fe 

Minting In 

. ith his pati Hay] 

It is likely that the wearing of jewelled ornaments 
was suggested by the custom of decorating the head 
with flowers in token of joy or triumph, 
certainly the finest examples of the 
early Italian goldsmiths' art suggest 
many floral forms. Raised petal-like plates with vein- 
ing of plain and rope-patterned wire, bosses of pearls 
resembling the calyx, pendants of threaded pearls 
like tassels of a bluebell, 
'■'•«',-. and bunches of grapes 

■" |@ - 1 s : ■-- >'i- "Up gj made of pearls varying 

^^^^jbh| m si/e threaded on gold 

wire — all such devices 
serve to bring before our 
eyes nature's patterns 
which served as inspira- 
tion to the native worker. 
It is interesting to note 
that though the peasant 
jewellery of Southern 
Europe varies slightly in 
the different districts and 
townships, yet the type 
peculiar toihe neighbour- 
hood continues with such 
persistence that in some 
parts of Umbria there are 
workers who up to the 
present day are working 
at the same patterns, and 
producing them in a simi- 
lar manner, as the jewel- 
led ornaments wrought 
by the ancient Etruscans. 
The Adriatic jewels, in 
which pearl stringing on 
line gold wire forms so 
important a part, are cha- 
racterised by the most 
ok u-ATiiY delicate workmanship. 

( 'luster pearls are found 
on nearly all Renaissance jewels. In two instances 
only amongst the examples illustrated there are 
coloured stones used, a small garnet marking what 
would be the heart of the flower. The earring is 
of pun- gold. The openwork plaques to which the 
long thin wire hook is fastened are decorated with 
soldered wires, with some plain and some rope design. 
enclosing compartments in varied and beautiful 
shapes, some ol these are "pen, others arc filled with 
gold and may have been enriched with coloured 
enamels when the jewel was made in the sixteenth 
century : two small bunches of pendant pearls hang 
from the sides, and from a gold hook at the back 


hangs a t a s s e 1 - 
like pendant i in. 
in length, whose 
intricate orna- 
ment is clearly 
seen in the illus- 
tration, No. ii. 

A similar pend- 
ant centrepiece, 
with two galleries 
of threaded pearls, 
is seen in illustra- 
tion No. i., and 
has also probably 
once been orna- 
mented w i t h 
coloured enamels. 
This superb pair 
is also of late six- 
teenth century 
work. It measures 
z\ in. from the top OLD "alian jewellery (ir.) 
of the wire to the pendent pearls, and is undoubtedly 
of Venetian workmanship, as only the most skilful 
artificers could have accomplished such line work. 

Though several of these specimens are large they 
can be worn in the ears without the slightest incon- 
venience, as they are so well balanced that the) do 
not feel heavy ; the long hook of fine wire also renders 
them very safe, an important detail on account ol 
their great value. 

Somewhat different in pattern, but essentially Italian 
in feeling, are the examples No. iii. and No. iv. ; these 
measure z\ in. and 2 in. respectively. Much larger 


pearls are used, bul the primitive method of attaching 
them by piercing and thi Aire, rather 

than b) i la -. 

'I he charai I iristii i i i nt-shaped top in the tilth 
example has very I en p ■ idants. It 

is noticeable that tins earring is worn as a ship sails, 
ii only the 
foremost pendant is shown, ornament is 

viewed from the side. The wire for passing through 
the pierced hole in the flesh is secured by means of 

spi ing. 
The stud 


is a( much redder gold 
than those 
above, the inner row 

the outer i 

ins, which 

is a green 

It will b 

found in in 

tinent, and 
d up by the 

i ; ' 

The Connoisseur 

other valuables at Messina dur- 
ing the earthquake. Those who 
have opportunities will do well 
to acquire fine rally examples 
of undoubted authenticity. — 
E. N. J. 

We reproduce in this issue a 

portrait which will be of very 

great interest to 

^P 01 "" our readers, and 

at St. Helena . 

especially to 

those who have appreciated 
Mr. Baily's book upon this 
fascinating figure of history, 
containing reproductions of a 
number of portraits, engravings, 
miniatures, etc., never before 
given to the public of this ex- 
traordinary man. Nothing more 
forcibly illustrates the widely 
differing impressions made by " th 
upon the artistic world of his day. 

The portrait in this number is taken from a small 
photograph of an engraving of a picture by a French 
artist, painted towards the end of the Emperor's life, 
when the confinement in his island prison had told 
greatly upon him. He is shown sitting upon a seat 
overlooking the sea, with the background appro- 
priate to the country, gazing out over the waters with 
the expression of a doomed man, but with the still 


ittle Corporal " 

ineffaceable mien of the caged 
lion. He is dressed in a linen 
suit with wide-brimmed straw 
hat, and but for the look upon 
his face — which at once be- 
tokens no ordinary man — might 
be some prosperous planter 
taking his ease in the beautiful 
surroundingsof his island home. 
The once dapper Corsican has 
become very stout in his 
declining days, a fact which 
shows graphically the enervat- 
ing effect of the conditions of 
his life, coupled with the relax- 
ing character of the climate of 
St. Helena. 

The photo was kindly lent 
RSBHHHnHH by Mr. Castle Smith, of 27, 
Netherhall Gardens, whose 
lather came across it in the 
island when on a visit to Capetown about thirty years 
ago. Nothing was known of the name of the artist, 
but it was said to have been painted in the island. 

On the extreme left and right a very fine pair of Bow 
figures, with fruit and flowers, on scroll bases. In the 
centre a very rare Bow group of a harlequin 
and lady embowered on scroll plinth, and 
on either side of same a pair of Bow groups as candle- 
sticks, en suite, rich foliage, and figures of children. 

Bow Chi 


One of th 

I have been interested in the various article; 
ing in The Connoisseur Magazine on Old I 

W ine-Glasses, as I ; 
Wine Guises w ' 1 ' ,il nas Deen undisturbed for the 

last ioo years, to which a few glasses 
have been added from time to ti 
numbered i 
was sent to Mr. 
Albert Harts- 
home in 1889, 
when he was 
engaged in 
writing his 
book on old 
English wine- 
glasses, and is 
there illustrated 
(Fig. 3 5 9). 
about which he 
says : "Another 
glass, also in 
Mr. Way's 
possession, lias 
the rose and 

two buds, fiat, and the oak-leaf on the bowl, and the 
Prince of Wales' Feathers on the foot. This is a cycle 
glass of about 1740." And in a letter on the same 
subject he says : " But what the origin of putting fiat 
on glasses was I have not yet found out. 1 know of 
about thirty examples in different parts of the country. 
It is said, and this has not been contradicted, that fiat 
glasses were those of a Jacobite club in the North of 



England. [ despaii of getting at the- truth of 


of beautiful glasses, and many with n 

The glass 5 No 
and a butterfly. No. 3 ai 

with gi 

No. -1 
are .1 

right gl 

engraved with 
No. 5 


... : . and 8 
cut glasses 
Hon Frances, 
Countess of 
wife of the sixth Earl of Northampton. V 
a pair with platinum rims. No. 9 is one of a set of 
three glasses \\ ith ruby and white 1 ' 
as also are Nos. 20 and 21. No. 20 is en 
th Hanoverian rose and butterfly. No. 12 is one 
ol a set of eight glasses. No. 16 is a very beautiful 
dimpled bowl and ruby, yellow, and white 
twists in the stem. Hi rbi im W.,L. \\ w. 






2 £ 

a h 

« x 

3 ° 


S o 

;-' < 

< s 

< O 
O b 

o * 

6 £ 

ISp?^ 1 "r 


It has always been gener- 
ally known to collectors and 


A Remark- 
able Historic 

;eurs that 

the cele- 

b r a t e d 

service made for the Em- 
press Catherine II. ot 
Russia was exhibited in 
1774 in Greek Street, Soho, 
where it set the town agog 
with amazement. The 
rooms were thronged with 
fashionable people, and this 
splendid patronage, in con- 
junction with that of Queen 
Charlotte, who in 1765 
authorised Jo si ah Wedg- 
wood to style himselt 
"Potter to Her Majesty," 
established the Queen's 
ware permanently as the 
standard body of English 

Each view in this cele- 
brated service was of some 
family seat or place of 
interest in the United King- medallion, cath 

dom as they existed in 1774. white and da 

This Imperial Russian 

dinner-service is the most famous English service known. 
With painted views of ruined castles, abbeys, parks, 
bridges, and towers of a hundred and fifty years ago, it 
is, apart from its ceramic interest, notable from a topo- 
graphical point of view. Every single piece, and there 
are eight hundred of them, has a different view. The 
body is of a pale 
brimstone colour, 
and the view is 
painted in a rich 
mulberry purple. 
The border has a 
wreath of mauve 
flowers and green 
leaves. As the 
service was in- 
tended to be used 
at the palace of 
La Grenoitilliere 
— m e a n i n g a 
marshy place full 
of frogs — which 
now forms part of 
the palace of 
Tzarkoee Selo, 
near St. Peters- 
burg, each piece 
bears a green frog 
within a shield on 

the rim. It ».i 

that a child and 
a frog were to be painted 
on each piece, but this was 
altered to the present frog 


Messalina of the North 
n g 1 a n d, 

there ha-, bcrn . onsiderable 
mystery. It was believed to 
have vani shed. 
it could be found. Russian 
archives were searched in 
vain by ceramic students. 

A few stray pieces existed 
in this country, five 
the possession of the Wedg 
wood family, and two at the 
Victoria and Albeit Mus- 
eum, and one at t : 
M u seum. Th 1 i 
has now bei 

It is one of the event- ol 
the year of especial interest 
to collectors, that by the 
enterprise of Messrs. Josiah 
Wed" wood & Sons a large 

E II. OF RUSSIA . , , . 

reen jasper portion of this service is to 
be exhibited to the public 
n London this month. It is happy to know that the 
greater portion of it is still in existence, and whole. There 
s no doubt that it will attract considerable at: 
hat those who are unaware of the old-world bean- 
ie-, appert ing to this distinctly English 1 

vill find the exhibition of more ordinary interest ; 


know the 

wa 1 e, and are 
familiar with the 
only km ■ 

ntry, will 
the op- 




The Connoisseur 

Messrs. George Bell & Sons 


■ith the 


before-mentioned service 

The Story 
of the 


publishing a 
volume, The 
Russian Din- 
ner Service, A Story of a 
him, 'us Work by Josiah 
Wedgix ■nod, by Dr. George 
C. Williamson, whose in- 
defatigable energy and 
painstaking researches in 
the matter led to the 
service being unearthed 
at St. Petersburg. The 
volume will be illustrated 
by photographs taken 
specially in Russia by the 
Emperor's own photo- 
grapher. This in itself 
is of especial interest, as 
none of these eighteenth - 
century pieces have ever 
faced the camera before. 
The volume records 
documents never before 
printed, and it gives a 

complete catalogue of the service, of which only one list 
is known to be in existence. Chaffers, it will be noted, 
chronicles the service as consisting of 1,244 painted 
\iews, 11. akin- up 952 pieces for dinner and dessert. 
Dr. Williamson brings the latest evidence on the subject, 
and records only 800 as now in existence. It is from 
this fact alone evident that existing 
ceramic authorities must be corrected 
up to date. Early writers were often 
very hazj in then facts. Chaffers 
evidently had never seen a specimen 
of the service, as he states that "a 
green frog was painted underneath 
each piece." 

The inception of the volume was due 
to the author's search for early prints 
oi Hampstead, some twenty -seven of which 
ing to William Hewitt's Northern Heights of London 

'86g ,10 be ml .1 . 11 enes on this Catherine II. service. 

The difficulties of research in St. Petersburg and the 
eventual sui 1 ess are graphically told by Dr. Williamson. 
The pei :onal inti - I of Their Imperial Majesties the 
Czar and Czarina of Russia were sought and most 
' m ind Mr. 1'. II. Wedgwood, a lineal 
descendant of tin great fo iah, travelled to Russia to 
receive the piei es lent tor exhibition in London. 

littli doubl that in the highest Russian circles 
considerabli it erest is now shown in regard to this old 
Wedgwood service. Count Paul de BenckendorfF, the 
1 Irand Ma ;tei of th 1 -mi. 1,,, , warmly interested him 
self in thehistoix of tli ieedil removed 

from its hiding pla< e up 1 1 plai e of honour 

In view Of the recent 

re. aci o 

visit of the Czar to this country, and the strengthening of 
diplomatic relations between the Court of St. James and 
that of His Imperial 
Majesty, this eighteenth 
century ceramic link be- 
tween England and Russia 
is of exceptional interest. 

AMONG a large collection 

of South Africa curios in 

,, D . . , , the pos- 
Van Riebeck's . 

~ . session 

Cha ' r C AT ' 

of Miss 
Morison-White, of Brigh- 
ton, is an old Dutch chair 
in a remarkable state of 
preservation in spite of its 
two hundred and fifty odd 
years. The chair originally 
belonged to Van Riebeck, 
the first Dutch Governor 
of the Cape of Good Hope, 
and was used by him as 
far back as 1650. Itstands 
thirty-one inches high, is 

sixty-eight inches round, 
i s chair • ° 

and seventeen-and-a-half 
inches from the cane-bottomed seat to the ground. It is 
made of African wood, very strong and heavy for a chair 
of its kind. The chair itself gives one a good idea of the 
old Dutch toppers, and from the figures given above it 
can be gathered that these old Dutchmen must have 
been broad and sturdy men with somewhat short legs. 
The heavy band round the middle 
of the chair legs is placed there as 
an additional support, and quite a 
common thing to be seen round 
most Dutch chairs, (ireat interest 
has been taken in this most remark- 
able piece of furniture. The late 
Mr. Cecil Rhodes, who possessed a 
, huge collection of the Van Riebeck 

curios, was very anxious to purchase 
the 1 ban, but Alms Morison- White always felt she could 
not part with this relic, and to-day it adorns one of the 
many artistic and elegant rooms in her house at Brighton. 

Messrs. A. Fraser .\ ( ""., Inverness, sold at the 

beginning of 1 tctober the important collection of antique 

furniture and curios formed by the late 

The Leslie yu _ ^^^ ]cs] - c Fraser The collection 

im liuled many authentic Jacobite relics 
and Highland curios, for which high 
prices were realised. Among the more notable items 
wen. 1 rare Highland Targe of the seventeenth century, 
,£152; a lock of hair of Maiy Queen of Scots, ,£26; a 
small piece ol in wood which foi med part of the staff of 
Prince Charles Edward's standard in 1745, ,£25 10s. ; the 
original pair of colours of the Fraser Fencibles, ,£155; 
and an exceptionally line Highland steel pistol, ,£60. 



The furniture, of which there was an extensive collec- 
tion, included Queen Charlotte's spinning-wheel, ;£l8 ; 
an "Act of Parliament" clock, ,£28; and a Sheraton 
bureau, £l~ ; whilst amongst the Sheffield plate must 
be noticed a snuffer-tray and pair of snuffers, which made 
,£42 ; and a tine pair of candelabra, lyre-shaped, with 
two scroll branches, for which .£46 was given. 


The tine majolica polychrome relief Pieta from the 
Robbia workshop illustrated is from the collection of 
Baron Adalb. von Lanna, Prague, which 
is to be dispersed in Berlin during 
November. It measures 130 centimetres 
n height and 73 centimetres in width, and is encased 
n a handsomely carved wood frame. 


record oi Bristol that have since had to 

make way for the march of progress. The progress 
chronicled in this beautiful volume coincides with the era 
of daily journalism in Bristol. With die establishn ent 
of the Western Daily Press in 1857 began that open-eyed 
and advancing pi 1 is given 

to the city a Clifton College, a Merchant Venturers' 
Technical College, a Colston School for Girls, Girls' High 
Schools, a widespread system ol Council Schools, and 
now, to crown all, a University. Within 
the Cathedral has been completed, the spue of St. Mary 
Redcliffe (" the finest parish church in 1 
been built ; the principal city bridges ha\e been widened 
and new ones built ; the Clifton Suspension P.i: 
been erected ; railways have been made on each side of 
the Avon, docks have been constructed .it Avonmouth, 
and the streets have been revolutionised. The acreage 
of the city has increased from 7,000 to 17,000, and 
improved sanitation has lowered the death-rate from 
twenty-four per thousand per annum to about fifteen. 
Many of the citizens to whose forethought and 1 
these and other improvements are largely due have 
passed from the scene of their labours ; but the torch 
of enterprise has been handed to equally progressive 
successors, and the Western Daily Press and its journal- 
istic co-workers are as active and zealous as ever in 
keeping the brave old city of the Middle Ages in the 
van of modern advancement. 

The frontispiece to the present numbei 1- a repro- 
duction of the magnificent portrait of the tail but frail 

Count, 1 

Our Plates ^ m (h( . possession | Ea rl Spencer, 

K.G. This beautiful, though notorious < reature, the wife 

of a Mr. Palmer, became the Countess ol Castlemaine 

upon the raising ol her husband 

Charles II., whose mistress many years 

she was intimate with His Maji broken 

for a short period b< h llu '' ''"' 

marriage of King ( harl< 

In fact, so infatuated was her Royal lover that he 

upon the Queen giving In- favoui ite the honoured position 

of Lady of the Bedchamber, and openlj n< 

flouted his Royal spouse lor this beautiful 

Two of the many fine portraits at Vei 
included in this numbi ■' " Valliire, 

by lean Nocret, and the otln 1 Nattiei 

The colon, plate on tin 
Henry Bone', enamel ol I '»e famous 

Francis Lemuel 

Bristol : as il Was, and as il Is, is the title ot a most 
interesting history of the great western port during tin- 
last fifty years. The articles which form 
the backbone of the text were written by 
Mr. Stone, and appeared first in tin 
columns of the Bristol Evening News. They derive 
additional interest from the profuse pen and ink 1 
trations of Mr. Loxton, who seems to have kept a t 

History of 

Books Received 

rard S. Davies, 12s. 




Special Notice 

Enquiries should be made upon the coupon 
which will be found in the advertisement pages. While, 
owing to our enormous correspondence and the fact 
that every number of The Connoisseur Magazine 
is printed a month in advance, it is impossible for us 
to guarantee in every case a prompt reply in these 
columns, an immediate reply will be sent by post to 
all readers who desire it, upon payment of a nominal 
fee. Expert opinions and valuations can be supplied 
when objects are sent to our offices for inspection, 
and, where necessary, arrangements can be made for 
an expert to examine single objects and collections 
in the country, and give advice, the fee in all cases 
to be arranged beforehand. Objects sent to us may 
be insured whilst they are in our possession, at a 
moderate cost. All communications and goods should 
be addressed to the " Manager of Enquiry Dept., 
The Connoisseur Magazine, 95, Temple Chambers, 
Temple Avenue, E.C." 

Boo/Vs.— Facsimile Copy of Magna Carta. -A1.S7S 

Bowdler's " Family Shakespeare," 10 vols., 2nd 
edit., 1820. Ai,sS(i(l:nllyn,„., t .y). The ten volumes of this 
work would nol fetch more than -say 5s. Youi nine odd 

'."l'.iiii'-,(>l thc£« ,,.',., Ha B,itainii,\i arc practically valueless. 

Bibles and Book of Common Prayer. — Ai.ssj 
MiMiii £2 ids. would be the value ol the three 

Theatrum Botanicum, 1640. — Ai.ojS (Tunbridee 

rh bool is worth aboul £2 21. 
Complete Body of Husbandry, 1750. ' 1 04; Bowi 

>il value ol ihis win . 11. 

Tennyson's " Idylls of the Kim;." 1867. Ai.m; 
■ 1 hi illustrated bj 

1 tore, are pr i ibly worth 1; I he ralue ol 

igned letters, or merely 
I iwever, do not appear interesting. 

Cicero, 1536. Ai,S 4 i (Tunbridge Wells).— The • 

Coins. — William and Mary Halfcrown.— Ai,iq8 

1 varieties of William and Mary halfcrowns 
'■ il 1 \. .. rang 

from 3s. to ;• ling to condition. 

EngraVingS. — " Le Premier Navigateur."— 

Al,l6o (Johannesburg). — This plate is worth about £2, and 
that on the left of photograph, 30s. 

"The Fisherman's Departure " and " The Fisher- 
man's Return," by W. Ward, after R. Corbould.— 
Al,351 (Copenhagen).— If ordinary mezzotints, this pair is worth 
about £\0 to £\2, or if prints in colour, about double the sum. 
The portrait of Dreyer is worth about £4, to £5. 

" The Dying Fox-Hunter," by C. Hunt, after F. C. 
Turner.— Ai, 357 (Olney). — We presume this is the print you 
reler to. In colours it is worth about 30s. 

Hieroglyphical Prints. — At, 352 (Wakefield).— These 
are worth onlv a few shillings. 

" Paulo and Francosia," by W. Ward, after J. R. 
Smith.— Ai,3?S (Woodbridge).— The value of this engraving 
is about 17s. 6d. 

"The Right Hon. Lady Mary Campbell," by J. 
McArdell, after A. Ramsay.— At, 330 (Totnes).— This is 
a rare old portrait, and a fine impression would bring from 
£™ to £15. 

Mezzotints by Vertue.-A1.2S0 (Harrow-on-Hill).— 
If these are prints published by Vertue, they are of very little 
value. Vertue only engraved in line. 

ObjetS d" Art. —Leather Mug.— Ai, 284 (Christ- 
church).— The leather mug you describe is not likely to be of 
the 14th or 15th centuries. It is more probably modern, and 
of little value, but we should be glad to inspect it. We do 
not quite understand what you mean by "Pretender glasses." 
Genuine old glasses of the 'period (1715-1750) are worth about 
30s. each, but it inscribed they would be of greater value. 

Pottery and "Porcelain.— Teapot, etc.— 

Ai,935 (Birchington-on-Sea). — Your enquiryis much too vague. 
I in ti apot decorated with pink roses is not likely to be Lowes- 
toft, but we cannot say what it is, or its value without seeing it. 
The jugs are probably old Staffordshire, but they must be seen 

Spode Dessert Service. Ai,ni7 (Florence).— Spode 

:\ urn. h iii 1 liaiai ter, and 11 is difficult to give 
an approximate value. Your service, however, may be worth 
about £& to £10. 

Marks on Plate.- Ai.SS; (Abergavenny).— The marks 
you give appeal to b those. il a l'.uU maker, Veuve Chican- 

Vienna Porcelain. A 1.3.11 (Ashtead). The mark you 

n-| luce resembles that used in Vienna, but von do nol saj 

what ihe ornament is that you wish valued. 

Sheffield Plate.- Candlesticksand Stand.- 

AJ.,203 (Uombay). I mm \.nn desci iption, the artii !•■ 
appear to be gi num.- 1 'I. I shcliield, and we think it would pay 
ill them in Bombay than to ship them to England. 
Your miniature must be seen to be valued. 


By rr. n 

December, 1909. 





By Lady Victoria Manners 

That London is proverbially the richest 
city in the world, and that from the artistic and 
historical point of view its National Picture Galleries 
and Museums yield to no other nation in their 
wealth of priceless possessions, is a fact beyond 
dispute, but 
surely the ex- 
ceeding richness 
of its many pri- 
vate collections 
has been some- 
what overlooked 
by the art 

House, Stafford 
House, Bridg- 
water House, 
and a few other 
Galleries, are, 
of course, well 
known ; but it 
is of the equally 
interesting, but 
less known and 
appreciated Lon- 
don Galleries 
that I propose 
to write in The 
Mai . \/i\k. 

The collection 
of pictures be- 
longing to Lady 
Wantage at 2, 
Carlton Gar- 
dens, is one of piete 

Vol. XXV. — Xo. 100. — N 

remarkable interest and beauty, and conta 
of the very finest examples ol Dutch ar| 

land. The majority of Lady Wantage's | 

the French, Italian, Spanish, and English Schools 

are at Lockinge, but several important e> 

those schools 
• arlton 
. and it 

with the many 
1 Hitch pictures, 
which will form 
the sub 
this article. The 
of the 


Lady u 

77/6' Connoisseur 

and Mr. Humphrey Mildmay. One picture was sold 
to the King of Holland, and the remaining ninety- 
nine were divided by private auction between these 
three collectors and the picture dealer, Mr. Chaplin, 
through whom the purchase had been conducted. 
Mr. [ones Loyd acquired the following pictures: 

All these pictures, with the exception of The 
Enchanted Castle, are at Carlton Gardens. 

Lord and Lady Wantage added many important 
works to the collection, but as these are mostly at 
Lockinge it is unnecessary to enumerate them, 
with the exception of the splendid portrait of Lady 


Name of Picti RE. Artisv 

View in the \V 1 at the I [ague I I 

The Watei Mill - Hoi bema. 

A Landscape Aart van dei V er. 

The Wood* i Aarl van -I' i v ,. 
I ' i li.ui I ..iinl i .ii»' ; iin'ii l.nhini!', 1 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 h.iihli ■■ - 1 " -. i 

in l Hd Lady . . . r 

i ; 'ii Waterl ill 1 

• - • ■ [an Steen. 

with Shipping • W. van Veldi 

h I ' and < iun - Wynants. 

I purchased from the 

. ollei tion ol Mr. William W ells ol Redleaf : 

\ iMl of Pn 



'-.nil Life - 

I n 

I I : 

ii Hoogh. 

Eardley and her Daughter, b) Gainsborough, which 
is in London. 

Before attempting to describe the pictures in 
detail, 1 must devote a few words ol praise to the 
excellently written and beautifully illustrated cata- 
logue ol the collection on which I have based the 
following notes. 

The preface by the late Mr. Arthur Strong is 
written with thai brilliant insight which was such a 
i .in f ature ol that distinguished critic's 
writing, and the catalogue bj Lad) \\ antage, assisted by 
Mr. Temple el the Guildhall, is a mine ol information, 
and greatlj adds to the enjoj menl and apprei iation 
iii tun s. Would that othei fortunate owners 
ol pii ture would emulati I .ad) W antage's exi ellenl 


Lady Wantages Collation 

example, and provide, if not beautiful c 
least reliable and useful ones; for who do 
know the many hours wasted in useless search, per- 
haps for some historical portrait or landscapi . 
to an imperfect list, to say nothing of the foo 
of allowing valuable works of art to remain unclassified 
and uncaredfor ? 

The Dutch painters of the seventeenth century 

"Net it must not be thought that Art 
the one branch of portrait painting, • 

inancial support on the part 
the wealthier 
\ ith few excepl 
ted for the p 
farmers and 

• •table dwellings with n 


must ever hold a foremost place in the annals of art. 
Ostade, Jan Steen, Pieter de Hoogh, Gerard Don, 
and a host of others created, as it wei 
new branch of art. They were the pion t 
painters, and were content to paint simply what they 
saw around them, and did it with consummate skill ; 
The Peaceful Dutch Home, The Lady at her Music 
Lesson, these and many other similar subjc 
first treated by the Dutch artists in the gold 
of painting. 

In that interesting book, Cour, 
Republic ( io^S-i '<^'> I the authoi 
certainly was there a more genuine, spoi 
burst of artistic life than in the hall i 
which most of the early Dutch pai 
estimated at two hundred, ea 

,i IK. Iiv 

pieces thai 

ially rich in genre 
butes an attractive 
■ . Frans Van 

at length on tl 

The Connoisseur 

three in the 
National Gallery. 
In all there is 
the same mastery 
of light and 
shade and mar- 
vellous attention 
to detail, but 
nothing "finicky" 
in treatment. 
De Hoogh was 
certainly not 
afraid of bright 
colour. In this 
picture the 
woman is dressed 
in a bright scarlet 
skirt, blue apron, 
white bodice and 
cap : the man in 
a black velvet 
jacket and beaver 
hat, but the 
effect is most 
harmonious. ( In 
the table is a 
" Gres-de-Flan- 
dre " jug : a 
little girl is seen 
appr o a c hi ng 
from the house, 
carrying coal in 
a square earthen 
pot. This picture 
leaves an impression on the spectator of solid cleanly 
Dutch comfort and prosperity, touched with the 
spirit of poetry that is very pleasing. W.ugen, 
vol. iv., page 130, says: "This master, who is the 
paintei of sunlight par excellence, appears in this 
beautiful picture in the highest perfection of his 
Sir Edwin Landseer, when this picture 
was in the collection of Mr. Wells, at Redleaf, 
madi a slighl sketch ol it in oils, which is now at 
1 ,i! It- hi Gari 

We must now turn our attention to the meat 


hibited al the Royal icadi mj Old Masters, 1^71 and 

[888, .1! ,: ' ' 12, and al the Burlington I' ine 

1- 1 i he collection of John Smith until 
m Wells, Esq., of 1 


Smith, in v.. 1. i 1 1,1 

> I possi ies in an 

painter of Dutch 
low life, Jan 
S t e e n ; he de- 
lights in depict- 
ing scenes of 
revelry and 
tavern life, and 
here we find him 
; at his best in the 
picture entitled 
Twelfth Night. 
It is a very 
scene of gaiety. 
Sixteen people 
are represented 
merry - making, 
and are doing it 
with great vigour 
and evidently 
con side rable 

Jan Steen was 
fond of intro- 
ducing mottoes 
into his pictures: 
in this one the 
words " S o o 
1 lovde " are in- 
scribed on an 
iron < handelier, 
being the first 
"""' s of the old 
1 Hitch proverb, 
"As the old people sing, so pipe also the young'': 
so in his Grace before Meat at Belvoir Castle, the 
(handelier in the background bears the words "Ons 
dagelyck brood" ("Our daily bread"). 

Waagen (in his Treasures), vol. iv., page 1 13, says 
ni Ladj Wantage's picture, "In point of solid and 
careful execution, this is a first-rate specimen ol his 
art." It is signed on the flooi below the large barrel, 
"J. Stem " (J. and S. connected).! 

/ ..• / , m ■., al :o b} Dm Steen, is a curious 

picture, and well illustrates the strange revival ol the 

practice ol alchemy which took place in Holland in 
the vi nti nth 1 1 ntury, and became sui h a frequent 


I This picture h Chevaliei 

I rancotta) until 1816, Chevaliei Erard, Mi. John Smi h 

it Raisonnt until 1828, Hnnm Verstolk van Soelen, 
. 111 1846. [I ws 

ind the Guildhall Gallery, 1892. 

The Connoisseur 

subject with the 
Genre paint- 
ers. ]t repre- 
sents the full- 
length figure of 
an alchemist in a 
loose jacket and 
trousers, seated 
before a furnace 
and crucible. A 
woman on the 
left is crying as 
she listens to a 
man reading a 
paper, which 
seems to tell her 
that her valu- 
ables, after being 
melted, haveonly 
yielded a small 
amount for the 
metal. Leaning 
towards the wo- 
man i s a man 
who seems to be 
telling her they 
were worth no 
more, w h i 1 e a 
stout man in a 
black cap is seen 
entering the 
a m o u n t in a 

This picture 
has been en- 
graved by Fran- 
cois Godefroy 
undei the title 
ol Les Soufflem t MELI HIO r di hondei oeter 
e I la Paisanne n' '"■ 

( 'reditle. It is signed and dated r.668, and was in the 
collection ol < iolonel Bi mrgi oi :, ami exhibited at the 
Royal \' ademy ( Hil Masters in i S 7 j . 

David Teniers (the younger) is represented b) 
pictun La Femm< Jalouse, Les Philosophes 
Bacchiques, ami The Alchemist. I. a Tern we Jalonse is 
1" a haps the besl e <anipl< , in spiti i »i its sordid theme. 
The woman is represented listening to the gallantry 
ol an elderlj peasant, whose jealous wife is seen 
■ ill i n in." them from a w indow on the left, < 

shutter ol whi< h is pen hed i \ ! ■ 

treated this unattrai tive subject with his a< i ustomed 

i level nesi , and the lei r on the man's I. 

with gnat skill "1 this picture that it 

is "a little gem"; 
it has been en- 
graved by J. P. 
le Bas, and pub- 
lished under the 
title of LaFemme 

The picture is 
signed, and was 
exhibited at the 
Guildhall Gal- 
lery in 1895 : it 
was purchased at 
the Gray sale in 

Teniers found 
time to devote 
h i in self to de- 
signing tapestry, 
a t which h e 
much d i s t i n - 
guished himself, 
many of the very 
finest panels of 
Flemish seven- 
teenth century 
tapestry being 
taken from his 
drawings, and 
are known as 

Lady Wantage 
possesses two 
sets of tapestry 
hangings de- 
signed by him — 
The Set/sons Oj 
the Year, Tk 

\. ikk. PEAHEN \M> OTHEB BIRDS Ft S k /'•'■ 

<>-l IN - andFisA Market. 

The pieces ol the Fish Market set have beautiful 
gold-coloun d bordei . with flowers and trophies, and 
hear the Brussels mark, an escutcheon between two 
B's, ami ihi' name ol one ol the leading tapestrj 
mm ters win. owned looms, " J. A. C. C. V. 1 >. 

This family (Van der Borghts) was celebrated in 
the annals of tapestry until 1704, when the Brussels 
■.Mill-' fina closed in the person ol Jai ques 
\ .11, di i Borght. 

; re was in I !..■ 1 oiled ion oi M, 1 1 nte de Vena 
until 1750, M. Blondel di Gagnj until 1776, M. Beaujon until 
17 s :. M I a Bordi Mi n nil il [80 !, ...hi Edward Gray, 

Lady Wantages Collection 

Adriaen Van 

Ostade contri- 
butes a good 
study of still life 
— the back court 
of a housi , with 
haddocks and 
other objects ; 
and Melchior 
d e Honde- 
coeter one of his 
characterise ii 
bird studies, a 
beautiful pea- 
cock standing on 
the branch of a 
tree, with other 
birds and a 
squirrel, seen 
against a blue 

The great land- 
scape and marine 
painters of the 
Dutch School 
are well repre- 
sented in this 
collection. Jan 
Wynants, one of 
the best of the 
early Haarlem 
' School of paint- 
ers, contributes 
two small pic- 
tures; The 
Sportsman with 
his Dog and 
Gun is perhaps 
the finer. The 
figures are by 
Adrien van de Velde, who was Wynants's pupil. This 
picture was purchased from the Vei :1 
in 1:848. 

Landscape and Cattle is a good example of \\ 
middle and best period, and was acquired from the 
collection of the Duchesse de Bern'. 
A Field of Battle, by Wynants's g] 
VVouverman, is a splendid picture. Here we have 
the horrors of war fully presented, 
dying lie strewn about the field; all 
action; troops of cavalry and infantry ai 
distributed over the scene; volum 
against the .-sky. The painting o! the ■ 
four horsemen is specially fine, the n. 

\U1im 11MI I Mi 


white • 1: 
admiral 1 

shortened. This 

the l'n 

Hid was 

purchased in 

u Mr. 

Smith, vol. i. 

No. 1 \ . 
" This very capi- 
tal picture is 

painted in the 
artist's later and 
most esteemed 

ar and 
silvery colour- 
ings." It has 
at the 

• 1871 
and 1 8 
the Guildhall 

1 s a a k van 

(til e 

two lani 

ntry Inn 

The Country Inn is an admira 

1. it, white ruff and 
plumed hat, has dismounted from hi - hi 


The Connoisseur 


breathes the spirit of the cold North. The scene is 
a simple country subject : a timber cart is being 
driven along a road towards a sportsman who is 
advancing with his gun and dog. 

Cuyp is represented by a large picture which is 

curiously unlike his usual style. Here we have portraits 

of three children who are fondling sheep, a milkmaid 

in a red dress looped up over a dark petticoat is in 

the foreground, while in the distani e is a view of Dort. 

This example is probably an early work of the master. 

There are four pictures by Aart van der Neer, a 

r of < uyp. . / Fro . n ( 'anal, number 158, is 

work. Tlir Winter Landscape is a charm- 

!i\ Numbei t6r, The Wood-cutters, 

is in the master's best vein, and recalls some of 

Gainsborough's landscapes in its poetic treatment 

ami suffusion oi golden light. This picture, which 

1 iiiieil from tin- 1 ollection ol Baron \ erstolk 

in 1 8 pS, bi .1! i the art i 1 at the fi u il ol 

[1 wa 1 hibited at the Royal Ai ad mj 

Old Masters in 1871 and the Guildhall Gallery 

Jacob van Ruysdael contributes five landscapes, 
the two hanging in the drawing room at 
the ii 1. \11ml ei 200 depicts a Grand Rocky 

tnd ;■ .1 verj • I 

example ol the painter's treatment ol th 

;i hi view in whii h hi delighted. 'I his 

picture was purchased from the Verstolk collection. 
Waagen, in vol. iv., says of it, " The individuality of 
every portion is more marked, and the number of 
details more numerous than in any other picture on 
so large a scale by Ruysdael that has come before 
me." Number 201, a Landscape with Avenue, is a 
charming peaceful forest scene, with a clear stream 
flowing towards the foreground. Number 202, River 
Scene, with Waterfall, is a line picture, and was in 
the collection of the Duke of Brunswick at Wolf n 
buttel. Number 203 is a charming Woodland 
and is a good example of the artist's earlier period : 
and number 204, The Windmills, is a delightful little 
picture full of feeling and brilliant in treatment. It 
is sad to think that Ruysdael, who may justly be 
called the originator of landscape painting, lived in 
povertj and died in an almshouse at 1 [aarlem in 1681. 
Ill rearetwo pictures bj Meindert Hobbema, Ruys- 
dael's friend and pupil: View in the Neighbourhood of 
,1 Dutch Village and the beautiful Watermill. The 
1 entral pari ol the latti 1 picture is filled by a 1 lu sti 1 ol 
thick-foliaged, grey-stemmed trees with cottages een 
among them : under their deep shade a man and 
woman are walking b) the side of the mill-pool, on 
the extreme righl bank ol which two men are fishing. 
I n the left, t ho nigh the shadowed foregn mini, a d< 1 pi) 

lulled road, along which peasants are passing, leads 

between sunny harvest fields towards a distant village, 

Lady Wantage's Collection 

the church spire rising amid sunlit trees. The sky is 
that of a fine summer's day, with white clouds floating 
over a blue surface. The leading feature is the 
contrast between the dark shady foreground and the 
sunlit distance. This picture was in the ■ ollection ol 
M. Muller, of Amsterdam, until 1827, then in that 
ol Baron Verstolk van Soelen, from whom it was 
purchased in 1S46. It is signed and dated on tin- 
lower edge of the picture. " M. Hobbema, 1664." 

The Wood at the Hague, by Jan Hackaert, is a 
characteristic example of this master, who is at his 
happiest in representing the woodland scenery of his 
native country. The figure and animals are prob 
ably by Adriaen van de Velde. In the Verstolk 
catalogue the title of the picture is augmented 
by the words: " Avec un depart poui la ch; 
personnages de la ('our de Guillaume II." This 
picture was in the collection ol M. \ an Koort, neai 
Leyden, and then in that of Baron Verstolk van 
Soelen, from whom it was purchased in 1846. Smith, 
in vol. iv., says : "This is a production ol th 
excellence and beauty." Waagen also mentions it (in 
his Treasures) : it was exhibited at the Royal \< 
Old Masters in 187 1. 

The most interesting, however, ol t li- 
the splendid Commencement <P Or age, b) R 
The subject is a view taken from a height in / 

in the distal ol the sea, while in 

ground is a river which emerges from a narrow 

channel. 'I he tone of this picture is a beautiful 

golden hue. and 1 

sunlight and the approai hing storn 

while the sky is a splendid 

full of mo- ' d very few 

landscapi s : the b a vn as Rem- 

brandt'i Mill, in Lord Lai 

( lassel ( Sail 

Commencement D'i | upil, Philip 

de tConinck, who 1 

a different point 1 

A line 1 n ntly in the 

l n ol el i 

not only tl 

The Connoisseur 

Le Conte de Vence till 
the end of the eight- 
eenth century, when the 
gallery was sold and the 
picture remained perdue 
till it was discovered in 
the studio of an artist in 
Paris, where it was said 
to have remained un- 
noticed for upwards ol 
fifty years, when it was 
brought to England. 

In the adjoining 
room hangs R e m - 
brandt's Portrait of an 
Old Lady, supposed to 
be the artist's grand- 
mother. In the 
National Gallery is a 
larger portrait of the 
same 1 >utch Frau, and 
it is interesting to know- 
that in The Connois- 
seur Magazine for 
May, iooq, there was 
a reproduction of a 
splendid portrait by 
Nicholaes Maes (then 
in the possession oi 
Messrs. Dowde swell) 
which is probably a 
portrait of the same 
elderly lady ; in any ease 
the likeness is a strik- 
ing one. Lad} Want- 
age's picture is signed 
Rembrandt, i 1661 ; 
the original drawing 
for the portrait is in the 
collection of Mr. J. P. 

The lady is dressed 
in a plain widow i dl i 
nearl; blai Land a blai k 

i ap svhii !' des I in 

a point on hei forehead, 
id which is a brooch, 
while round hei nei k 
• hite ruff. As a 
study ol \miI 

irtrail is un- 
ci. The old 
lady's face, though 
withered and wrinkled, 

is full of vivacity and 

There are three land- 
scapes by Jan Both and 
one by Adam Tynacker, 
both Dutch artists who 
lived and studied in 
Italy during the seven- 
teenth century. In their 
work we miss the si ion- 
individual note struck 
by a Hobbema or Cuyp, 
etc. The Italian Land- 
scape, No. 10, by Jan 
Both, is, however, a 
line example of this 
artist's work, and is re- 
markable for the clever 
rendering of warm sun- 
light suffused through- 
out the picture : while 
Pynacker's Italian 
Landscape: Men landing 
Merchandise, is a charm- 
ing composition, re- 
calling Claude Lorraine's 
work in its general effect 
and treatment. Adam 
Pynai ker's easel pic- 
tures are rather rare, as 
he was chiefly employed 
in decorating the walls 
of rooms in 11 olland 
when he returned late 
in life to his nati\ e 

The great naval powei 
of Holland in the seven- 
teenth century found 
expression in its school 
ol marine painters, 
which excelled in this 
most difficult branch o( 

art. Lady Wantage is 
the fortunate possessor 
ral importanl ex- 
amples by Willem van 

I .. pictun '■'. in ''" 
Elections ol I orcl Charles 
.i, Mr. fohn Smith, 
and Baron Verstolk van 
Soelen. Ii was purchased 
from the Verstolk collection 
in [846. 

Lady II 'ant ages ( 'oiled ion 

de Velde, Ludolf Bakhuizen and Jan van de Cappelle, 
all of which merit attention. Willem van de Velde 
shows to advantage in the beautiful canvas entitled 
A Calm: Soldiers Embarking. The artist's extra 
ordinary skill int he drawing of the barges, 
boats,, etc., is well displayed, while the whole 
picture breathes a spirit of repose and calm. The 
figures are- probably by the artist's brother— Adriaen 
van de Velde. Some critics have attributed this 
canvas to Van de Cappelle, to whose delicate 
and subdued tone of colour it bears much 

Still Wafer with Shipping is another charai teristii 
sea piece by the master ; the reflections of the boats 
in the water are very well rendered, and the sky with 
beautiful clouds is a most delicate piece of painting. 

It is interesting to know that Willem van de Velde, 
who may justly be regarded as the greatest marine 
painter of his agi . 
accompanied his 
father, the elder 
Van de Velde, from 
Amsterdam to Eng- 
land in 1675, and 
settled at Green- 
wich. Charles II., 
by a royal " ordin- 
ance," "thought fit 
to allow the salary 
of ^100 per annum 
unto William van 
der Velde the elder, 
for taking and 
making draughts of 
sea fights, and the 

" This picture was 
purchased from the 
Verstolk Gallery in 
1S46. Waagen, in his 
Treasures, vol. iv., 
says : " This picture 
shows how justly the 
master was renowned 
for his calm 
Iransparency of the 


unto William van de Wide thi 
for putting the said draughts into 1 

fan van de Cap| elle is the 

titled A Calm. It depicts a morning effect. 

A group of fishing boats I with sails 

man-of-war firing a 

gun, and otl in the distance. In the 

immediate foreground of sand, wil 

with fish and a 

the shallow water, 
one carrying a basket, the other unloading 
ire, " In all resp< • 
delicacy and transpa 
picturesquely conn 1 

il belongs to the best work 

Ludolf Bakhuizen is represented by two 

A Stor,,, oj • i ' ami .-/ Fresh 

mer is perhaps 
the better canvas, 

of this 1 

votion to 

his art was such 

thai he I 

mis upon 

the sea in 

w in d an 1 
upon the waters. 
Bakhuizen has 
given us here a 
forcible rendering 
. ith his ac- 
customed skill and 





• s> - 1 

" Japan Cabinets 
the vears — 

England the appreciation of 

,varm from, at least, as early as 

" While cynic Charles still trimm'd the vane 

Twixt Qitcisii,!!!/? anil Ciistt'fininu 
In days that shocked John Evelyn," 

we did not employ Oriental panels as a decoration for 
our native cabinet-work. We attempted a thousand 
imitations, and produced a world of interesting 
decorative furniture in that manner, but as to the 
actual use of antique lacquer in an European setting, 
that idea appears to have originated in the France ol 
Louis XIV., and remained a national taste for very 
many generations. In 1664 the Siamese broughl 
many examples of Oriental lacquer to the court of 
Louis, and its vogue increased as persons of taste 
became acquainted with its exquisite qualities. This 
fashion has not been greatly written upon, nor have 
the actual pieces been reproduced until recent years. 

The world of connoisseurship has been • 
getically exploited during the last fifteen years or so, 
that it is exceptional, at least in regard to furniture, 
to find a subject which retains some I 
Although well known to all admirers ol th 
French periods, very little notice has. however, been 
taken of this important method which the cbc'nistes 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries used to 
add still another note of distinction to then 

remarkable creations. The chapter 

find in the late Lady I Hike's charming work on 

French furniture and decoration do 

to have been written, and yet th< 

duction of various kinds of antiqu 

Japanese lacquer into the panels ol 

tury furniture was freely employed. Sue! 

have been admired and bought by th 

of the earth from I I produced 

under the pal L uis \l\ . and i 

Court even unto the present tint 

never flagged nor failed, although the 

course far larger to-day than at any other period in 

the history of these elegant exampl • 

over a hundl 

last twenty^. : years of Lou Quatorze, under the 
throughoul the I • ■ us Quinze 

— duriii- 1 hanges of style, whether early 

or late Pompadour, or R.01 oco 01 du B 

while Louis ^•■i/r ami Marie Antoinette still reigned. 

even undei Napoli on, 

artists was 

combined, with unfailing skill, by the most exquisite 
ni h ( ouri cabii 1 their own 

admirable work. 

; 1 ration No 1 -hows the kind ot chest 

the panels 
ii. and iii.. 

ind princes 

The Connoisseur 


the bark is cul oi si ored with a pointed bamboo 
.ink's a white n ;inous >ap which becomes 
rapidly black on exposure to the air. The sap is 
drawn from the tree during th summet al night, 
i i ill: iii 1 1 111 111 IK. and brought to market in a semi 
fluid state, or drii d into cakes. The raw lac, after 
pieces ol bark and otb i ai i idental impuritii i ha^ 

fOl li iiin: Inn 

tn crush its grain and give it a more uniform liquidity. 

It i th mpen < loth, .mil i : a 

- \ nly flowing liquid ready for the lacquerer's 

This is a very brii I stati menl i >l the m I 

'Aim h tl i iniiii and [apan produi 

fine decorations which are shown in the illustrations 
here given. As with almost all Chinese aits, the 
further you go back into the past ages the mot 
beautiful the workmanship, and thus the early pieces 
shipped to France undei Louis XIV. will often be 
found to be ol the most brilliant and effective quality. 
But it was during the Regency and undei the next 
kmg that the us,- was iiiosi largely developed. The 
period ol Louis XIV. was statel) and unb tiding 
to the last i .... ration, although 

grand and dignified, did not allow of the slightest 
pi rsonal quality. It was for the palai e, 
I'.lii later the graces of life were permitt d and 
id to ilom ish. The grand da) s wen really 

' ', and tit, 



I: .,:, B. V.R.I 

,,.,,■ * 

The Connoisseur 

over, but beauty was sought for in every way the 
lively mind of man could suggest. The old Oriental 
lacquer in Louis XV. furniture suited uncommonly 
well with the vanity and elegance ol the age, and 
most of those examples now surviving belong to that 
i xternall) great period when the beautiful Madame 
de Pompadour and her accomplished brother, the 
Marquis de Vandieres, afterwards de Marigny, de- 
o much time to the domestic and fine arts, 
from the cultivation of the soft paste porcelains of 
Sevres to the decoration of their houses and the 
development of the sophisticated rusticity which 
Boucher understood so well, all was easy and delight- 
ful to the Pompadour and her army of accomplished 


one of whom so charmingh painted 

" Rose-water Raphael, en toulem de rose, 

The crowned caprice, whose sceptre, nowise sainled, 
Swayed the light realm of ballets and lion-mots — 

Ruled the dim boudoirs tlriiii-joni; or drove 
Pink-ribboned Hocks through some pink (lowered grove.' 

In this wonderfully artificial and yet attractive world, 
the very centre of which was Madame de Pompadour's 
small but beautiful chateau of Bellevue, there was plenty 
of space for the various classes of armoire and cabinet 
which appear in the illustrations. The line inkstand. 
Xo. vii., might have been made especially lor the 
always anxious and always pleasing favourite to glA 
to her king. In this specimen the old Japanese 
lacquer is of a jewel-like character, which Caffieri's 
bronze and gilded mounts set off to perfection. 

/: 'lulled. ) 

L, pauvre //na/i/ pns -' »' 

El ./■ 

a— ^ 


Mr. Francis Wellesley's Collection of Profile Portraits 
By Weymer Jay Mills 

There is a charm and wistfulness about the 
silhouette that is not shared by any other form of 
portraiture. Beauty preserved by the brushes of 
great masters may give beholders powerful emotions, 
hut the silhouette is sure ol its subtle appeal. "We 
are only friends with shadows," ( ieorges Sand wrote, . 
and upon entering rooms like Mr. Wellesley's sil- 
houette morning-rooms in his country house at 
Mayford, Surrey, one feels the poignancy of the 
remark. There upon the walls are the little shadow 
likenesses of the great of two centuries. " We art; all 
that remain of the page- 

ants of many lives ! " they 
seem to cry out to us. 

The Wellesley silhou- 
ettes form probably the 
largest collection in exist- 
ence. In row after row 

amples of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries 
Each one has its romance, 
and is more or less of an 
historical document. 
They begin with Early 
English, French, and ( Jer- 
m. m ones, contemporary 
with Etienne de Silhou- 
ette, the Fit nch Minister 
of Finance, who made 
them the fashion, and they 
go on in bewildering array 
until the late queen had 
ascended the throne. 
There they stop, for the 
mid- Victorian silhouettes 

have no value in the eyes ol a collector. Tl 
the silhouettes thai i 
from the wini 

true, though, that they are not so plentiful as they were 
abroad that Queen 
Alexandra was silhouette hunting, there hi 
new interest in them, and dealers have grown wary. 
The last quarter of the eighteenth century seems 
to have been the best period of the profile likeness. 
Robinson still grai 
: in, and fanny Burnej ■■ 

■ hair, and 
sighing becaust 
not find tune 

; when 

• imitating 
the English, am 
j lish were imitating the 

\ Ireneh, and 1 

"hen, ' Madan 


smiled upon ■ 
he lik 

The Connoisseur 

collection there are 
at least thirty of his 
most beautiful ex- 
amples — women and 
men whose youth has 
he en immortalised. 
He gave an idealisa- 
tion to hair and fea- 
tures that none of his 
dozens of itinerant 
followers ever ap- 
proached. Many of 
Miers's pieces are 
signed, and his six- 
inch ovals w e r e 
framed in a peculiar 
kind of pear-tree 
frame, the glass being kingsl 

slightly embellished 

with black and gold. These frames were always labelled 
with the following advertisement: " Miers, profile 
painter and jeweller (in, Strand, London), opposite 
Exeter Change, executes likenesses in profile in a style 
of superior excellence, with unequalled accuracy, which 
conve) the most forcible expression in animated 
character even in the most minute size for brooches, 

lockets, etc Time of 

sitting, three minutes. 

Miers preserves all the 

original sketches, from 

which he can at any time 

supply copies without 

the trouble of sitting 

again. N.B.- -M inia- 

ture frames and convex 

glasses, wholesale and 

retail." M iers came to 

London from Leeds, 

and Ins earliesl advei 
,ii m read, " I ,ate ol 


was in the Strand, "op- 
posite the \''.n < hui. h." 
< )ne i>i hr, greate il rivals 
■. Mi irles, also ol the 
trand ■•■. ! " 1 i ;ned him 
Royal Artist" by 
" Florizel's pi rmission. 

He drew Ins likenesses 

on paper, leaving the 

n ihadow and 

tinting the figure, 1 lis 

■ in uch 

man and 

Grassmeyer, the Ger- 
man silhouettists of 
the same peri oil. 
Rider of Temple Bar 
was another follower 
of Miers, and imi- 
tated his work and 
style of framing. 
Other plaster artists 
were Richard Jorden 
and one Thomasson. 
In Paris the famous 
Gonord painted on 
plaster and paper. 

Silhouette like- 
nesses were generally 
given away as sou- 
venirs of affection, and 
,AMILY were often ordered 

two or three at a time, for duplicates have strayed into 
the Wellesley collection. One priceless silhouette was 
done of. Robert Burns by Miers in 1787, and sent 
by the poet to his friend John Cotterall. Some 
persons had small galleries of their friends. Mrs. 
Fitzherbert had such a gallery in her Brighton house, 
which was the delight of the old-time children who 
smiled their way into her 
acquaintance. Even the 
king did not think it be- 
neath his dignity to sit 
for his silhouette, and 
when his favourite 
painter, Benjamin West, 
was away from Court, he 
must have become quite 
addicted to the habit, 
judging by the number 
anil variety of his like- 
nesses. The Wellesley 
collection has two ver) 
line ones pa 1 11 1 eil on 
black glass. A unique 

one oi the -.mie period 
is of < leneral Fitzpatrick, 

whofought in theAmeri- 

111 \\ .11, 1 778. This is 
on sihi red glass ileco- 

ratedwithgold. Anothei 

curious one ol the king 

was painti il on a W'or 
r cup. w e < a 11 
imagine George 111 
climbing the stain ase ol 
his"deai Mis. DelanyV 

The IVellesley Silhouettes, 

little house at Wind- 
sor to present her 
with one of his silhou- 
ettes, and she, justly 
esteeming it, kept it 
hidden away to wan- 
der down the years. 
Some of our ancestors 
owned quaint albums 
of silhouettes, ( i M the 
table in Mr. Welles- 
ley's library is such an 
album, formed by a 
German baron in the 
middle of the eigh- 
teenth century. Each 
page is within an 
elegant border, and 
the book contains a 

hundred or more likenesses of a circle that looks mum:' 
thing of an ancient " Cranford." It is rather a male 
Cranford, for the sterner sex is in the majority. The 
student of old manners and customs could obtain a 
world of information from their wigs alone, for there 
are drop-wigs and buckle-wigs, Grecian flies, fox-tails 
and macaroni toupees, each expressive of the wearer's 
character. Certain of these beautiful eighteenth- 
century albums — one done by Lavater, it is said — 
have come to light in exhibitions of silhouettes held 
in German cities. Although the silhouette was born 


(f^ftaisc'du ftincc ^Couis Q. Ch . 

in France, the 
in the art was 
transported I 
many. The h 

in the Weill 

ique, l 

II ; Dai 

family of Meintz 

with their beautiful 
yellow and pink back- 
grounds, Count Briihl and his da izabeth 
Sophia I lorothi a \ 01 ol Bismarck, 
who was painted in 1 756. 


Wright. re lam. his for her wax profiles. 

Adams, the wife ol the American Ambassador, who 

1 arm in l ondon in the >rii 

and described her as "the queen of sluts." This 

artist, from hei freedom ol peech and familiarity 

with her sitters, made qui! in London 

lor .1 time, ami managed to get herself into a novel 

in company with a choii e group 

including the famous Montagu. Mrs. Wright cut her 

silhouettes with a sharp poin 

made the 

mil .inmi 

contains a 
Ol Do 1 ti 

il i stinguish- 

The Connoisseur 

in the left hand and the scissors in the right, was 
thought such a genteel and elegant accomplishment 
that it became a part of the art curriculum of young 
ladies' seminaries, and had its place after the tea-hour 
with its intimate, the embroidered picture. One 


wonders if poor Becky Sharp snipped away at the 
turbaned head of Miss Pinkerton at some vanished 
window facing Chiswick Mall. "A nose like the 
beak of a wherry" must have been a temptation. 
bath, the Mecca of all eighteenth-century artists 

RNll II 

The IVellesley Silhouettes 

during the few weeks 
when My Lord or My 
Lady left the dull shire 
for a sip or two of the 
waters, and a galnw of 
other di versions, was 
always the home of the 
silhouette. Women like 
the I an Lindley,and men 
of the firebrand "Sherry" 
type, were sure to be 
calling upon Rosenberg 
at all hours. Cupid had 
a way of dashing about 
those old pump-rooms 
and playing pitch-and- 
toss with the affections. 
.Mr. Rosenberg's 1 1 ioms 
were quite near the cele- 
brated Gainsborough's, 
and, judging from the 
crowd of Bath shadows 
tnat have come to Mr. 
Wellesley, Rosenberg's 
ante-chamber must have 
been as crowded as 
that of Gainsborough's. 
Many of them are 

nameles . 

able only for their 

beauty Ol I xe< Ution or 


Who w 

and bumpkin 

painted i 

was evidently I 

famous exponent of that 
art. His pictui 

taken always on plain or 
I .latter 

have b.i 

and \ ai ions ■ 
tions. and 

come upon them in all 

sorts of out-of-the-way 

iks and 

»; inland towns. 

The Connoisseur 


attics of Irish country houses, rag fairs, and heaven 
knows where. ( )n the back of each portrait, scarcely 
decipherable, there is that magic word Bath. The 
pictures try to whisper ot those days at the gay 
resort — of moons and flickering tapers, of the music 
of "Id gavottes and roses that bloomed long ago. 

The French corners of the Wellesley rooms art- 
all sidelights upon history. The oldest French 
portraits in the collection are mounted upon faded 
blue paper, and with their riband and nosegaj 
decorations, the profiles have some of the delightful 
quality of Moreau drawings. Silhouette probably 
cut one or two of them himself. Near them stand 
the original Figaro and the original Suzanne, wittily 


The IVellesley Silhouettes 

talking over the Mariage de Figaro, and just beyond 
is a simple one of Marie Antoinette, whose smiles 
they sought in life. The French queen is painted on 
Paris plaster, and she is simply dressed, and wears a 
garden hat. This portrait was probably done at Ver- 
sailles when the ladies of the court were trifling with a 
milkmaid existence. Another, of Napoleon overlooking 

a battlefield, is an Edouart piece drawn from the imagi- 
nation. Edouart, a Frenchman who sp 

several in th •' illection showing the ornate 

interiors of 1S30. His work is much SOU 

by collectors, anil is generally found in golden maple 

The Coiinoisseu?' 

and sat in wood 
frames. His 
pictures are 
often come 
upon in ( Kford 
as well as Cam- 
bridge, and he 
may have gone 
from one Uni- 
versity to an- 
other. Some 
belonging to 
the father of 
"Alice in Won- 
derland " were 
disposed of at 
the latter place. 
Near Napoleon 
is a man who 
looks like the 
Marquis d e 
Lafayette. He 
has bee n 
sketched before 
t h e panorama 
of Paris. Mile. 
M agan of the 
( )pera by Mar- 
tini comes next, 
and by her side 
is Beautnarchais 
staringat I >azin- 
couit. Perhaps 
lie is remem- 
bering the night 
the celebrated 

Met or essayed 

the role of the 

barber. B) 

Beaumarchais is Louis XVIII 

and so they continue leading 01 

About the tin I Edouart there were several more 

or less well known English profile artists — Foster and 
Harding ol London; Atkinson of Windsor : Wilton of 
Port! ea ; Franklin, who cut silhouetti s in the Thames 
Tunnel ; II. \ J. Walter ; Loecksi, a travelling Pole, 
who went from city to city holding exhibitions and 
distributing cards proclaiming his talents to the 
•• nobility and g( ntry.' 1 [e i ul silhouettes at his 
exhibition during the day, and after six o'clocli was 
free to visit houses for sittings. Perhaps the n.10 I 
noted town man was Mastei Hubard. The Princess 
\ ii toria went to him when a young girl, little dream 
ing thai she was soon to awake at Kensington and 

the work of Gonord, 
back into yesterday. 

hear guns that 
would proclaim 
her queen. Hu- 
bard painted 
with India ink, 
and much of his 
work is overlaid 
with gold. Hats, 
lace, and jewels 
were wonder- 
fully done by 
Foster ; and a 
( lerman of the 
period, Henrich 
Kniger, added 
touches of bril- 
liant colour to 
his black draw- 
ings — fox-hunt- 
ers, town-criers, 
bell - ringers, 
school -masters, 
and actors 
seemed fond of 
being portrayed 
with black faces 
and coloured 
bodies. The 
fashion was a 
quaint one, and 
m a d e most 
persons look as 
if they had 
stepped 'nit of 
the pages of 
Charles Lamb 
or some other 
w h i m s i e a 1 
on author. 

Of all the silhouettes in the Wellesley collection, 
perhaps the most charming are those of early child- 
hood. There are any number of playful children 
captured at the romping hour — girls holding single 
flowers and garlands, with branches ol cherries like 
John Russell's famous Cherry Girl, and boys fingi i 
ing hoops, tops, ami diums. Then then- is more 
serious youth with its hooks, meditations, and 
primly-folded hands. It is all quaint and fanci- 
ful enough to have found favour in the eves ol 
■sir Joshua. Oh, those happy children who have 
long since thrown down their toys' Although w 
li.t\i only these shadows, we can catch the shrill 
treble of their voices and the patter of their loot 


Some Artistic Door=KnocRers 

By H. B. Westerham 

Macbeth.— Whence that kno king (Kno 

Hew is it with me when cvi'i \ inn -i' ,n .1.1 

Porter. 1 1 r. - i U no. king, puk-cl ! i Kno km- within.) 
Knock, knock, knock! Who's there, i' the name ol 
Beelzebub ? 

It is not so many years since that there was 
dug up in Morayshire an ancient iron heurioir ol 
rude and ponderous workmanship, which one valiant 
Scottish antiquary did not hesitate to suggest might 
have been the very implement which so awoke the 
echoes of that memorable night at Macbeth's castle. 

As to the antiquity of door-knockers, they are 
probably not much less ancient than that period 
when civilisation and the desire of privacy decreed 
that doors, having superseded hangings, should be 
locked, barred, and bolted. A curious early form is 
a short iron rod suspended by a chain, but as this 
constituted a too convenient missile to hurl at the 
owner of the dwelling, it probably did not long 
survive. In the early Middle Ages the iron or bronzi 
handle fastened securely on the outside of 
was itself a most effective 
knocker, and for a long 
time the knocker therefore 
fulfilled a double duty, 
being a heavy round ring 
suspended to a stout clamp, 
and almost totally devoid 
of artistic pretensions. It 
is curious that in modern 
flat life in London to-day, 
where the knocker has been 
superseded by electric bells, 
the flap of the letter-box 
commonly serves the same 
purpose as a door-knocker 
by those whose business or 
inclination leads them to 
knock as well as ring. 

By degrees the heavy 
iron or bronze ring yielded knock 

.1. ii n 

to the influence 

chasing and bevelling, as in s. . 

seen in the national collection at South Kensii 

Then the support, from beingamere plaque of metal. 

began in the age of the blacksmith I 

shapes, until we see evolved some verj fii 

of delicately wrought work before the handle itself 

had emerged very far from its primitive ring-shape. 

The appearand' of the subjacent striking knob marks 

a stage in the evolution of the knocker proper, and 

when the suspended metal serves no othi 

but that of " committing a friendly but ob 

assault upon a door," then the true marh ■■ ■ 

porte is fully evolved. The thick ring or h; 

way to a slender bar of metal, terminating in a 

hammer. During tin- transition period of ironwork 

in the fifteenth century mo : bellishment 

was still directed towards the back-plate, ai i 

: itself. Then the Renaissance and the 

know who it 

German or Italian wo 

first saw in tl ibilities for 

sculptural treatment. A 

h (most 

commonly a dolpl 

times that combination of 

nings. Th 

until, in the hands of the 

Italian n 

Giovanni di l>oli 

great exten 

showing ' 

company i 
knocker, !■ 

The Connoisseur 

palace. Two cherubs bearing 
a scrolled shield are astride 
a pair of dolphins, a shell at 
the base of the design serving 
as handle to the knocker. 
Another Italian knocker shows 
us Neptune and a couple of 
sea-horses. Indeed, in the 
hands of some of the French, 
(, and Italian sculptors 
almost any design, even to 
groups of lour and five figures, 
was adapted to the purpose, 
until all simplicity and sug- 
gestion of utility wire lost, and 
the door-knocker became a 
kind of hanging statuette. 
Alter a century and a half 
there came a return to sim- 
plicity, and even to primitive 
severity. The knockers with 
which the eighteenth-century bronze knocker 

,- , • , ■ , , . FROM THE PALAZZ 

Englishman equipped his 

front door were less things of beauty than utility. 

They were cast from a half-dozen patterns, amongst 

which a lion's head or a clenched hand were favourites, 

and only occasionally did one come across a human 

lace or a reversion to 

the dolphin or dragon 

type. When the fashion 

"I brass k n oc k e rs set 

in, these were usually of 

the plainest description 

— a curved far ol metal 

and nothing more. 

It is not to be denied 
thai .1 powerful fai toi 
in i educing the door- 
knocker, as well as the 
bell-handle, to its 
simplest and smallest 
(as well as most inex- 
pen iivi ) dimensions 
pli asa ni pre 
\ ii torian pastime of 
wrenching the 
from tin 11 soi kets, a 
pastime with whii h the 
am ient wati hmen very 
ineffectually intei fered. 
w hen a householdei 

had no guarantee that 

knockei a week from 

this cause, he was not very 
apt to spend much money on 
objects which were costly and 

A door-knocker is so pro- 
foundly interesting a symbol 
that, however it may be super- 
^•JS^.. J seded by less resonant and 

imperative contrivances, there 
will always be some house- 
lovers whose house-pride not 
only will never consent to 
depose them from the front- 
door, but will even devise 
new and pleasant forms for 
them to take. There are even 
collectors and connoisseurs of 
knockers. There is a beauti- 
ful set of them in the South 
Kensington Museum, and one 
private collector is reported 
to have upwards of foity 
interesting varieties. 
"The door-knocker," as has been well said, "is 
a silent witness of much human emotion. It has an 
integral part in the life of the home it guards." It was 
probably a conviction of the truth of this sentiment 
that induced the late 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
to reject altogether the 
prosaic knocker which 
the builder of his Chel- 
sea house tried to palm 
off upon him, and to 
design one more in 
keeping with his own 
taste m these matters. 
This knocker has long 
attracted great attention 
on account of its work- 
manship : but it is far 
more notable, one may 
opine, for its personal 
associations — a remark 
doubtless true of the 
same implement on the 
doors of all gn at men. 
Another aitist's dooi 
knocker is that which 
Sit Lawrence Alma- 
Tadema has affixed to 
his house in St. John's 
Wood, copied from a 
Roman comic mask. 

The Connoisseur 

This brass knocker has attracted far less attention, 
perhaps, than it deserves, because it does not face 
the street, but an inner courtyard, and is so far 
screened from the admiring gaze — and perhaps the 
cupidity — of the passing pedestrian. 

Sometimes it happens that a beautiful knocker, 
from its very closeness to the street in a bustling 
neighbourhood, will escape the attention it merits. 
Think of the thousands who daily perambulate 


Piccadilly, and the few who notice the pair ol 

knockers which adorn the outer wall of the Duke 

mshire's town bouse in that thoroughfare. The 

knockers themselves are a survival. Until a few 

N . ago the paii ol wooden gates upon which they 

are fastened formed the only entrance for visitors 

on toot to Devonshire House. Now splendid iron 

gates have been en cted, ami the portei is summoned 

by a bell. Ni i entrance ol wood and 

o kers remain, although the latter are 

ivi ' i mi ui i mil, which detract 

somewhat from their beauty. 

many Other artislie knoekeis to be een 
in the West End. Several examples ol the dolphin 


knocker occur in Mayfair. There is a pair at No. 2, 
Connaught Place, and there is a specimen of the 
single sort at No. 57, Cur/on Street. But those on 
the door of the Marquess of Bath's house in Berkeley 
Square are easily the finest examples of the dolphin 
knocker now in London. 

There is a mermaid knocker at No. 25, Queen 
Anne's (late ; that on the door of Mr. Asher 
Wertheimer, at No. 8, Connaught Place — a circlet of 
acanthus with ribbon scroll— is of chaste design. So 
that, upon the whole, the taste for beautiful knockers 
still exists, and may in time become a cult. 

If we turn from merely artistic excellence to artistic 
associations, we shall find in a tour of the London 

BORN 172S : DIED 1807 
Bv permission of the publisher, Mr 

Some Artistic Door-knockers 

streets stil'. 
much to re 
pay u 

J o h i) s o n ' s 
house, No. 1 7. 
Gough - 

( larlyle's house 
at Chelsea, and 
the knocker at 
No. 10, 1 •own- 
in- Street, are 
disting u ished 
in their history. 
They have 
been grasped 


CRAVEN STREET, STRAND ty the » ll » d S 

of the greatest 
men of their time. There is one knocker, lately passed 
into the hands of a collector, which is declared to 
have suggested a celebrated character in fiction. 

The celebrated Pickens knocker, at one time on 
the door of Xo. 8, Craven Street, Strand, recalls 
the opening of the Christmas Carol, where S 
is confronted by it on his own doorstep. He had 
just arrived home through the dense fog. " Now 
it is a fact," the author says, "that there was nothing 
at all particular about the knocker on the door. 
except that it was very large. It is also a fact that 
Scrooge had seen it night and morning duril 
whole residence in that place. . . . And thus lei 
any man explain to me, i( he can, how it happened 
that Scrooge, having his key in the lock of the door. 
saw in the knocker, without its undergoing any 
intermediate process of change, net a knocker, bul 
Marley's face . . . like a bail lobster in a dark 
cellar. It was not angry or ferocious, but looked 
at Scrooge as Marley used to look, with 
spectacles turned up on its ghostly forehead. 'Hie 
hair was curiously stirred, as if by breath 
air ; and though the eyes were wide 0] 
perfectly motionless. That and its livid colour made- 
it horrible : but its horror seemed to be in 
the face, and beyond its control, rather than a pail 
of its own expression." 

Charles Dickens was a great authority i 
knockers, and his novels are full of th 
and etiquette of the many he describe 
Ralph Nickleby visits his poor relation al Miss l.a 
Creevy's house in the Strand, she tell 

low the 

■ in a n 

where the bell 

is, and tell him 


knock d 

for the 
e. ond 


when the bell's 
broke, and then 
it musl 

of the Theatre 
Royal. l)i -un- 

heal policemen and play at coaches with other 
people's money, and all that sort of thii 
Mr. Lillyvick, with his worldly knowledge, explains 
it by the one word "aristocratic.'' When poor Mr. 
Kenwigs becomes a parent for the sixth time, he 
sends out for "a pair of the cheapest white kid 
hi ise at fourteen , lecting the 

: hand one, 
with an air of pomp and much 
excitement, and proceeded to muffle the knob of 
the Street door-knocker therein," for, as the author 
says, " there are certain polite forms and 
which must be observed in ■ -. I mankind into their original barbarism." 

In Ringsgal : Street, Hi i - Mrs. dan. p. 

whose street door-knocker, it will I 

to wake the street with ease, and 
even spread alarms of fire in Holborn without 
making the smallest impression on the | 

It was tliis same knocker 

his heart " 

applied himself to. "At tl uble-knock 

dow in the street became alive with female 


< in the « 

2 a 

3 o 

Old Dolls 

By Mrs. F. Nevill JacKson 

Realism has always been the most striking 
characteristic of the inhabitants of the doll-world. 
It is not given to every child to enter fully into the 
joys of make-believe — a fine imagination is a heaven- 
sent gift — by its alchemy, a stick with a gourd or a 
turnip for a head may become a much-loved baby 
doll. It is interesting to note that in elementary dulls, 
which occur all over the world, the upright line and the 
knob for a head are always there : as a more intricate 
anatomy is added, another stick, fastened cross-wise. 
indicates the shoulder-line. This holds clothes and 
pendant arms and movable legs: eyes, nose, mouth, 
and hair, fingers 
and toes, com- 
plete the evo- 
lution of the 
puppet in its out- 
ward likeness to 
a human form. 

Even a sem- 
blance of speech 
was attempted 
w hen in 1824 


applied for in 

Paris for mechan- 
ism in a doll by 
means of which 
noises. supposed, 
by 1 ourtesy, to 
be the words 
Papa and -Mama, 
could be made. 
The apparatus 
was worked 1>\ 
raising the doll's 
right or left 
arm. This action 
worked little bel- 
lows in its chest, 
and the si Hinds 
were emitted. 
Though a kind 

ol phonograph doll of more recent invention 

a larger vocabulary, we have hitherto mercifully been 

spared a popular talking doll, and realism is confined 

to expression in shape and clot) 

Dolls now are very much as they were in I 

Roman times, when movable joints already delighted 

the children : and their clothing is certainly no more 

elaborate in the present day than ■ 

specimens we see in 11ms. : , 

dating from the Renaissance- period in I',. 

or Spain. 

Perhaps the finest known riod is that 

belonging to 
a French col- 
lector. Standing 
nearly 50 inches 
in height, the 

A-ith its 


and \ 
■ ^g^ expression, indi 

hat the 

.vM^^ not 

.lain t< 

their skill in doll- 
making. This 

teenth 1 

and is : 

The Connoisseur 


3j inches 

garments suited to their age and requirements as 
they do now. They were dressed in small editions 
of the garments worn by their elders. Even 
their jewels were as sumptuous, and their lace as 
elaborate, as we may see in the pictures of Holbein, 
Vandyke, and other masters, who, with great 
accuracy of detail, show the costume of their 
i hildren as well as adults. But to return 
to the " poupee du temps des Yalois" belonging to 
Monsieur d'Almagne, she is dressed in white silk, 
whii ii is almost completely covered with elaborate 
embroideries in orange-coloured silks. The robe is 
fitting, as to the bodii e, and in one with 
the skirt, whirl) shows a suggestion of the boi/ffante 
effect, which was to culminate in the hoop ol later 
limes. Lines of gold-coloured silk lace or galon 
ornament the bodice, and divide the skirt in panels. 
In the eyes of the connoisseur the make of this 

lace is sufficient to date the doll. The sleeves are 

:1) trimmed with it ; hanging uppet sleeves 

reveal richly embroidered under ones, which are 

further ornamented with silk-embroidered buttons. 

| - of what we should now call 
ilour, togethei with the narrow purling 

at the edge, is yellow with a of this 

remarkable doll are richly embroidered on the cuffs 
in tiny flowers and fruits ; in the centre of each cuft 
is a minutely wrought medallion showing allegorical 
figures. Hanging from one of her wrists is a purse, 
or aiimontcre, profusely decorated in silver, and on 
her right arm she bears a doll — a doll's doll in fact, 
which is almost as elaborately dressed as herself. 
Silver lace decorates the blue robe of this smaller 
puppet. The iuste-au-corps has long hanging sleeves, 
with tight under-sleeves of yellow. 

These contrasting sleeves, with widely padded 
shoulder pieces or puffs, are noticeable in the doll 
held by Lady Arabella Stuart in the well-known 
picture. The ruff of the period, with outstanding 
skirts at the hem, is also shown. 

So important was the sit of the skirts in the eyes 
of the old doll-dressers, that various devices are 
resorted to in order to gain the right effect ; the most 
frequently used is the slight cage of thin split cane or 
wire. 1 >olls of this period seldom have legs ; the 
body is firmly fixed in the cage or crinoline, which 
makes a capital stand, and spreads out the folds of 
the skirt at the same time. That such figures were 
real dolls and not fashion puppets is proved by their 
frequent representation in the hands of children in 
contemporary art. 

Though old dolls are always made to dress and 
undress, this want of lower limbs must have proved 

The ( vnnoisseur 

eminently unsatisfactory 
in all " putting to bed " 
games, which are so 
delighted in by children. 

All play being based on 
mimicry, the undressing 
and going to bed, the 
getting up and dressing 
processes, naturally bulk 
largely in the games of 
the little ones, and it is 
a mean doll-dresser who, 
to save herself trouble, 
stitches the clothes on to 
the body of the doll — she 
deprives the owner of a 
huge delight. 

Whether it is because 
time has dealt more 
harshly with the under- 
garments than with the 
upper, or that dolls of old 
time were dressed like the 
real people with fewer and 
less complicated lingerie, 
certain it is that up to 
the end of the eighteenth 
century the under-garments of dolls are of the most 
sketchy description, hoops, wires, and solid blocks 
of wood taking the place of petticoats to make the 
skirts stand out. 

It is strange that a child frequentl) endows a 
favourite doll with a temperament similar to her own. 
Perhaps then- is a feeling oi pleasant justification 
when a doll is punished for offences which the little 
mother herself has committed, or invents ingenious 
nursery crimes for the puppet which she herself 
would commit, were it not for the surveillance of 
authorities. It is undoubtedly to this feeling the tilting toy owes its popularity; that doll or 
figure which, on account of its carefully adjusted 
weight, always returns to the erect position. The 
"going to bed " game is great Win with such a toy, for 
the doll is naughty, and, like its little owner, rebels 
at being made to lie down ; in fact, springs up again 
al on, e. and has to be summarily punished. 

For the origin of that doll we must search in China, 

where it i generall) found made of paper or thin 

'ard, and painted to represent an old man 

.1 fan. So fully does religion entei into the 

smallest detail ol the everyday life ol the Celestials, 

that it is not surprising to find the tilling toy is 

" Rise up, little Priest," or "Struck, not Falling." 
'1 here is a tradition that Buddha cannot tall. This 


is one of the many toys 
based on ecclesiastical 
practice or tradition. In 
Japan the doll weighted 
at the base is made to 
represent the god Daruma, 
and is always called by his 
name. We are not aware 
that this type occurs in 
India ; if it does, it would 
be interesting to learn to 
whom its attributes were 
assigned in that country, 
where the rules of a com- 
plicated religious ritual 
dictate the simplest action 
of the mother towards 
the child from the hour 
of its birth. 

Amongst the dolls 
specially made for young 
children, the soft-bodied 
rag-doll has always been 
prime favourite — doubt- 
less sticks and stones were 
-.- doll with articulated wrapped in a scrap of leaf 
'at 17 inches in height or hide and mothered 
by the prehistoric child ; but we feel sure that the 
baby's doll was always made of suitable softness, 
for is it not the mother's instinct to give to her 
little one only what could do him no bodily harm. 
Certainly three centuries before Christ, dolls were 
made of woven linen stuffed with papyrus. Such a 
doll, measuring 3.I inches from crown to toe, was 
found at Behnesch during the excavations in 1896. 
The body is well shaped, though rather long ; the 
neck not well defined : but the head is excellent, with 
handsome embroidered features, well calculated to 
withstand hard wear. The hair is indicated by threads 
of linen. Round the waist of this extraordinary relic, 
made twenty-three centuries ago, there is a neatly 
fitting band of red woollen stuff, surely the earliest 
known example of doll-dressing. It is, of course, 
owing to the fait that the toys of children were buried 
with them that this Egypto-Roman rag-doll has been 
preserved. With the Greeks and Romans also this 
practice prevailed, ami it is interesting to note that 
though with the introduction of Christianity the old 
pagan belief in the utility of such things to the dead 
naturally passed away, yet so difficult is it to throw 
off old customs, and so conservative are people in all 
matters deeply affecting them, that the practice of 
burying toys with the children was long continued 
after its meaning had ceased to he an article of belief. 

The Connoisseur 

A Little China Village By Gertrude Crowe 

Most collectors have, I suppo 
"line" or hobby, but not many appear to have mad. 
old English china cottages their particular cult. 

These are somewhat quaint reminders of anothei 
generation — when it 
was considered a sign 
of gentility to faint and 
"languish," and spices 
and pastilles were 
accordingly m o r e 
favoured in the drawing- 
rooms of that day than 
the open w i n d o w s of 
our present era. 
Equally, t her. ifore, it 
was necessary to have 
Pastille-Burners for the 
use of such, and thus thes. 
raison d'etre I 

The better ones were made at the Rockingham 
works in Yorkshire, which existed from about 1745 
to 1842, and these were modelled in a line bone-ash 
paste, and quite dis- 
tinct in quality from 
the later ones, which 
the Staffordshire 
potters began imitat- 
ing at their different 
factories about the 
year 1830. 

Some Pastille- 

"11V,I s 

little cottages had their 

I'I'IV .ll-o 

made at Leed8 > ' md BALMORA1 • ,.u 

some — still fewer — at 

Bow and Chelsea. The latter ones (like the best 
Rockingham cottages) wen' generally of a delicate- 
white outlined in gold, and with beautifull) modelled 
flowers and foliage scrambling over the roofs and 
walls in a riot of brilliant colours, while tin 

"front gardens" have their flowery "plots" to cor- 
respond, - etimes with the addition 

kennel, 01 in the case of othei 1 
in my collection a cosy fai m hou ;e n ith "d 

fully ch e w ing the 
placid cud of pastoral 
repose beside th 


of the 

kind (in u 

I ked up 

(far from its original 
birthplace) on the 

■• bog-deal " 1 
.1 smoke-dimmi .1 [ri h 1 .bin. where it h u 
found its way from 
and doubl I 
year," with all the attendant honors, still whispered 

peasantry to the present date 
with bated breath. 
re those 
modelled after such 
famous buildings as 

at Stratford-on-Avon 

(of which 1 own a 
beautiful 1 : 
Ann Ha 

old-world ■ n 

Rosemar) for remembram e . . . and . . . 
. . for thou ;hts.' I I ■. 

( Castle, the name inscribed 

ol amonsrst th 

\KK \< KS, ETC 

with it 
such as 


■ old letters ; but I mu ;l ■ 



The Connoisseur 

: h %» 



liKOUl' Ol- THREE 1' \sril I E-BURNERS AND 


hear much likeness to the aforesaid Royal residenc 
and, in design at all events, far more resembl 
the adjacent ancient keep of 
Abergeldie than "the King's 
own " Scottish home. 

Many of the Staffordshire 
Pastille-Burners were decorated 
in blue and white after 1 )elft style, 
and are heavier and coarser in 
texture than their daintier and 
older rivals, while (for more 
homely use. and for those whose 
pretensions did not aspire to the 
burning of pastilles) one finds 
the little "savings banks'' or 
receptacles for night-light 
shelters, but which are (naturally) 
devoid of the early charm of the 
g mtler specimens. 

I must not omit mention of two 
barracks, almost the same in colouring, and about 
seven niches in height, each being guarded by a 
sentinel in scarlet uniform of the Wellington period. 

These a 


tinctly unique, as is also a mill and 
h rock-bound mountain stream and a 
two-storied cottage, with lichen- 
covered thatch and creeper-clad 
walls — a huge house-dog lying 
"on watch" at the front door. 
Though chiefly depicted in 
summer time with gaily coloured 
bloom and blossom, sometimes 
(though rarely) one comes 
across a china cottage covered 
in snow, with the frost and 
rime, robins, holly, and mistle- 
toe of a wintry and Christmas 
period. Very few are marked, 
but some are known to bear the 
marks of Spode or Walton, 
while the average height is 
from three to five inches, and 
upwards. Rockingham ware, 
however, was said to be seldom marked, and of 
this (as I have stated) the better and earlier cottages 
were chiefly composed. 




»S ,J% • 


- ;" 



Notes on Two "Lesser George" of the Order of the Garter in 
the possession of His Grace the DuKe of Beaufort By Guy- 
Francis Laking, M.V.O., F.S.A., Keeper of the King's Armoury 

The "Lesser George" of the Garter — the 
pendant formerly worn by a ribband around the neck, 
but at a later date more often attached to a ribband 
or scarf, and worn across the left shoulder — must not 
be confused with the "Great George" of the same 
Order, which is a model figure of St. George slaving 

the dragon worn Suspended from th 
of the on 

the "Li r Geot oi ra 

pendants of the Ga 

Visiting Badminton sorrn no . the writer 

had tb opp ■ 

The Connoisseur 

under the able guidance of the I luchess of Beaufort. 
The intimate knowledge and deep interest taken by 
Her Grace in all appertaining to the family lent an 
especial charm to the inspection. There were many 
treasures in that line house that owe much to their 
sentimental interest. These historical and family 
associations were admirably described by Her Grace. 
Unfortunately, as is often the case, accuracy of 

making the history of the Rupert jewel more than 
doubly possible and probable. 

Continuing the inspection of the Badminton treasures, 
an old-world cabinet arranged so as to form a show- 
case was arrived at. In it were many small treasures 
of varying interest, fragmentary, and in some instances 
relics of the child-like collections of the youthful 
Somersets of earlier generations. Hut it was among 

archaeological detail at times upsets the most cherished 

of family traditions, and, alas! Mich a check came 

vitrine containing various badges of the 

Order of the Gartei was inspected. Among other 

< larter jewels the writer was shown a " Lesser ( leorge " 

' i d as having been worn by Prince Rupert. 

and givi n bj him to Edward, se< ond Marquess ol 

i. 1 lowever, as the gold enamelled jewel 

itself could not, from its style and manufacture, have 

>ldei than the first years of the ninet enth 

its assoi latum with Prince Ruperl was 

diffii nil to bell- •. I : 1 m he "i Beauforl ai cepted 

I the Rupert Carter jewel with fortitude. 

however, did Her < Irai e or the writei think that 
this shattered family idol would almost immediate!) 
be reinstated le re at importance, 

this heterogeneous collection that we came across 
our treasure. 

Hanging on a bent pin, in the corner of the 
cupboard, by a piece of faded red ribband, was a 
small oval enamelled plaque pierced and modelled 
a jour with the representation of St. George and 
the Dragon. It was a charming example of early 
seventeenth century English enamelling. The writer 
pointed it out to ller Grace as the centre of a darter 
badge of very considerable importance, expressing at 
the same time great regret that the setting with the 
famous HON! -on iii i \i\i \ PENS! motto was 
missing. Hardly had the regret been expressed than 
the line gold enamelled mount came to light, laying 
partly hidden beneath a quantity of small objects. 
The two pieces were placed together ; they fitted 

Two "Lesser George' 1 of the Order of the Garter 

accurately, with the result thai i orge " of 

the Order of the Garter of early date and of greatest 
importance lay before us. 

However, there are spots on the sun — and our find 
lacked something, for the frame of the jewel had 
been despoiled of the large precious stone 
which it was formerly surrounded. These were doubt- 
less rose diamonds, and which, for their intrinsic 
value, had at some time been picked out, as in the 

characteristic of the time, lor beyond the mitre that 
holds the stone in position, additional cut card 

escallop woi 11 dim nsions, also in the silver, 

encircles each stone. The reverse side of this 

irge" is especially beautiful, as the 

mation of Si. Ceorgc and the Dragon is 

ertainly earlier in style than the actual period of its 

be taken lor a 

Charles I. " Lesser George" in the Ro 
at Windsor Castle. Once more the shatter d 
tradition could be pieced together here « 
Garter jewel of Prince Rupert— at least it « 
tainly of his time, and might have been hi 
such attributions are possible when the obj. 
the period of the person to whom il is ao 
But to return to the newl) d 
frame is of Lighl coloured gold, the front fa* 
taining the setting for twelve large stones, I" 
additional pear-shaped tone al the ba 
the space which on the reverse is tl 
Garter strap. The suspending loop abi 
set with two large stones. The - 
the front face a Id an 

St. George, such I i Still present on tl 

ol the third quarter 

ofthesixti i i 

in opaque win: 

re in natural trai 
gold, with 



The Connoisseur 

the front face. These escallops are enamelled opaque 
white — the one immediately below the loop for 
suspension being of larger dimensions than the others, 
and additionally shaded in colours to represent an 
acanthus leaf, the remainder being painted with 
delicate tendril scrollwork. 

This type of enamelling, a white ground enriched 

richness and dimensions than the first, but like it, 
of English workmanship, and of the same period; 
indeed, in all probability by the same hand. 

Although a most careful search was made, its 
centre medallion was, unfortunately, not to be found. 
However, as a fragment of a Garter jewel, it had even 
greater interest than the first discovered, inasmuch 
as it was more robust in proportion, the enamelling 

No. Y. (b).-e> 


ol its lime— the French Louis XIII.— and 
ly eliminates any chance oi the jewel being 
ol an earliei date. 

The empty settings of this jewel have now been 
skilfully filled with while sapphires cut in the old 
rose manner, so as to accurately In and be in 
charactei with the jewel the) adorn. Instead of the 
missing cami o has been placed a plain plaque ol 
onyx with a simply i hamfi red 

3o hum h loi the first disi overy ; but n.m foi th 

Before finallj < lo ing the cupboard in which 

nil this disintegrate d I iarti i ji wel, a further 

- d vhen behold, beneath anothei 

at ■ umulation ol obji - I i the second frame ol a 

'" ' lav hidden. It was oi greater 

more brilliant, and, above all, it contained foui ol 
the original stone's with which it was set. These 
proved to be of two sorts, rubles anil diamonds 
placed alternately around the front lace. Although 
•lie actual si/,- o| the jewel was about the same, the 
precious stonei were ol larger proportions. Theywere 

origin.ilK ten in number, oval in shape, and cut in 

table fashion. 

The frame is executi d in pale gold, the chamfered 

letting to the rubies being in that metal, whilst the 
settings of the diamonds are in silver. between each 

ion. is a sin. HI decorated gold bow. These bow . 
on the enamelled or underface of the jewel, show- 
as a series of small oval pierced panels placed I'- tw n 
the escallops ol the border. The suspending loop 

Two "Lesser George" of the Order of the Garter 

contained a single ruby. Three rubies aw 

diamond remained. On the resetting of tl 

it was found that the rubies proved to be what are 

termed "doublets," that is, .1 crystal stone backed 

with crimson foil, laced with a thin stratum 

ruby, and set together in the conventional n 

In place of the missing diamonds were reset 

but the rubies were added in true " double! 1 

enamelled face of the jewel shows the Garter motto 

somewhat more thickly lettered than iti thi 

" Lesser George." The translucent enamelled 

is also of a more peacock shade of blue. Th 

and buckle to the darter are simply rendered. .\s 

already stated the escallops round the bordei are 

fewer, but of larger proportions, with a hollow oval 

between each. Each escallop is enamelled white and 

shaded in polychrome to represent a trepartite leaf. 

As no centre could be found to this jewel, a 

onyx cameo was cut with the figures of St. George 

and the Dragon to occupy the empty space in the 

front face of the frame. The modern cameo is nol 

entirely satisfactory, but it is the best that cou 

produced. The plain onyx back of th 

on the reverse side of the ji wel. 

To whom the second ( iarter jewel formerly 1 1 1 
it is impossible to say — perhaps this and not the first 
specimen described may have been the Rupert Garl t 
badge — but that must remain unwritten histor) 
Duchess of Beaufort makes the suggestion that as 
the first Lord Glamorgan was given \\v 1,. 
Charles I. in his father's lifetime, as well as his 
peerage, one of these two " Lessei Geo 
have been worn by him. 

That these two line examples o! English seven- 
teenth century goldsmith's work should h,:\ been 

cast aside antOI 

1 -ooiled of th. 
ably in ; 


orthless. theii 

mall articles among which tl. 
of these two jewels were found were collected many 
years a. n: Duchess 01 . 

the many old store cupboards at Badminton. 

importance were found with 

I - uter jewels, but space will not permit of their 

The descriptions of the illustrations are as follows : 

Xo. i., the gold and enamelled relief forming the 

centre of the first "1.- 1 G 

first find. No. ii.. a and />, the frame of thi 

ion. This was tl ows its 

c with the stones extracted ; /'. it- en 
face with the Garter motto. No. hi., a and /•, the 
jewel after its restoration : a, shows its front set 
with white sapphires and with a plain agate back ; 
/., its enamelled face with I 
enamelled medallion placed back in 1 
No i"-.. a and i shov I Fi 
second "Li Geoi This was the third find. 

a, its tu.n; I stones in 

position : /'. its enamelled face with the Carter motto. 
its front face with 
also the modern cameo in 
face with the Carter motto 11 

The Connoisseur 

Some French Pastellists 

By C. Lewis Hind 

Sometimes at an auction sale I have seen 
small pastels, properly framed, properly discoloured, 
of bright, gay faces that seem to have the secret of 
perpetual fragrance and freshness ; sometimes one of 
them has been called Madame de Pompadour, another 
Madame Favart, and in the catalogue the ascription 
has run : " By or attributed to La Tour." 

Somebody has bought these charming things. I 
have not, being wary, perhaps bitterly over-wary ; and 
now that I have looked through and lingered over 
the reproductions of the pastels by La Tour and 
all the others in this book, I do not regret my 
caution — the reproductions are so near to the 
originals. Of all the pitfalls that yawn before the 
enthusiastic but unlearned amateur, the excellence of 
the modern facsimile colour reproductions is one of 
the commonest. It would be so easy for a dishonest 
dealer to frame properly any in this volume, to 
discolour them properly, to scatter the lovely things 
about the world, and to label them — by or attributed 
to Rosalba Carriera, La Tour, Chardin, Boucher, 
Perronneau, or Drouais. One is almost inclined to 
remove the La Tours from the pages to which they 
are affixed, and to take them for comparison and 
education to that shrine of the pastel. Saint Quentin, 
in northern France, where " La Tour's sketches 
hang upon the walls to give a hint of the man's 
splendid achievement." 

What a splendid achievement it was — within its 
limits perfect ' La Tour is the name that rises to 
the lips at the mention of the French pastellists of 
the eighteenth century. He was the sun around 
which the others revolved, and when he died in 
17.S.S, with him, "with this Maurice Quentin de la 
Tour passed away the pastel of the great age in 
1 lci ' Others came afterwards, that is, after the 
cataclysm of the Revolution which La Tour (he was 
mad in his latter years) just escaped. There was 
Prud'hon for example, and to-day the pastellists are 

;ion bul France lias only one l.a Tour. He is 
1 > outstanding, .is significant as Turner in water- 

I hal I . i Tour stands alone, unrivalled, is self- 
videnl from the reproduction - in tin-, book, and 
Mr. I [aldane Macfall m 1 ol the idolatry 

he I11 ■ for I >iderot's Magician. I envy the enjoyment 
- .1I1 inn ,1 have had in compo ting the text. It 
was a subj.-ct entirely to his taste, and his enthusiasm 


ane Macfall, with fifty-two illustration . 1 Ma 

carries him forward breathlessly from the first page to 
the last. He runs, he leaps, he dances, he twists, 
he turns, he smiles. The sparkle of the period has 
captured him : he does everything except write plain, 
bald prose. It is very captivating for a time, a long 
time, and the short chapters that jump from subject 
to subject, like a bird hopping from twig to twig, are 
no doubt in keeping with the tripping art of the 
pastellists. Mr. Macfall's pen ranges beyond his 
theme : in effect his book is an interpretation of the 
social and art history of France from 1700, "the 
setting of King Sun " — which is the Macfallian way of 
describing the last years of Louis the Fourteenth — 
to that awful engulfment of art and all else in the 
Revolution, when "the reputation of La Tour went 
down in the great flood, together with those of 
Boucher and Fragonard, Chardin and Greuze, and 
tin- rest of the goodly company." 

" Thereafter a vast silence." In 181 1 twenty-five 
ol l.a Tour's sketches were sold, with forty drawings 
by La Rue, in one lot at auction ; in 1S26 his portrait 
ot Crcbil/on pert was knocked down for thirty francs, 
and as late as 1 <S 7 3 the two sketches for Silvestre 
and Dumont le Romain brought no more than three 
hundred francs. To-day— well try to buy a pastel by 
La Tour at the Hotel Drouot — and now there is this 
book, to the honour and glory of La Tour and his 
fellow pastellists, so fascinating, so new, so different 
from the ordinary colour-book. One wonders why 
the subject was never treated before. 

How did the pastel come to France? Mr. Macfall, 
in his picturesque way. makes that quite clear. It 
rame in the satchel of that Venetian lady, Rosalba 
Carriera, the brilliant and popular Rosalba, admired 
by collectors and amateurs, who arrived in Paris in 
1 -20, when La Tour was sixteen years of age, bringing 
with her " in a satchel sundry coloured chalks, which 
were soon to be known throughout all France as 
'pastels.'" Rosalba, although she stayed but a year 
in Tans, her. Hue the vogue, and pastels the rage. 
From Court to Court she travelled, and everybody 
who was anybody had to be pastelled by Rosalba. 
1 II course she was not the first by any means to work 
in coloured chalks. 'The names of Holbein, Largilliere 
and Watteau al one- occur, but she made tli'' pastel 
portrait the fashion, ami turned the eyes Ol the young 
I, a 'Tour, the young Toucher, and the young Perron- 
neau towards it. Very alluring, very attractive must 

the pastels ol Rosalba have seemed to light-hearted, 

sedan-chair Paris in those early years ol the reign ol 
Louis the Fifteenth. Tut hei Girl with the Monkey, 



From ■• French Pastcll'ists oj the IStli Centur 

Published by Messrs. MacmUUm i 

Some French Pastellists 

reproduced in this volume, is little more than [ 
with no hint of the incisiveness iro the deep know- 
ledge underlying the charm of presentation that was 
to make the pastel, in the hands ol La Tour, so fitting, 

so final a vehicle for the expression of his tempi 

Surely in the history of art rarely has a man 
his metier so completely as did La Tour in tin 
heads and busts he produced, not easily, one might 
almost say with agony. When he essayed a full- 
length figure, as in his famous pastel of La Pompadour. 
l\ ft. high by 4 ft. wide, the interest becomes 
scattered, and although there is no fault to be found 
with the drawing, we miss the vivid and direel 
characterisation of his less pretentious work. The 
delicacy of his 'Pic Penchee, the strength of his 
Chardin, the gamin-like knowingness of his Madame 
Favart, the sweetness-out-of-strength that marks his 
Mademoiselle Puvigny and La Camargo, the brilliant 
forcefulness of The Dauphin — these are essential 
La Tour far beyond anything that Rosalba or am 
of his contemporaries, except, perhaps, Chardin, 
could have done. One may be inclined to call these 
heads slight : but as much effort, sincerity, and con- 
centration went to the making of them as to man} 
of the world's great portraits. Slight as La Tour's 
heads may seem, they were produced in no slight 
mood : they represent real, downright work, not 
interludes in a working day. Maneite, the art col- 
lector, has left on record the seventy of La Tour's 
self-criticism, and his discontent with his efforts. He 
destroyed much; he tormented himself about the 
quality of his craftsmanship; and he tormented his 
sitters with his moods. He was restless, nervous, 
irritated, discontented with his achieve,,,- nt 
eager for praise; and he hated criticism— and out 
of all this, this volcano of disquietude, can 
lovely things-heads so slight and fragile that it 
seeim almost as if a breath will blow them a« 
spirituel faces, ton, bed in, as Reinach says 
colours like the dust on tin 
Such a head is that of Mademoiselle Fel, "a little 
young woman, not at all pretty," as I 
in the report of the inspector of police. 

This singer, about whom men went mad, who was 

of bull 

La Toui ompanion, loving a 

lives today, charming and enigmatic 
pastel i n. I turn from hei I 

pien me " alism i I lire, the first 

La Tour that - id published, 

and then back to the " seductive Fel," the kind and 
faithful Fel, who humo n da < in his 

brilliant days, and wat< hed i 
in the dai 
Fel, are too poignantly aliv, to be companio 

brained together they would give to the room in 

which they hung the air of being haunted. The vision 
of Mam ice Quentin de la Tour was so intense that 
he becomes almost a 

I t i s o the 1 nlliant 

but unequal Perronneau, whos 
Hundred Portraits ot Women" exhibition in Paris 
last spring proclaimed him a nee' r. Hei 
with an ineffably pretty pan of ia blue 

dress, each nursing a cat im Bo 

was all things to all men. with a S ■ 
elegant, charming, superficial, th aco 
Boucher, who has survived the stinging cril 
Grimm ; and here are all the others, the a 

portrait ol Chardin by himself. His past 

aside; he did not mind tie I i "mt. which 

nauseated La Tour. 

La lour ! It was inevitable thi t I 

to him, to th la o ■ " 

sad re.n ' 

In his dei line, before hi ray, he was 

tortured by the desire to find a means to make 
pastel i" rmanent. He exp trin 
laboured, " onlj to di ro 

t h ■ most exquisite work ol hi Hie secret v 

discovi I- d, but not by him. In tl 
turned ■■■"• °' ! lthl : ,; ; " ,ver of his 

art left him : he had visio »'orld I 

like Turner lie planned ch 

t r0 v, to di ■ ntangli his ideas about 

i, ot Voltaii 

But all this is out 


[The Editor invites the assistance of readers oj 
Iim Connoisseur Magazine who may be able to 
impart the information required by Correspondents.} 

Portrait Group signed Hen. JV. 
; Dear Sir,— I enclose a photograph of one of the 
pictures at The Great House, North Nibley, Dursley, 
Gloucestershire. It is of Baptist Noel, 4th Earl of 

Passing on left ot picture, foreground, a young lady 
running away with hands raised in alarm ; behind her 
another lady starting back terrified ; a basket of violets 
on the ground, and close to it a large snake. Middle 
distance, a large mansion surrounded by a river, in 
which is an island with a summer-house ; a bridge 
over the river. Far distance, a river sparkling in the 
sun, with a mountain : the whole full of sunshine. 

Gainsborough, the Countess ol Gainsborough, and the 

the left- 
,-. and a 
Can any 

ladies Elizabeth, Jane, and Juliana Noel. Ii 
hand bottom corner is a signature Hen. _ 
surname I cannot decipher, with the date 1737. 
ol your readers identify the artist? 

Yours faithfully, 

\V. F. X 

LOI All IN 'i! \ 1'ICl URE. 

Sir, Can anyone tell me where the following picture 
is?— Foreground, right <>! picture, watei falling from a 

pipe mi ulai basin ; underneath large tier. 

..,': woman sitting, he with his arm round her 
rig up a warning finger; above, an ale- 
house, with .1 girl tnd a fat woman pouring 

wine into a glass, man on a white horse ■ coa 

About thirty years ago I saw a print 01 this picture, 
,,n.l the man writing about it said it was by Rubens— 
or was it Rembrandt?— and said he could make nothing 
of the whole thing. I think it is very easy; it is a 
lesson u> lly from temptation. I got an old picture 
so black with smoke I could make nothing of it, so 
when I was unwell 1 amused myself by rubbing off 
the varnish, and was astonished by the result. It is, 
ot course, a copy. 

I am, yours faithfully, 

I'm is. P. TuCKEY. 


Dear Sir, 1 should be glad to know whether 

any readers have Mime across for sale the original 
drawings, bv Paul Sandby, of Warwick Castle, of which 


Notes and Qnerie. 


there are four or 
five prints from 
which the prints 
must have been 
I am, Sir, faith- 
fully yours, 
Sidney Gre- 

i'mi'i ntified 
Hoi -i 
1 )i \i: Sir, A 
friend visiting my 
house a feu* days 
ago, on procuring 
The Connois- 
seur Magazine 
of July, 1909, ob- 
served therein an 
illustration of a 
country mansion and the letter of E. G. Leggatt to you. 
The observer recognised the illustration as that from 
a large oil-painting seen some few days previously at 
■the residence of a lady whose husband, since deceased, 
resided. The painting represents 
" Marchwick Hall." 

If this, my note, is sufficiently 
interesting to vour correspondent, 
I can get, perhaps, some informa- 
tion as to the location of the man- 
sion if he will write me. 

Yours faithfully, 

H. TUTHI1 1.. 

I'MDKMii 11 i> Portrait of 


(Dr. T. YV. Shepherd. 

1 ) 1 \ 1: Si R,— The pose and 

general treatment of thi 

(lady suggests to me the work of 

Adrian 1 laneinann, who, like Peter 

Lely, painted for a g 1 many 

years in England, and who, like 
Lely, was under the direct in- 
fluence of Van Dyck's style. It 
will be a difficult task to identify 
the portrait. I think his work is 
scarce, and, unless my memory is 
at fault, I have seen a few of them only in tin 
Brunswii k all unidentified. 

Lily, E. Si 1 

.. c HR] .1 f i 1 DING nil M 
••The \\ 

■indly help me I 


r thirty 

brother, n 
it about 

e a is be- 

. and he 

purchased it from 

a capta 

trailing vessel, 

nght it 

iples. It 

was then in a torn 

condition, and in 

a very p 1 a i n 

broken fra 

■ picture- 

it was of the 
eenth cen- 
tury. He put it 

1 UDE 

1 n r e p a 

now is, but would not touch the centre or figun 
the colours are not available at the present day. 1 
am thinking it may be by sonic old Italian painter, so 
would like to know who, and its value. 

Tin- smaller picture, -abject The 

Monty-.', ft, 1 ft. 7 in. 

by 1 tt. 1 m., 1 bo 

hand -hop. and would like to know 

the .11 11 -I ,0 

Yours truly, 

M. V. Stephens. 

Antique Sword. 
Dear : 

Mr. Hei berl 1 

.1 may 
say that I think it very unlikely 
that he « 1 in any- 

bei of ibout the 

middle of tl 

• 1 a it of King 
Charles Land 


in memory 

Portrait of 
a Gosshawk 

This portrait of a Gosshawk is taken from an oil 

painting on a panel of stout mahogany, measuring 
21 in. by 17 in. An inscription on 
the top left hand corner reads : " Falco 
Palumbarius : Linnaeus. This 'Goss- 
hawk' Came From ( iermany in [857, When he Became 

The Property of Sir Charles Domvile, and Was Trained 

to Fly at Hares, Rabbits & Pheasants by Capt. 

Salvin: He Dislocated His Wing, and Was Destroyed 

in 1864 at Santry." 

Santry is neai 


I have not been 

able to disi ovei 

the name of the 

artist, but a refer- 
ence to Capt. 

Salvin. who trained 

this bird, will not 

be out of place. 

Capt. Salvin, who 

died in 1904, in 

his 87th year, was 

di voted to field 

sports ; he wis an 

authority on the 

subject of falconry 

in this country, and 

had long practice 

in this sport, so 

1 hat Sir ('has. 

Domvile 1 ould 

have placed 

I in any 

better hands for 

training. Capt. 
ivas joint 

authoi <ii two 
I "H Ins fa\ 

ourite subji • t, \ iz., 
<y in the 

British M 

and Falconry: its History, Claims and Practice, 1857. 
The training of Cormorants for fishing was also a 
sport in which Capt. Salvin distinguished himself. — 
Wm. II. Patterson. 

Holbein's "Duchess of Milan" 

The final payment having been made for the pur- 
chase of Holbein's Duchess of Milan, the National 
Art Collections Fund officially presented this picture 
to the trustees of 
the National Gal- 
lery as a gift to the 
nation on Novem- 
ber Qth. In selec- 
ting this dale, the 
c o m m i 1 1 e e con- 
sidered the King's 
birthday a fitting 
opportunity foi 
making the pre- 
sentation in rei og- 
nition of His Ma- 
jesty's gracious act 
in founding the 
Special Reserve 
fund. In making 

ment the Execu 
tive Committee 
and the members 
of the fund thank 
all those who have 
conti ibuted tosave 
this picture for 

^{,'40,000. who so 
generousl) plai ed 
that sum at their 




The mezzotint here reproduced is by (i. H. Phillips, 

from a picture painted by F. Danby, A.R.A., and is 

,i beautiful rendering into black and 

The Enchanted whke Qf a|) i(Jea] , m(1 [)()L , t|e , an(| _ 

scape bathed in sunshine. 
Danby was an Irishman, burn near \\ exford in i 793. 
In 1825 he was elected an A.R.A., but fivi 
later he had a quarrel with that body, and left for 
Switzerland, where he almost gave up art and tool; to 
boat building and yachting. Eleven years later he- 
returned and painted seriously until his death in 1861. 

THOUGH the avowed object is to deal with the 
he museums, churches, and collections 
in Belgium, the illustrations to M. 
Fierens-Gevaert's second volume of 
Lti Primitifs Flamands include such 
exceptions as the famous Memlinc in 

the Duke of Devonshire's collection, 
and the l'ortinari altarpiece in the 
Uffizi at Florence. These exceptions 
might, perhaps, have been augmented 
with advantage, for the omission ol 
ortant pictures now outside Belgium pre- 
o cne student serious difficulty in comparative 
study. Thus it would have been advisable, 111 the 
absen , any authentic works by Justus ol Ghent 

i n the I- Igian collections, to give reproductions of 

paintings m 

Les Primitifs 


Vol. II. 

By Fierens- 



Oest & Co., 


12 frs. 


the famous portraits in the Barbarini Palai 
ascribed to Melozzo da Forli, ami The Last Supper in 
the Urbino Gallery. For the scholarly manner in 
which he deals with the better-known masters we have 
nothing but admiration, but we regret that he has not 
devoted more space to the li sei known men. I 
less than two pages to such a man as Adi ien 1 
is quite inadequate, bul the discussion ol works by 
such little known painters is the J 
Sang, km van Eeckele, and Ambrosius Benson, adds 
to the undoubted interest of the look. M. I r n ns 
Gevaert has little to add to thi 
M. von Bodenhausen in the mattei ol Gerard David. 
a new interest, however, in pointing out 
the influence ol Hugo van dei G 
upon his Flemish 1 onti mpoi 
but through the Portinari all 1 the Uffizi 

upon Ghirlandajo and L01 
I ram e upon the Maitre des M01 
have on. n been attributed to Hi 
ductions throughout are ol exi 

The book ol psalms illustrati d hi 


Meeter 1 I 
A Stuart Book w Whittingham, 
of Psalms sened wi| 

m withal. N 

The Connoisseur 

allowed to be sung in all Churches of all the people 
together before and after Morning and Evening 
prayers, and also before and after Sermons. More- 
over, in private houses their godly solace and comfort: 
Lying apart all ungodly songs and ballads which may 
tend only to the committing of vices and corruptions 
of youth." 

The volume was published in London " imprinted 
for the Company of Stationers" in 1627. The 
Stuart needlework cover of this volume is very 

the design is worked 
The heart has once been red, but 
and the 

elaborate. The arch 

silver thread 

now faded 

crown in which the 

heart rests was once 

salmon colour picked 

out with silver. The 

ground-work i s cream, 

and the flowers and 

other portions of the 

design are yellow and 

green and blue. It is 

not difficult to see the 

meaning of a heart and 

a crown surmounted by 

arising sun in a binding 

of middle Stuart days 

lovingly worked with 

the needle. Although 

the book was printed in 

1627, the binding is 

evidently of a later date, 

as an insi ription written 

on the fly-leaf indicates : 

"Ann Hamilton given me b\ Her Grace the Duchess 

of Hamilton." Unfortunately, no date is attached. In 

all probability "Ann Hamilton" may have received 

ih'' book from her aunt the first Duchess. (There 

was no Duke of Hamilton when the book was 

printed, and consequently no Duchess.) She, the 

Lady Ann, was born in [636, and s :eded to lli>- 

title when thirteen years of age; she is still known 
as " lb- good I >ui hess Ann." 

There does not appeal to be any ol the 1 abalistii 
si^ns on this cover whii h are often found in Stuart 
needlework designs associated with royalty, or having, 
as undoubtedly this cover has, strong royalistic 
symbolism, and probabl) worked shortly after the 
Stuarts weir driven into exile. Smart stamp pictures 

ain animal - an,] bird : freelj used symbolically. 

rpillai .mil butterflj usuallj accompanj ru edL 
work portraits ol ( harli ; I., ju n a \ th inn, orn was 
the devii e ol his rather lame, I. It ma j not be 
unlikely that the portions ol the design in the form 


of an arch may be intended to suggest the caterpillar. 
In designs of an amateur nature such as this, where 
touches of loyalty to the unfortunate royal house were 
worked into a piece ol needlework, it is not easy to 
read aright what the gentle needlewoman may have 
intended.— A. H. 

Allgemeines Lexicon der Bildenden Kunstler 
Edited by Dr. U. Thieme and Dr. Felix Becker 
(W. Engelmann, Leipzig) Vol. II. 32 Mk. 

The second volume of Mr. Wilhelm Engelmann's 
stupendous Dictionary of Artists, published at Leipzig, 
deals in 600 pages with 
the names from Antonio 
da Monza t o Bassan, 
and it is to be feared 
that the editors' laud- 
able thoroughness and 
their conscientious in- 
clusion of every artist's 
name on record, will 
somewhat overshoot the 
mark and result in a 
work of such unwieldy 
dimensions as to make 
it prohibitive for the 
private student, to 
whose library shelves 
certain limits are at- 
tached. It is simply 
appalling to think how 
many volumes will be 
needed to carry this dic- 
tionary t o completion, 
when the two formidable tomes that have so far 
been issued do not take us beyond Ba. And it is 
a sad reflection, too, for some of us, that at the 
present rate of progress we may never be allowed 
to see the completion of this work, the editors 
having set themselves indeed a task of enormous 
difficulty. The real object of a reference book of 
this nature being not so much the recording the 
life and art of famous artists who are adequately 
dealt with in many other books of less extensive 
scope, but rather the inclusion of comparatively 
obscure aitists about whom it is more difficult to 
get reliable information, it is naturally exceedingly 
difficult to know where to diaw the line. In the 

presenl < ase an endeavoui seems to have been made 
to covet the ground so completely that the name ol 
1 vi i\ .1 1n.1t . in ladj miniature painter who has had 
the good fortune to have one of her attempts at 
portraiture accepted by the Royal Academy figures 
in the list. On the other hand, there are omissions 

<l- I ■ Ol EU'liUK CCA 



of artists of well-established reputation. To take an 
instance at random we find under the name of 
Atwood three references, one to an American 
architect, the second to an American wood eni 
and the third to an obscure English eighteenth- 
century flower painter. But there is no mention of 
Miss Clare Atwood, one of the most personal and 
competent lady painters of the present generation. 
Nor do we find among the many amateurs who the 
editors have seen fit to mention the name of General 
Baden Powell, who is not only a frequent exhibitor 
at our art shows and an active member of at least 
one artists' society, but whose work has become 
known to a large section of the public through 
reproductions of his war sketches 
in books and periodicals. But 
it would be ungracious to grum- 
ble at the comparatively rare 
faults of omission and other 
shortcomings in a publication ol 
such comprehensive magnitude. 
The thoroughness with which 
the editors have carried on their 
investigation may be gathered 
from the fact that no fewer 
than forty -one references will 
be found under the heading 

There is a very mi. re tin; 
history attached to the jug we 
A R re illustrate. W is 

Wedgwood in the possession 

Jug of Mr. Arthur 

Asian ait] rid v specialh 

made for his great-grandfather, 

: irrey, in [791, in 1 in umstances whi< h 
gn .1 11 1 onal touch to this sp 1 
I 11 1 ;i ale jug witli its inscription, "God 
the Plough ' and "Success to the Grain returned." 
and the sheaf of wheat, and the plough, and harrow, 
and scythe, and sickle, and other agricultural imple- 

The farm at the back in the design was 
Ridge Farm, near Cheadle, in Staffordshire, and 
Josiah Wedgwi od, always delicate in health, used 
to spend sour time thi 1 
during one ol his \ isits I 

reproduction on this jug which he had made on 
to Etruria, nted it to his host, 

\\ illiam Mum 

.1 f t e 1 

; 1 .: i- typical 

of many of the jugs and mugs 
being made in Staffordshire 
about thai date. I 

the inscriptions a 

quaint touch of humour ; 

v appeal to 



might I 


The Connoisseur 

These two handsome volumes, edited by Mr. Leman 
T. Hare, will replace all guides to the National Gallery 
heretofore given to the public. The 
"The National publishers showed brilliant enter- 
Gallery," by p r j se ; n applying modern colour- 
Paul G. Konody, process to their valuable book, and 
Maurice W. as mar ked acuteness in the selection 
Brockwell, and o( - t , le aut hors, whose names stand 
F. W. Lippman fo| . accuracv and research. The 
(too Plates in (ask wag nQ easy Qne Mr _ Har£ .. s 

° °!' r , , . selection of the hundred plates dis- 

Published in 17 , , ... , ,, 

„ paved (on-.tiiniii.ite skill; and the 

Parts at is. ' • r , 

„ , , . production of them tor so cheap a 

Complete in 2 ' . 

Volumes, by work is astonishing. 1 he author. 


s. T. C. 


cover a large field ; and 

and E. C. Jack) were snia " tribute to say that they 
have done their work well — they 
have done it astoundingly well. The wide acreage of 
the field they had to till left them scant range for the 
picturesque description of all the artists and their works. 
They wisely concentrated their strength upon giving in 
concise, brisk, and readable form the results of the 
latest researches of the very searching criticism that has 
been applied here and abroad to the art achievement 
of the past. It fell by chance that 1 needed a sound 
reference book upon the Italian, flemish, German and 
Dutch schools for a book upon which I was engaged 
at the time that the first nine or ten parts had been 

I found this work the soundest and most accurate in 
every detail — every recent attribution, query, date, and 
biographic discovery recorded in scholarly fashion that 
saved me an enormous mass of verification and of 
research. 1 can imagine no severer test ; 1 know no 
higher praise. These two volumes are simply invaluable. 
They supersede all previous guides to the national 
collection — and they do so in an interesting manner that 
makes for pleasant reading. Not only do we get tin- 
latest discoveries as to artists and their works, but the 
sizes of the pictures are recorded, details as to whether 
they are painted on canvas or panel, and the latest 
expert opinions. 

It uric ungrai mus to point out occasional flaws of 
style in so excellent a work ; the only serious blemish is 
the placing of the plates away from the text concerning 
them. The advantage in having the illustrations that 
render a fair idea oi the colour of the originals is 
prod gious; and when it is added that in many of the 
plates the very technique of the brushing can be seen, it 
makes one marvel that the book can be produced at the 
price. These two volumes must of necessity be on the 
bookshelves of every artist and student, to say nothing 
ol every library. The book not only supersedes all 
previous guides to the national collection- it is likely to 
hold its supreme position for many a long day to come. 
The publishers are to be congratulated upon their 
ourage ; the) are 1 ei tain to reap a rich reward. 

Portraits by John Russell, of varying merit, 

usually in coloured crayons, are to be found in London 

at the National Portrait Gallery, 

T° hn V;"« ■ the Linnean Society, the Garrick 

Loan Collection ,,, , , , , „ t ... 

, _ Club, and elsewhere. But no living 
at the Craves 

„ ,, . person has ever seen such a range 

Galleries , . . , . , • , 

of his productions as the varied 

collection now on view at the Graves Galleries. No 

fewer than fifty-four examples have been collected by 

the enterprising proprietors for this loan exhibition of 

John Russell's works. A few are in oil, all the rest in 

coloured crayon, the medium in which Russell usually 

worked. He appears to have formed his style of 

"crayon painting" on that of Rosalba Camera, the 

brilliant Italian pastellist, who visited Paris early in 

the eighteenth century, and by her success induced 

La Tour and Boucher to turn their attention to pastel. 

No one will say that John Russell was the equal of 

La Tour, whose pastel heads at St. Quentin and the 

Louvre are sign-marked with genius; but Russell was 

a very capable artist, sometimes rising to a high degree 

of excellence. Occasionally, as in his Mrs. Meyrick, lent 

to the loan collection by Mrs. Mason, Lady Winterton, 

lent by Major Younger, and John Huron, R.A., lent by 

Mr. II. V. Bacon, he produced portraits worthy to rank 

with the average work of the eighteenth-century masters. 

His technique was often a little haul, and he was so 

prolific a worker that he was not always at his best ; 

but he could be very charming when he had a subject 

that touched his fancy, such as Two Girls in Mob 

Caps, one weeping the other consoling tier, lent by Mr. 

John Lane. It is said that he commanded about the 

same prices as Sir Joshua Reynolds, and we can well 

believe that this remarkable collection of his works will 

create a new interest in John Russell, and enhance his 

present-day prices. Born in 1745, ,ie was at an earl >' 

age apprenticed to Francis Cotes. His religious views, 

which were intense and narrow, coloured all his life, and 

to a large extent directed his choice of sitters. His 

"conversion" to Methodism, as he records in his diary, 

took place "at about half an hour after seven in the 

evening of 30 Sept., 1764." He was a constant exhibitor 

at the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1805, the year of his 

death, and produced between seven and eight hundred 

portraits, many of which are lost or destroyed. The 

present exhibition is of great interest, as it enables the 

student of eighteenth-century portraiture to form a clear 

opinion of the achievement of this popular lesser master. 

English Furniture ,ui,/ Decoration, by Mr. Ellwood, 

is the title of an important work just 
Old English p ub ii s hed by Mr. P. T. Batsford, which 

Furniture and 

ill be the subject of an extended 
review in our next number. The same 
In in has also jusl published Mo, inn 
Cabinet U'or/: by Wells and Hooper. 

Cabinet Work 


This thin quarto volume, simply written and full of 
information, should be in the possession of all who 

make a study of old oak furniture in 

oak was born 

out of the church, and carving of the 
stone-work forestalls the carving of the 
wood. Here we see on the old black 
Tournai fonts the grape or vil 
and other decorations so typical of the 
oak chests and the like furnishments that were spread 
throughout the English homes when the Reforn 
broke up the churches and created the home. Mr. Eden 

Black Tournai 

Fonts in 


By Cecil H. 


(Elliot Stock) 

uf and Mr. Edg 

. And 
it may be that, in the e, when he has 

increased his strength and reai le may 

come nearer to the genius of Beardsley and Si 

He already on « i lose on 

thru hi 

in his Introduction we havi deal, for every 

iph ol si is at best a hall ti qualifi- 

cation where it does not deserve the sledge-hammer of 
frank repudiation. This book, in the years to erne, will 
be sought aftei by collectors of black-and-white. 


rids the subject of all dryness, and his sound informa- 
tion makes accessible the researches of Mean Kitchen 
and Mr. Romilly Allen, which must otherwi 
in difficult places. 

This large handsomely produced volume contains a 
phase of the work of a morbid artist who thr< 

a genius. What can be done fi i 

the publisher has dom I 

and the atmosphere ol 
e the spirit and style of the 'n 

perhaps the supreme period of Engl 
illustration. Here we are back again into tl 
imaginative decade that gave us Beardsley and Phil 
May and E. J. Sullivan— ami. 
behind them. Kicketts and Housman, the 
link with the "men of the 'sixties." Mr. 
Mr. Ricketts and Mr. Housman, lacks thi 



A Book of 


By A. O. Spa 

(John Lane) 

pathy with 

rising the 

publication, in which the 

each part are 

is no fault to I 

The World's 
Great Pictures 
(Cassell & Co. 

Twelve parts 
at 7d. net) 

that monumenl I 

well Chart, it « 


The Connoisseur 

The fine show of Wedgwood ware at the Exhibition 
in Conduit Street has attracted the notice of all con- 
noisseurs and collectors. To those of 
e exclusive taste, whose study of old 

Wedgwood Wed d has been confined to the 

Exhibition ', , 

superlative jasper ware in vases and 

classic plaques and portrait medallions, the cream ware 
here shown has come as a revelation. The novel shapes 
and designs which "old Josiah" 
introduced into Staffordshire 
in his ware intended for every- 
day use are as remarkable as 
they are original. Their like 
had not been seen before in 
earthenware, and the porcelain 
of the old English china fac- 
tories contemporary with the 
great potter cannot show finer 
designs than were turned out 
at Etruria from 1760- 1790. 
The colours of Worcester, of 

Derby, of Chelsea, of Bow, and of Plymouth have 
rightly won the admiration of connoisseurs ; but eliminate 
the colour, and where is there a brace of teapots as 
symmetrically beautiful as Nos. 23 and 25 in the 
Wedgwood catalogue. These models from the Etruria 
Museum of the cream colour "bisque" exhibit a strength 
and purity of design that compel attention. The pear- 
wood models for fine griffin candelabrum, for soup 
tureen and ladle, and for fruit bowl are new and 
surprising facts for the expert to ponder over. Together 
with the trays of experiments they prove the "infinite 
capacity for taking pains" of our "English Palissy." 

Fashionable folk, the descendants of families who, in 
1774, were proud to see 
their mansions and their 
parks depicted on the 
great Catherine II. ser- 
vice, have been extremely 
interested in the selection 
of specimens lent to this 
Exhibition by His Im- 
perial Majesty the Em- 
peror of Russia. T h e 
find oi this service by 
Dr. G. C. Williamson is 
one of the mos t talked 
of events of the year, and 
the authentic history, and a description of its views, are for 
the in it time made public in his volume on the subject. 

The illustrated catalogue of the Wedgwood Exhibition 
has a brimstone yellow cover and oak leaf design, sym- 
bolic of this cream ware, and with over sixty illustration,, 
is a pleasing souvenir of the Record of a Hundred and 
Fifty Years' Work of Messrs. Josiah Wedgwood & Sons. 
oi English earthenware will rind on the shelves of 
this exhibition much that is new and helpful in forming 
maturer judgment in collecting. Happily, too, as the 
kilful results of the work of to-day clearly show, the 
firm has lost none of its old traditions. The much 

art. Callot was born 
Duchy of Lorraine, ir 


admired borders from the design books of Flaxman and 
his contemporaries are still being painted on the dinner 
and tea ware to-day. Five generations of unbroken 
artistic achievement is a glorious record. — A. H. 

"Jacques Callot." By H. Nasse (Klinkhardt and 
Biermann, Leipzig. 10 Mk.) 

It was an excellent idea on the part of Messrs. Klink- 
hardt & Biermann to start 
their handsome new series on 
the great masters of graphic 
art with a volume on Jacques 
Callot, who, in a time when 
French national genius 
seemed to be entirely 
eclipsed by the Italian 
eclectic influences fostered 
by the School of Fontaine- 
bleau, remained almost 
the only notable repre- 
sentative of autochthonous 
t Nancy, the capital of the 
1592. He was in Rome in 
1608, and acquired the art of drawing from Tempesta, 
and the technique of the burin from his compatriot 

In 1629 he was called to Paris by Louis XIII., for 
whom he executed some plates of the siege of La 
Rochelle. The death of his father caused him to return 
to Nancy in 1630. When that city was taken by 
Louis XIII., he refused to commemorate the event 
with his etching needle, as he would not "do anything 
against the honour of his prince and country." He 
died on March 24th, 1635. 

Various pictures in 
private collections are 
ascribed to Callot, but 
modern criticism does 
not admit his author- 
ship of any of their num- 
ber. Indeed, it is ques- 
tionable whether he ever 
devoted himself to paint- 
ing, and his immortal 
fame rests entirely upon 
his etched and engraved 
work, and upon his 
wonderful sketches at the 
Louvre, the Albertina, and the Uffizi Gallery. His 
name is generally identified with his phantastic and 
humorously-imaginative invention of monsters and cari- 
catures of humanity. But a more important phase of 
his art is the faithful record he has left of his own 
time in his brilliant series of cripples, dancers, beggars, 
and tournaments. Mr. Hermann Nasse's critical study 
of Callot's work is most illuminating ; and the pub- 
lishers must be congratulated upon the admirable 
quality of the facsimile reproductions, among which 
they have wisely included many of Callot's original 


'' !I frontispiece to the present number, Lad) 
Langham, by Charles Wilkin, after Hoppner, 
Our Plates ot the most ' m P ortant «'orks of that 

eminent stipple engraver. [1 forms 
one of a series published under the title / 
Series of Portraits of Ladies of Rank and / 

Hoppner was associated with Wilkin in this ven , 

but ultimately Wilkin took the er 
the publication. 

Wilkin is also well Irnrtwn 

e respon ibilitj 
the engravei 






Cornelia and 
her Children 
and Master 
Ho a re, both 
after Reynolds. 

An excep- 
tionally rare 
colour-print is 
Le Faucon, and 
some do u b t 
exists as to its 
painter and en- 
graver. It is, 
however, gener- 
ally believed to 
be the work of 
the engraver 
after Huet. 

An excellent 
example o f 
m oder n e n- 
graving is to be 
found in the portrait of Cardinal York, which we 
reproduce in this number. It is from a print engravi d 
in pure mezzotint by Alfred J. Skrimshire from the 
painting by Largilliere, and makes a fitting pendanl 
to the same engraver's portrait of Prince • 
Edward published some time ago. 

The Head of Christ, by Quentin Matsys, which 
originally appeared in The Connoisseur Maga i 

for June, 1005, is presented loose with this numbel 
in response to numerous requests from readei who 
wished to frame the subject. 

The print on the cover of the present number 1 
perhaps the most famous of .ill golfing prints, being 
the work ol that famous master Valentine Green, after 
Lemuel Abbott. 

e feature in the great West End thoroughl 
ne addition to the charms of this famous street 
beinjr ( i uc to Mr. A. I.. Humphreys, the present head of 
the firm. Many famous persona] 
the voli a ild, so invitingly displaye 

the Duke 
oi Wellin on, Ma 

called ; while the Countess of Blessington and Fanny 
Kemble are only two ol ent members of 

the fail sex who penl 1 pli n this attractive 

and interesting shop. 




THE winter 
e x h i h ; I 
earlyBritish and 
modern masters 
at Messrs. Shep- 

full ot ; 
though many ol 
1 1 5 shown 
are by no means 
important ex- 
T h e y 

often interest 

the earlier work 
of the 

Included in the 

exhibition are 
works by Key 
nolds, Romney, 

Gainsborough, and Hoppnei ai igst the older masters, 

whilst the modern school include 

work ofT. Sidi ' ! ' 

and Vicat > 

i. ' 1 ■• PICCAD1L1 : 

J. Skrinishir* 

A New 
in Colour 


to No-.. 190 

: 797 at 173, Piccadilly, ami lal 

d 1S7 in the same tho 

business of Hatchards, the well known 
Hatchards'" and world .f amea | 

een re transferred to No. 187. The new 
hich is really a very old shop front n 

i that eminent n odi rn mez otinter, Alfred 
win -<■ fine plan Charles 

Edward reproduced in our number for 
June, 1905, and that ol Cardinal York 
in our present number, are well known 
to our read 

by his tine mezzotint of Mrs. SI 

borough a limited issue ol whi< h ha 

by Mi. W. M. Powi 

this charming punt 1- worth 

■ fair dame. 

The issue is limited to tw 

Special Notice 

Enquiries should be made upon the coupon 
which will be found in the advertisement pages. While, 
owing to our enormous correspondence and the fact 
that every number of The Connoisseur Magazine 
is printed a month in advance, it is impossible for us 
to guarantee in every case a prompt reply in these 
columns, an immediate reply will be sent by post to 
all readers who desire it, upon payment of a nominal 
fee. Expert opinions and valuations can be supplied 
when objects are sent to our offices for inspection, 
and, where necessary, arrangements can be made for 
an expert to examine single objects and collections 
in the country, and give advice, the fee in all cases 
to be arranged beforehand. Objects sent to us may 
be insured whilst they are in our possession, at a 
moderate cost. All communications and goods should 
be addressed to the " Manager of Enquiry Dept., 
The Connoisseur Magazine, 95, Temple Chambers, 
Temple Avenue, E.C." 


Arms. — Cavalry Sword. — A 1,864 (Sail 
-The sword of which you send sketch dates . 
id its value is about 7s. 6.i. 

■ihn, N.B.). 
it 1815-20, 

Hooks. — "Recherches sur les Feuilles," etc. 

Ai,oo6 (Chielt).— The three works you mention are not woith 
more than from £7, to £5. It is difficult to value then exactly, 
as you give so lew particulars. 

Goldsmith's "History of England," abridged, 
10th edit., 1800.— A 1,993 (Regent's Park).— The value of 
youi old History 1, only aboul 2s. Oil. 

Book of Engravings.- A 1. 961 (Falkirk).— The old hook 
ol engravings,, I Raphael initial decorations at the Vatic, n 1, 
worth aboul £1. 

Works of Peter Pindar, 3 vols., with Portrait, 

1704.-A2.000 (Soulhfields).- \,„„ 1 k would not fetch 

mole than 5s. 

Coins.— James II. £ 5 =piece, 1688.— At, 211 (Liss). 

ill "„ coins ,,[ this 1 ;sue w< re trucl ,1 London. Values 

ran] e from ,£5 5s. lor a lair specimen to £6 for a very fine one. 

William III. is. and 2s. 6d., 1O07.— A2,oo8 (Tober- 

<•■>■ V«H William III. is. is worth about 2s„ and the other 

silvei piece, which is evidently a half-crown, about 3s. 6d. 
\ our old Bioiueisol comnion lorm : value al , out 7s 0,1 

Engravings. — " Miss Peel," after Sir T. 
Lawrence, by S. Cousins.— A 1,075 (Witney).— A first state 
of this engraving, that is an impression before any inscription, 
is worth about ^40. An impression without lettering, but 
bearing the publisher's mark, is only a second state. 

" Ipsa Conteret Caput Tuum," after P. P. Rubens, 
by S. A. Bolswert.— Ai,977 (Sevenoaks).— This is a print 
of very small value, but certain engravings by Pether and others 
whose names you mention may be worth considerable sums. 

Coloured Print after J. B. Cipriani, by F. Barto- 

lozzi.— A1.222 (Bakewell). — Many prints by Bartolozzi, after 

Cipriani, are of high value. We cannot recall this particular 

i' ■ '■ , your description, but it is quite possibly worth £5. 

Furniture.— Chairs to match Gate-legged 
Table.— Al, 377 (Peterborough). — The style of chair to go with 
a gate-legged table as shown in your illustration is Cromwellian. 

Sheraton Commode.— A 1,989 (Petersfield).— From the 
photograph we should describe your commode as Sheraton 
rather than Hepplewhite, and formed probably of satinwood 
and harewood. It appears to be a very gracelul specimen, and 
should be worth about thirty guineas. 

ObjetS d'A rt .— Glass Jug and Goblets.— Ai,98o 

(West Southbourne). — The value of your glass goblets depends 
largely upon the age, and it is really necessary to inspect them. 
If genuine 17th century pieces, the jug is worth ,£4, and the 
goblets, allowing for mendage, about £2 10s. each. 

"Pottery and Porcelain. — Sevres.— At, 999 

(Margate).— Your teapot is evidently not Sevres, and the fact 
that it bears a Sevres mark suggests that it is comparatively 
modern. It is probably, therefore, of small value. 

Ironstone Jug.— A 1,962 (Cambridge).— Your jug may 
have been made by Mason's, but several makers produced this 
class of ware and used the mark " Ironstone." Mason's usual 
mark for ironstone was the name Mason and a crown above. 
This form of jug is quite common. 

Staffordshire Group, " Vicar and Moses."— A 1,981 
( Walthamstow) and Ai,973 (Kirby Moorside). — The originals 
of this group are marked " K. Wood, Burslem," and a recent 
auction price for one is £35 10s. Copies have been made at 
various periods, including quite modern " fakes." A good early 
specimen is worth .£10 to ^15. 

Staffordshire Group. — At, qSi (Havering-atte-Bower). 
—Your description suggests one of the tine productions of 

\V 1 ,\ ( aldwell, ol Burslem, in the early part of last century. 

II, as it appears to be, it is a rare group of this class, it is worth 

£b to £*. 

H The Connoisseiir